Publications by authors named "Boris Musset"

30 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Zinc accelerates respiratory burst termination in human PMN.

Redox Biol 2021 Sep 17;47:102133. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Center of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Biophysics, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg, Germany; Center of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Biophysics, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria. Electronic address:

The respiratory burst of phagocytes is essential for human survival. Innate immune defence against pathogens relies strongly on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the NADPH oxidase (NOX2). ROS kill pathogens while the translocation of electrons across the plasma membrane via NOX2 depolarizes the cell. Simultaneously, protons are released into the cytosol. Here, we compare freshly isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to the granulocytes-like cell line PLB 985. We are recording ROS production while inhibiting the charge compensating and pH regulating voltage-gated proton channel (H1). The data suggests that human PMN and the PLB 985 generate ROS via a general mechanism, consistent of NOX2 and H1. Additionally, we advanced a mathematical model based on the biophysical properties of NOX2 and H1. Our results strongly suggest the essential interconnection of H1 and NOX2 during the respiratory burst of phagocytes. Zinc chelation during the time course of the experiments postulates that zinc leads to an irreversible termination of the respiratory burst over time. Flow cytometry shows cell death triggered by high zinc concentrations and PMA. Our data might help to elucidate the complex interaction of proteins during the respiratory burst and contribute to decipher its termination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.102133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8476447PMC
September 2021

Engineered high-affinity zinc binding site reveals gating configurations of a human proton channel.

J Gen Physiol 2020 10;152(10)

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Rush University, Chicago IL.

The voltage-gated proton channel (HV1) is a voltage sensor that also conducts protons. The singular ability of protons to penetrate proteins complicates distinguishing closed and open channels. When we replaced valine with histidine at position 116 in the external vestibule of hHV1, current was potently inhibited by externally applied Zn2+ in a construct lacking the two His that bind Zn2+ in WT channels. High-affinity binding with profound effects at 10 nM Zn2+ at pHo 7 suggests additional groups contribute. We hypothesized that Asp185, which faces position 116 in our closed-state model, contributes to Zn2+ chelation. Confirming this prediction, V116H/D185N abolished Zn2+ binding. Studied in a C-terminal truncated monomeric construct, V116H channels activated rapidly. Anomalously, Zn2+ slowed activation, producing a time constant independent of both voltage and Zn2+ concentration. We hypothesized that slow turn-on of H+ current in the presence of Zn2+ reflects the rate of Zn2+ unbinding from the channel, analogous to drug-receptor dissociation reactions. This behