Publications by authors named "Boris Rychly"

35 Publications

Eosinophilic vacuolated tumor (EVT) of kidney demonstrates sporadic TSC/MTOR mutations: next-generation sequencing multi-institutional study of 19 cases.

Mod Pathol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

A distinct renal tumor has recently been described as "high-grade oncocytic renal tumor" and "sporadic renal cell carcinoma with eosinophilic and vacuolated cytoplasm". The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) consensus proposed a unifying name "eosinophilic vacuolated tumor" (EVT) for this emerging entity. In this multi-institutional study, we evaluated 19 EVTs, particularly their molecular features and mutation profile, using next-generation sequencing. All cases were sporadic and none of the patients had a tuberous sclerosis complex. There were 8 men and 11 women, with a mean age of 47 years (median 50; range 15-72 years). Average tumor size was 4.3 cm (median 3.8 cm; range 1.5-11.5 cm). All patients with available follow-up data (18/19) were alive and without evidence of disease recurrence or progression during the follow-up, ranging from 12 to 198 months (mean 56.3, median 41.5 months). The tumors were well circumscribed, but lacked a well-formed capsule, had nested to solid growth, focal tubular architecture, and showed ubiquitous, large intracytoplasmic vacuoles, round to oval nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, cathepsin K, CD117, CD10, and antimitochondrial antigen were expressed in all cases. Other positive stains included: PAX8, AE1/AE3 and CK18. CK7 was typically restricted only to rare scattered cells. Vimentin, HMB45, melan-A, and TFE3 were negative in all cases. All tumors showed retained SDHB. All cases (19/19) showed non-overlapping mutations of the mTOR pathway genes: TSC1 (4), TSC2 (7), and MTOR (8); one case with MTOR mutation showed a coexistent RICTOR missense mutation. Low mutational rates were found in all samples (ranged from 0 to 6 mutations/Mbp). Microsatellite instability and copy number variations were not found in any of the 17 analyzable cases. EVT represents an emerging renal entity that shows a characteristic and readily identifiable morphology, consistent immunohistochemical profile, indolent behavior, and mutations in either TSC1, TSC2, or MTOR genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00923-6DOI Listing
September 2021

5'URR regulatory polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing gliomas.

Int J Neurosci 2021 Sep 28:1-10. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Institute of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Background: Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) belongs to non-classical MHC class I molecules that is involved in the suppression of immune response. As HLA-G plays important role in the maintenance of fetal tolerance, its overexpression has been associated with tumor progression. For the regulation of HLA-G levels, genetic variants within the 5' upstream regulatory region (5'URR) are of crucial importance. Our study aimed to analyze the association between 16 5'URR variants, sHLA-G level and clinical variables in glioma patients.

Methods: We investigated 59 patients with gliomas (mean age 54.70 ± 15.10 years) and 131 healthy controls (mean age 41.45 ± 9.75 years). Patient's blood was obtained on the day of surgical treatment. The 5'URR polymorphisms were typed by direct sequencing and the plasma level of sHLA-G assessed by ELISA.

Results: Haploblock within 5'URR consisting of -762T, -716G, -689G, -666T, -633A, followed by -486C and -201A alleles were significantly more frequent in patients with gliomas than in the controls ( < 0.05). No correlation of 5'URR variants with sHLA-G plasma level was found. Analysis of 5'URR variants with main clinical variables in patients with grade IV gliomas revealed that haploblock carriers of -762CT, -716TG, -689AG, -666GT, -633GA, -486AC, -477GC, -201GA followed by -369AC carriers tend to have lower age at onset as compared to other genotype carriers ( = 0.04).

Conclusion: Our results suggest genetic association of 5'URR variants with risk of developing gliomas and possible contribution of HLA-G to disease pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2021.1922401DOI Listing
September 2021

New mutation of the ceruloplasmin gene in the case of a neurologically asymptomatic patient with microcytic anaemia, obesity and supposed Wilson's disease.

BMC Gastroenterol 2020 Apr 7;20(1):95. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

1st Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital, Slovak Medical University, Limbova 5, 833 05, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Background: Aceruloplasminaemia is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the ceruloplasmin gene, which is clinically manifested by damage to the nervous system and retinal degeneration. This classical clinical picture can be preceded by diabetes mellitus and microcytic anaemia, which are considered to be early manifestations of aceruloplasminaemia.

Case Presentation: In our report, we describe the case of a patient with aceruloplasminaemia detected in an early stage (without clinical symptoms of damage to the nervous system) during the search for the cause of hepatopathy with very low values of serum ceruloplasmin. Molecular genetic examination of the CP gene for ceruloplasmin identified a new variant c.1664G > A (p.Gly555Glu) in the homozygous state, which has not been published in the literature or population frequency databases to date. Throughout the 21-month duration of chelatase treatment, the patient, who is 43 years old, continues to be without neurological and psychiatric symptomatology. We observed a decrease in the serum concentration of ferritin without a reduction in iron deposits in the brain on magnetic resonance imaging.

Conclusion: Currently, there is no unequivocal recommendation of an effective treatment for aceruloplasminaemia. Early diagnosis is important in the neurologically asymptomatic stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01237-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7137234PMC
April 2020

Fumarate hydratase deficient renal cell carcinoma and fumarate hydratase deficient-like renal cell carcinoma: Morphologic comparative study of 23 genetically tested cases.

Cesk Patol 2019 ;55(4):244-249

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma-associated renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC)/ fumarate hydratase deficient renal cell carcinoma (FHRCC) is an aggressive tumor defined by molecular genetic changes - alteration in fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. The morphologic spectrum of HLRCC/FHDRCC is remarkably variable. The presence of large nuclei and prominent dark red inclusion-like nucleoli and perinucleolar clearing are considered as helpful morphologic clue. We selected 23 renal neoplasms primarily based on their morphologic features suspicious for HLRCC/FHDRCC. Morphological, basic immunohistochemical, and genetic analysis was performed. The tumors were divided in two groups according to the molecular genetic findings. The first group included 13 tumors with detected FH mutation/LOH (compatible with diagnosis FHRCC), and the second group included 10 tumors without FH mutation/LOH (FH-like RCCs). In the FHRCC group, the vast majority of cases (9/13) had mixed morphology with different architectural growth patterns. All cases showed prominent macronucleoli, and perinucleolar clearing was found in 10/13 cases. Immunohistochemically, 6/7 FHRCC cases were negative for FH antibody, while one case showed strong diffuse FH reactivity. The FH-like RCC group showed more uniform architectural growth pattern. All 10 tumors had prominent macronucleoli, and perinucleolar clearing was present in 8/10 cases. Eight FH-like RCC cases showed diffuse strong positivity for FH, although 2 cases were completely negative for FH. It is evident that neither morphologic feature nor immunohistochemical analysis can be reliably used in routine practice for the diagnosis of HLRCC/FHRCC. In suspected cases, the diagnosis of HLRCC/FHRCC can be confirmed by molecular-genetic testing for FH mutation. It should be noted that the traditionally described morphologic features of HLRCC/FHRCC (prominent eosinophilic macronuclei with perinucleolar halos) can frequently be seen in other renal neoplasms.
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January 2020

Pituitary adenomas - practical approach to the diagnosis and the changes in the 2017 WHO classification.

Cesk Patol 2019 ;55(3):137-144

The histopathological diagnosis of sellar tumors is a difficult area of the diagnostic surgical pathology. The most common sellar tumor is a pituitary adenoma. The histomorphology of pituitary adenomas is very heterogeneous, and in the sellar area, we can encounter practically any other tumor known from human pathology, either primary or secondary. Exact histopathological classification requires many immunohistochemical antibodies: pituitary hormones, pituitary transcription factors, and several other antibodies. At present, electron microscopy is no longer necessary for the routine diagnosis of the pituitary gland adenomas. The important aspect of the precise classification is to screen pituitary adenomas for aggressive histological types. The latest edition of the WHO classification of tumours of endocrine organs, published in 2017, involves several changes in the chapter of pituitary adenomas, including the abolition of the concept of atypical adenoma. In the short review, we discuss the practical approach to the diagnosis and the changes in the latest WHO classification of pituitary adenomas from 2017.
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December 2019

Primary renal well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid): next-generation sequencing study of 11 cases.

Histopathology 2019 Jul;75(1):104-117

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Charles University in Prague, Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Aims: Primary renal well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (NET) (hereafter referred to as renal NET) is rare, with ~100 cases having been reported in the literature. There are also limited data on the molecular-genetic background of primary renal NETs.

Methods And Results: We analysed 11 renal NETs by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify characteristic genetic aberrations. All tumours were positive for synaptophysin, and also expressed insulinoma-associated protein 1 (10/11), chromogranin-A (8/11), and CD56 (3/11). Cytoplasmic positivity of CD99 was present in eight of 11 cases, and strong nuclear expression of α-thalassaemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) was retained in all 11 cases. Molecular-genetic analysis of aberration of VHL gave negative results in all cases. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 3p21 was found in three of nine analysable cases. NGS was successful in nine cases, showing a total of 56 variants being left after the updated filtering process, representing an average of five variants per sample. All analysable cases were negative for ATRX and DAXX (death-domain associated protein X) mutations. The most frequently mutated genes were CDH1 and TET2, with three mutations in two cases. Mutations in AKT3, ROS1, PIK3R2, BCR and MYC were found in two cases. The remaining 41 genes were found to be mutated only in individual cases. In four cases, the mutations affected a subset of genes related to angiogenesis.

Conclusions: Overall, the mutation profile of primary renal NETs is variable, and none of the studied genes or affected pathways seems to be specific for renal NET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.13856DOI Listing
July 2019

Fumarate hydratase deficient renal cell carcinoma: Chromosomal numerical aberration analysis of 12 cases.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2019 Apr 10;39:63-68. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Pathology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Plzeň, University Hospital Plzen, Pilsen, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma-associated renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC)/fumarate hydratase deficient renal cell carcinoma (FHRCC) is defined by molecular genetic changes (mutation/LOH in fumarate hydratase (FH) gene). We investigated chromosomal numerical aberration pattern (CNV) in FHRCC/HLRCC using array comparative genomic hybridization analysis and low pass whole genome sequencing. Genetic analysis was successfully completed in 12 tumors. Most common chromosomal aberrations detected were a complete or partial loss of chromosome 4 (5/12 cases), chromosome 15 (4/12 cases), and chromosomes 9, 13, and 14 (each in 3/12 cases), as well as a complete or partial gain of chromosome 17 (in 4/12 cases). No chromosomal losses or gains were detected in 4 cases. Copy number variation pattern in FHRCC/HLRCC appears to be highly variable and does not provide a useful diagnostic tool in identifying these cases. Immunohistochemical staining and especially molecular genetic evaluation of FH gene mutations/LOH remain the gold standard in identifying FHRCC/HLRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2019.02.008DOI Listing
April 2019

Evaluation of expression of somatostatin receptor 1, 2, 3, 5 and dopamine D2 receptor in spindle cell oncocytomas of posterior pituitary.

Pituitary 2019 Feb;22(1):70-78

4th Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine Hradec Kralove, Charles University, Sokolska 581, 500 05, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Purpose: Spindle cell oncocytomas (SCOs) are very rare tumors of the posterior pituitary with potential for locally aggressive behaviour. Their treatment includes surgery and possibly radiotherapy, however other options are lacking. Somatostatin receptors (SSTs) are a possible therapeutic target for somatostatin analogues and their expression has been demonstrated recently in closely related pituicytomas, but there are no data about their presence in SCOs.

Methods: We collected five cases of SCO from four patients including one recurrent case. Immunohistochemical detection of TTF1, GFAP, CD68, SST, SST, SST, SST and D2 dopamine receptor (D2DR) was performed. Intensity, percentage of positive cells and pattern of expression was evaluated in semiquantitative fashion. Protein expression of SST and D2DR was further evaluated by western blot.

Results: Mean patient age was 61.8 years (range 47-71 years) with male to female ratio 1:1. In one patient, samples from the original tumor and its recurrence 16 years later were assessed. TTF1 was positive in all five cases, no expression of GFAP and CD68 was seen. Immunohistochemical expression of SST was noted in 1/5 cases, SST in 2/5 cases, including recurrent case but not the original case. SST was expressed in 3/5 tumors and D2 dopamine receptor in 4/5 cases. Western blot was successfully performed in four samples. SST, SST and D2DR expression was identified in all the samples, including two cases originally negative for SST and one case negative for SST by immunohistochemistry. The number of positive cells and level of expression varied among different areas of the same tumors. No expression of SST was observed. In the patient with the recurrent tumor, intensity of SST, SST and D2DR expression varied between original tumor and its recurrence.

Conclusions: We demonstrated presence of different SST subtypes and D2DR in spindle cell oncocytomas. The most commonly expressed subtype was SST and SST, while no expression of SST was observed. Expression showed spatial heterogeneity and temporal changes as seen in the recurrent case. The biological meaning of SSTs expression in SCOs is unclear as well as whether it may be exploited in treatment of selected cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11102-018-00935-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Frozen section examination of pancreas, gallbladder, extrahepatic biliary tree, liver, and gastrointestinal tract.

Cesk Patol Summer 2018;54(2):63-71

The main indications for intraoperative consultation of gastrointestinal tract, liver, and pancreatobiliary system are to evaluate the resection margin and to make a tissue diagnosis of lesions for which preoperative histology is not aviable for various reasons. Special situations include the evaluation of liver donor biopsies for the presence of steatosis and inflamation, or determination that ganglion cells are present in the bowel wall at the level where the anastomosis will be placed in case of Hirschprung's disease. The most worrisome pitfalls include differentiating pancreatic ductal carcinoma from chronic pancreatitis, distinguishing biliary tree and gallbladder carcinoma from reactive changes caused by inflammation, and recognizing the presence of diffuse adenocarcinoma at the resection margin of the esophagus and stomach. Keywords: frozen section - gastrointestinal tract - liver - gallbladder - extrahepatic biliary tree - pancreas.
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April 2019

Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts with unusual lipoma-like clinical morphology.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2018 Sep-Oct;84(5):619-621

Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_693_17DOI Listing
August 2019

Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and embryological aspects of cutaneous ciliated Müllerian cyst.

Australas J Dermatol 2018 Nov 19;59(4):e295-e296. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajd.12826DOI Listing
November 2018

Navigated 3D-ultrasound versus conventional neuronavigation during awake resections of eloquent low-grade gliomas: a comparative study at a single institution.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2018 02 17;160(2):331-342. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Comenius University, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Bratislava, Limbová 5, 833 05, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Background: The data showing usefulness of navigated 3D-ultrasound (3DUS) during awake resections of eloquent gliomas are sparse. Results of surgeries performed using 3DUS were never compared to procedures guided by standard neuronavigation. The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness of 3DUS during awake resections of eloquent low-grade gliomas (LGGs) by comparing surgical results of two series of patients operated on using conventional neuronavigation and using 3DUS. To our knowledge, a similar study is lacking in the literature.

Methods: During a 4-year period (September 2006 to August 2010) 21 awake resections of LGGs guided by neuronavigation (series 1, S1) were consecutively performed in Department of Neurosurgery in Bratislava. During another 4-year period (August 2010 to July 2014) 28 awake resections of LGGs guided by 3DUS (series 2, S2) were consecutively conducted. In both patients series, the eloquent cortical and subcortical structures were intraoperatively detected by direct electrical stimulation. Extent of tumor resection (EOR) and functional outcome in both series were compared.

Results: EOR was significantly greater (p = 0.022) in S2 (median = 93.25%; mean = 86.79%), as compared to S1 (median 87.1%; mean = 75.85%). One permanent minor deficit in S1 and 2 minor deficits in S2 occurred, the difference was not significant (p = 0.999).

Conclusions: Our work represents the first study comparing results of surgeries guided by 3DUS versus conventional navigation. The extent of awake resections of eloquent LGG guided by 3DUS was greater comparing to awake resections guided by standard neuronavigation; use of 3DUS had no impact on the number of new permanent deficits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-017-3377-8DOI Listing
February 2018

[Update on the 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system.Part 2: Embryonal tumors and other tumor groups (except for diffuse gliomas)].

Cesk Patol Winter 2017;53(1):22-28

The 2016 revision of the WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system is a conceptual advance over the 2007 classification system. Similarly to the group of diffuse gliomas, a significant shift in the understanding of the molecular background and tumor biology has recently occurred also in the category of embryonal CNS tumors, especially in medulloblastomas. The classification now incorporates new entities that are defined by both histology and molecular features. Updates in the group of gliomas (except for diffuse gliomas), in the meningeal tumors as well as in the tumors of peripheral nerve sheaths will also be discussed.
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April 2019

[Update on the 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system - Part 1: Diffusely infiltrating gliomas].

Cesk Patol Winter 2017;53(1):12-21

Revised WHO 2016 classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) incorporates for the first time genetic information in addition to morphology for classification of many tumor entities. One of the most important changes is restructuring the chapter of diffuse gliomas. Based on shared genetic driver mutations, diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas are now classified together, separately from "other" glial tumors with a more circumscribed growth pattern, different pathogenesis and clinical outcome. Diffuse gliomas can now be more objectively diagnosed and further prognostically stratified by use of a relatively small number of markers (ATRX and IDH1/2 mutations and del 1p/19q). Another newly genetically-defined and clinically relevant entity is diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant. Some glioma entities, variants and growth patterns were deleted and new variants, such as epithelioid glioblastoma and glioblastoma with a primitive neural component were added. In the article, the most important changes of diffuse gliomas classification are summarized and a practical diagnostic approach is illustrated.
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April 2019

Bizarre cell dysplasia of the cervix.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2017 Feb;43(2):345-351

Šikl's Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty Hospital, Charles University, Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Aim: The aim of this study was the characterization of a new subtype of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) with enlarged cells containing bizarre nuclei: so-called bizarre cell dysplasia (BCD).

Methods: A total of 29 cervical cone biopsy samples of this type of dysplasia were studied. Multi-target polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization human papillomavirus (HPV) detection was performed in all cases. BCD was defined as a subtype of HSIL characterized by the presence of large dysplastic cells with abnormal, large pleomorphic nuclei or multinucleation causing nucleomegaly. This results in bizarre nuclear shapes. Bizarre cells are scattered throughout the whole thickness of the dysplastic squamous epithelium.

Results: The BCD lesions arise within the conventional/classic high grade or "bland" type squamous dysplasia HSIL. Statistically they were significantly associated with HVP type 16. A significant association with other studied viruses (Herpes simplex virus [HSV]1, HSV2, Varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6, and human polyomaviruses BK and JC) was not confirmed.

Conclusions: BCD involves cytologically characteristic morphologic changes that are recognizable, but which may pose some risk of misdiagnosis as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion due to the enlargement of dysplastic cells and multinucleation. Based on the unique histological, cytological and biological features of BCD including strong association with HPV 16 infection, we believe that this is a specific, and so far unrecognized variant of HSIL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.13196DOI Listing
February 2017

Differentiated squamous intraepithelial lesion (dSIL)-like changes in the epidermis overlying anogenital melanocytic nevi: A diagnostic pitfall.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2017 Feb 14;26:43-46. Epub 2016 Nov 14.

Department of Pathology, Charles University, Medical Faculty and Charles University Hospital Plzen, Czech Republic.

Background: Differentiated squamous intraepithelial lesion (dSIL) is morphologically and immunohistochemically analogous in the whole anogenital region. dSIL is a premalignant lesion frequently misinterpreted histopathologically as a benign dermatosis. The authors describe a peculiar change in the basal cell layer of the epidermis/epithelium overlying anogenital melanocytic nevi that may histopathologically imitate dSIL. The aim of this study is to familiarize the pathologists with this pitfall to avoid its possible overdiagnosis as dysplasia. Further, we tried to explore the biological characteristics of the dSIL-like changes and to focus on the differential diagnostic aspects.

Design: Seventy cases of anogenital nevi were retrieved from our registry. All cases were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and reviewed. Cases in which the epidermis overlying nevi featured atypical appearing basal keratinocytes in otherwise fully differentiated epithelium, variable degrees of acanthosis and parakeratosis were selected for additional investigation.

Results: Thirty cases meeting the above described criteria were identified. The patients were 8 males and 22 females, with age at the time of diagnosis ranging from 4 to 68years. Follow-up data were available for 28 patients (range 0.5-19years, mean 5.1), and to date, no signs of epithelial malignancy have been recorded. Immunohistochemically (IHC), the epidermis overlying nevi showed insignificant positivity for p53 in all tested cases. Melanocytic markers (S-100 protein, SOX10, Melan A) and cytokeratin AE1/3 labeled melanocytes and keratinocytes, respectively, enabling their distinction, especially in nevi featuring a junctional component.

Conclusions: Differentiated squamous intraepithelial lesion-like changes seem to occur relatively often in the epidermis overlying anogenital melanocytic nevi. Since morphologically they are virtually identical to the "true" dSIL, their distinction largely depends on p53 expression in basal keratinocytes with normal p53 expression in dSIL-like changes and diffuse nuclear/p53-null immunostaining in the "true" dSIL serving as an essential differential diagnostic tool. dSIL-like alterations seem to have no malignant potential, as to date, none of the patients included in this study have shown any signs of epithelial malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2016.11.002DOI Listing
February 2017

Multivacuolated mucin-filled cells: a unique cell characteristic of plexiform neurofibroma. A report of 11 cases.

Hum Pathol 2017 02 2;60:167-173. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

Department of Pathology, Charles University, Medical Faculty and Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 304 60 Pilsen, Czech Republic.

The authors present 11 cases of plexiform neurofibroma (PN) that featured a very characteristic type of cell appearing as multivacuolated mucin-filled cells (MMFC). The 11 cases were obtained after reviewing 109 cases of PN. Six out of 10 patients showed clinical features of neurofibromatosis type 1. The size of PN ranged from 0.8 cm to 11.5 cm in the largest dimension. The lesions represented classical PN in all cases with myxoid, hypocellular stroma. The MMFC were found within the most myxoid tumorous nodules and were haphazardly located, typically featuring a variably sized, multivacuolated cytoplasm divided by fine septa with a small polygonal nucleus on one side, which was often compressed or slightly indented by the cytoplasmic mucous substances. In many cases, the cells resembled a soccer ball or a jellyfish. In all tested cases (n = 9), the MMFC stained for CD34; six cases were also positive with GLUT-1 antibody, and two cases expressed Claudin-1, whereas S-100 protein was negative. For comparison, we have reviewed a series of randomly selected non-PN, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and of cases featuring non-neoplastic nerve trunks in our files, in which no MMFC were encountered. MMFC seem to be unique to myxoid areas of PN, where they occur in about 10% of cases. Their exact histogenesis is unclear but they might represent an intermediate type of cell between perineurial cells and fibroblasts. The awareness of this cell type in PN is especially important in limited (small) biopsy specimens where their recognition may provide a clue for the correct diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2016.10.010DOI Listing
February 2017

Submucosal calcifying fibrous tumor of the stomach: A case report.

Cesk Patol 2016 ;52(3):164-7

The calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare benign fibrous tumor which occurs in subcutaneous or deep soft tissues in children and young adults, but also is frequently seen in pleural and intraabdominal locations in older people. Gastric involvement has been only sporadically reported in the literature. We present here our experience with this unusual lesion discovered in a 68-year-old woman. Clinically, the tumor was described as a pendulating, submucosally located mass, in the body of the stomach on a lesser curvature. The calcifying fibrous tumor is a histologically distinct lesion composed of dense hyalinized collagen fibers, inconspicuous scattered fibroblasts, a varying amount of psammoma bodies or dystrophic calcifications and foci of lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. In this report we will focus on a brief review and differential diagnosis of this tumor and other more common or not widely known gastric spindle cell lesions.
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January 2019

Expression of HLA-G transcripts in graft biopsy samples of renal transplant recipients.

Transpl Immunol 2015 Nov 9;33(3):159-65. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

Cancer Research Institute, SAS, Vlárska7, 83391 Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

Background: The HLA-G molecule has a high potential to modulate immune response towards the improvement of graft survival after transplantation. In this work, we have analyzed the total HLA-G mRNA expression in graft tissues of dysfunctional transplanted kidneys.

Material And Methods: We examined 84 kidney biopsy samples obtained from 65 renal transplant recipients with dysfunctional graft (50 males, 15 females; average age 46.8 ± 11.9 years). 52 specimens were with signs of acute rejection and 32 without any rejection characteristics (diagnosed as glomerulonephritis, ATN and IFTA). Patients with acute rejection were divided into three groups: antibody-mediated rejection (AMR; n = 23), T cell mediated rejection (TCMR; n = 16) and combined antibody and T cell-mediated rejection (AMR + TCMR; n=13). The biopsy samples were taken from a dysfunctional graft at different time periods after kidney transplantation. The relative expression of total HLA-G mRNA in biopsy specimens was determined by real time RT-PCR. The correlation between HLA-G mRNA expression and dysfunctional graft state was investigated. The impact of different factors (post-transplantation interval, gender,mismatch, induction therapy and cold ischemia time) on relative expression of total HLA-G mRNA was also studied.

Results: We have found that the levels of HLA-G transcripts in kidneys with rejection were higher than those in non-rejected but dysfunctional grafts (P = 0.0003). The highest levels of HLA-G mRNA were detected at combined AMR + TCMR rejection (P= 0.005). The time-course analysis of total HLA-G mRNA expression was also studied. In both dysfunctional graft groups (rejected and non-rejected) the lower levels of HLA-G transcripts were detected during early post-transplant period (1–3 months), however a substantial increase of HLA-G mRNA expression was observed after an extended period of time(N3 months). It was also revealed that antibody induction therapy may reduce HLA-G expression (P=0.0004) and in female samples were higher levels of HLAG transcripts than those in male recipients (P=0.003). It was found no significant impact of age, cold ischemic time, PRA (Panel Reactive Antibody) score, and a number of HLA-mismatches on HLA-G mRNA expression.

Conclusions: We have demonstrated that the expression of total HLA-GmRNA in renal grafts can be influenced by different factors such as clinical state of transplanted kidney, elapsed time after transplantation, gender and antibody induction therapy. We have proved that HLA-G mRNA expression was significantly higher in recipients with acute rejection in comparison to patients with dysfunctional but non-rejected grafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2015.10.001DOI Listing
November 2015

Molecular Genetic Alterations in Renal Cell Carcinomas With Tubulocystic Pattern: Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma, Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma With Heterogenous Component and Familial Leiomyomatosis-associated Renal Cell Carcinoma. Clinicopathologic and Molecular Genetic Analysis of 15 Cases.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2016 08;24(7):521-30

*Ljudevit Jurak Department of Pathology, Sestre milosrdnice Clinical Hospital Center †Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia ‡Department of Pathology and Cytology, Clinical Center of the University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Hercegovina §Department of Pathology, New York School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY ‡‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS Departments of ∥Pathology #Urology **Otorhinolaryngology, Charles University, Medical Faculty and Charles University Hospital Plzen ¶¶Biomedical Centre, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Charles University in Prague, Plzen, Czech Republic ¶Department of Pathology, Centro Medico ∥∥Department of Pathology, Institute Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City, Mexico ††Department of Pathology, East University, Riga, Latvia §§Department of Pathology, Cytopathos, Bratislava, Slovakia.

The characteristic morphologic spectrum of tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TC-RCC) may include areas resembling papillary RCC (PRCC). Our study includes 15 RCCs with tubulocystic pattern: 6 TC-RCCs, 1 RCC-high grade with tubulocystic architecture, 5 TC-RCCs with foci of PRCC, 2 with high-grade RCC (HGRCC) not otherwise specified, and 1 with a clear cell papillary RCC/renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor-like component. We analyzed aberrations of chromosomes 7, 17, and Y; mutations of VHL and FH genes; and loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 3p. Genetic analysis was performed separately in areas of classic TC-RCC and in those with other histologic patterns. The TC-RCC component demonstrated disomy of chromosome 7 in 9/15 cases, polysomy of chromosome 17 in 7/15 cases, and loss of Y in 1 case. In the PRCC component, 2/3 analyzable cases showed disomy of chromosome 7 and polysomy of chromosome 17 with normal Y. One case with focal HGRCC exhibited only disomy 7, whereas the case with clear cell papillary RCC/renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor-like pattern showed polysomies of 7 and 17, mutation of VHL, and loss of heterozygosity 3p. FH gene mutation was identified in a single case with an aggressive clinical course and predominant TC-RCC pattern. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) TC-RCC demonstrates variable status of chromosomes 7, 17, and Y even in cases with typical/uniform morphology. (2) The biological nature of PRCC/HGRCC-like areas within TC-RCC remains unclear. Our data suggest that heterogenous TC-RCCs may be associated with an adverse clinical outcome. (3) Hereditary leiomyomatosis-associated RCC can be morphologically indistinguishable from "high-grade" TC-RCC; therefore, in TC-RCC with high-grade features FH gene status should be tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAI.0000000000000213DOI Listing
August 2016

Report of Three Novel Germline CYLD Mutations in Unrelated Patients with Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome, Including Classic Phenotype, Multiple Familial Trichoepitheliomas and Malignant Transformation.

Dermatology 2016 2;232(1):30-7. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Cologne, Germany.

Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is a rare autosomal-dominant genetic disorder characterized by multiple adnexal tumors, including cylindromas, spiradenomas, spiradenocylindromas and trichoepitheliomas. It is caused by germline CYLD mutations commonly leading to a premature stop codon. We here report on 3 novel CYLD mutations in 3 unrelated BSS patients, including the classic phenotype, multiple familial trichoepitheliomas phenotype and malignant transformation. These included c.1821_1826+1delinsCT/L607Ffs*9, c.2666A>T/p.D889V and c.2712delT/p.905Kfs*8. By extending the spectrum of CYLD mutations, better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of BSS can be gained, which might later assist in finding new treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000437303DOI Listing
December 2016

SOX10 and Olig2 as negative markers for the diagnosis of ependymomas: An immunohistochemical study of 98 glial tumors.

Histol Histopathol 2016 Jan 19;31(1):95-102. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Šikl's Department of Pathology, Charles University, Medical Faculty in Pilsen, Czech Republic.

SOX10 belongs to the family of transcription factors essential for the development of neural crest, peripheral nervous system and melanocytes. It is presently used in histopathology as a marker of melanocytic differentiation. SOX10 is expressed in normal brain tissue in oligodendrocytes, but the information about SOX10 expression in primary tumors of the central nervous system is quite limited. In this study, we examined the expression of SOX10 and Olig2 by immunohistochemistry in a series of 98 glial tumors and explored their specificity and sensitivity for differential diagnosis of ependymal vs non-ependymal tumors. In addition, we examined the expression of EMA and CD99 in ependymal tumors. SOX10 and Olig2 staining were scored as negative if no positive cells or only a few positive cells (typically up to 1-3%) were found. In all other instances, SOX10 or Olig2 staining was scored as positive. Out of 44 examined ependymal tumors none was found to express SOX10 and 7 specimens showed only a few SOX10-positive cells that likely corresponded to entrapped non-neoplastic oligodendrocytes. In contrast, non-ependymal tumors expressed SOX10 in 26/54 (48%) specimens. Olig2 was positive in 5 out of 44 ependymomas (11%) and 50 out of 54 (93%) non-ependymal tumors (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas). EMA and CD99 expression was found in 33/44 (75%) and 11/44 (25%) of ependymomas, respectively. SOX10-positivity rules out the diagnosis of ependymoma among other glial tumors with high confidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14670/HH-11-654DOI Listing
January 2016

Mucinous spindle and tubular renal cell carcinoma: analysis of chromosomal aberration pattern of low-grade, high-grade, and overlapping morphologic variant with papillary renal cell carcinoma.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2015 Aug 6;19(4):226-31. Epub 2015 May 6.

Department of Pathology, Charles University, Medical Faculty and Charles University Hospital Plzen, Pilsen, Czech Republic; Biomedical Centre, Charles University, Medical Faculty and Charles University Hospital Plzen, Pilsen, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

The chromosomal numerical aberration pattern in mucinous tubular and spindle renal cell carcinoma (MTSRCC) is referred to as variable with frequent gains and losses. The objectives of this study are to map the spectrum of chromosomal aberrations (extent and location) in a large cohort of the cases and relate these findings to the morphologic variants of MTSRCC. Fifty-four MTSRCCs with uniform morphologic pattern were selected (of 133 MTSRCCs available in our registry) and divided into 3 groups: classic low-grade MTSRCC (Fuhrman nucleolar International Society of Urological Pathology grade 2), high-grade MTSRCC (grade 3), and overlapping MTSRCC with papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) morphology. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis was applied to 16 cases in which DNA was well preserved. Four analyzable classic low-grade MTSRCCs showed multiple losses affecting chromosomes 1, 4, 8, 9, 14, 15, and 22. No chromosomal gains were found. Four analyzable cases of MTSRCC showing overlapping morphology with PRCC displayed a more variable pattern including normal chromosomal status; losses of chromosomes 1, 6, 8, 9, 14, 15, and 22; and gains of 3, 7, 16, and 17. The group of 4 high-grade MTSRCCs exhibited a more uniform chromosomal aberration pattern with losses of chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22 and without any gains detected. (1) MTSRCC, both low-grade and high-grade, shows chromosomal losses (including 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22) in all analyzable cases; this seems to be the most frequent chromosomal numerical aberration in this type of RCC. (2) Cases with overlapping morphologic features (MTSRCC and PRCC) showed a more variable pattern with multiple losses and gains, including gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 (2 cases). This result is in line with previously published morphologic and immunohistochemical studies that describe the broad morphologic spectrum of MTSRCC, with changes resembling papillary RCC. (3) The diagnosis of MTSRCC in tumors with overlapping morphology (MTSRCC and PRCC) showing gains of both chromosomes 7 and 17 remains questionable. Based on our findings, we recommend that such tumors should not be classified as MTSRCC but rather as PRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2015.04.004DOI Listing
August 2015

The role of Epstein-Barr virus infection in the development of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

Endokrynol Pol 2015 ;66(2):132-6

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic; Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

Introduction: Autoimmune thyroid diseases, including Graves' and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, are the most frequent autoimmune disorders. Viral infection, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is one of the most frequently considered environmental factors involved in autoimmunity. Its role in the development of AITD has not been confirmed so far.

Material And Methods: Surgical specimens of Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases and nodular goitres were included in the study. The expression of EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) was analysed by immunohistochemistry, with the parallel detection of virus-encoded small nuclear non-polyadenylated RNAs (EBER) by in situ hybridisation.

Results: In none of the Graves' disease specimens but in 34.5% of Hashimoto's thyroiditis cases the cytoplasmic expression of LMP1 was detected in follicular epithelial cells and in infiltrating lymphocytes. EBER nuclear expression was detected in 80.7% of Hashimoto's thyroiditis cases and 62.5% of Graves' disease cases, with positive correlation between LMP1 and EBER positivity in all Hashimoto's thyroiditis LMP1-positive cases.

Conclusions: We assume that high prevalence of EBV infection in cases of Hashimoto's and Graves' diseases imply a potential aetiological role of EBV in autoimmune thyroiditis. The initiation of autoimmune thyroiditis could start with EBV latency type III infection of follicular epithelium characterised by LMP1 expression involving the production of inflammatory mediators leading to recruitment of lymphocytes. The EBV positivity of the infiltrating lymphocytes could be only the presentation of a carrier state, but in cases with EBER+/ LMP1+ lymphocytes (transforming latent infection) it could represent a negative prognostic marker pointing to a higher risk of primary thyroid lymphoma development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.2015.0020DOI Listing
February 2017

The leiomyomatous stroma in renal cell carcinomas is polyclonal and not part of the neoplastic process.

Virchows Arch 2014 Jul 18;465(1):89-96. Epub 2014 May 18.

Department of Pathology, National University Health System Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

Some renal epithelial neoplasms, such as renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor, clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma with smooth muscle stroma, contain a variably prominent smooth muscle stromal component. Whether or not this leiomyomatous stroma is part of the neoplastic proliferation has not been firmly established. We studied the clonality status of 14 renal cell carcinomas with a prominent smooth muscle stromal component (four renal angiomyoadenomatous tumors/clear cell papillary carcinomas, five clear cell carcinomas, two papillary carcinomas, and three renal cell carcinomas with smooth muscle rich stroma) using the human androgen receptor assay (HUMARA). We found the leiomyomatous stromal component in all analyzable (8/14) cases to be polyclonal and therefore reactive rather than neoplastic. Based on morphological observations, we propose that the non-neoplastic leiomyomatous stromal component is likely derived from smooth muscle cells of large caliber veins located at the peripheral capsular region or within the collagenous septae of the tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-014-1591-9DOI Listing
July 2014

Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: association of Ki-67 and HMGA-1 labeling indices with residual tumor growth.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2014 Mar 23;156(3):451-61; discussion 461. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Comenius University, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Bratislava, Limbová 5, 833 05, Bratislava, Slovakia,

Background: The postoperative biological behavior of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) is variable. Some residual NFPAs are stable long-term, others grow, and some recur despite complete removal. The usual histological markers of tumor aggressiveness are often similar between recurring, regrowing, and stable tumors, and therefore are not reliable as prognostic parameters. In this study, the clinical utility of proliferation indices (labeling index, Li) based on immunohistochemistry targeted at antigens Ki-67 and High-mobility group A1 (HMGA-1) for prediction of NFPA prognosis was investigated.

Methods: Fifty patients with NFPAs were investigated. In each patient, Ki-67 and HMGA-1 Li were evaluated. Based on postoperative magnetic resonance images, patients were classified as tumor-free (18 patients), or harboring a residual tumor (32 patients). The latter group was further subdivided into groups with stable tumor remnants (11 patients) or progressive tumor remnants (21 patients).

Results: The median follow-up period was 8 years. No significant relationship between HMGA-1 Li and residual tumor growth was found. Growing residual tumors showed a trend towards higher Ki-67 Li compared with stable ones (p = 0.104). All tumor remnants with Ki-67 Li above 2.2% were growing. The relationship between residual tumor growth and Ki-67 Li exceeding the cutoff value of 2.2% was significant (p = 0.01 in univariate, p = 0.044 in multivariate analysis).

Conclusions: The prognostic significance of the HMGA-1 antigen was not confirmed. In contrast, the Ki-67 Li provides useful and valuable information for the postoperative management of NFPAs. In residual adenomas with a Ki-67 Li above 2.2%, regrowth should be expected, and these tumors may require shorter intervals of follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or early adjuvant therapy. Future larger studies are needed to confirm the results of this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-014-1993-0DOI Listing
March 2014

Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: association of Ki-67 and HMGA-1 labeling indices with residual tumor growth.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2014 Mar 23;156(3):451-61; discussion 461. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Comenius University, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Bratislava, Limbová 5, 833 05, Bratislava, Slovakia,

Background: The postoperative biological behavior of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) is variable. Some residual NFPAs are stable long-term, others grow, and some recur despite complete removal. The usual histological markers of tumor aggressiveness are often similar between recurring, regrowing, and stable tumors, and therefore are not reliable as prognostic parameters. In this study, the clinical utility of proliferation indices (labeling index, Li) based on immunohistochemistry targeted at antigens Ki-67 and High-mobility group A1 (HMGA-1) for prediction of NFPA prognosis was investigated.

Methods: Fifty patients with NFPAs were investigated. In each patient, Ki-67 and HMGA-1 Li were evaluated. Based on postoperative magnetic resonance images, patients were classified as tumor-free (18 patients), or harboring a residual tumor (32 patients). The latter group was further subdivided into groups with stable tumor remnants (11 patients) or progressive tumor remnants (21 patients).

Results: The median follow-up period was 8 years. No significant relationship between HMGA-1 Li and residual tumor growth was found. Growing residual tumors showed a trend towards higher Ki-67 Li compared with stable ones (p = 0.104). All tumor remnants with Ki-67 Li above 2.2% were growing. The relationship between residual tumor growth and Ki-67 Li exceeding the cutoff value of 2.2% was significant (p = 0.01 in univariate, p = 0.044 in multivariate analysis).

Conclusions: The prognostic significance of the HMGA-1 antigen was not confirmed. In contrast, the Ki-67 Li provides useful and valuable information for the postoperative management of NFPAs. In residual adenomas with a Ki-67 Li above 2.2%, regrowth should be expected, and these tumors may require shorter intervals of follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or early adjuvant therapy. Future larger studies are needed to confirm the results of this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-014-1993-0DOI Listing
March 2014

Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma with atypical clinical and pathological features: a diagnostic pitfall.

Cesk Patol 2013 Apr;49(2):76-9

Department of Pathology, L Pasteur's University Hospital, Kosice, Slovakia.

Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is benign, slowly growing tumor linked to the tuberous sclerosis complex. It almost always occurs near the foramen of Monro. Parenchymal extension and worrisome histological features, such as necrosis, mitoses, microvascular proliferation and pleomorphism are unusual in these tumors, but can occur rarely. A case of SEGA is presented, in a patient with no signs of tuberous sclerosis so far, with atypical imaging findings and areas of necrosis found microscopically. These worrisome features initially led to the false diagnosis of glioblastoma. The differential diagnosis of SEGA is discussed.
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April 2013
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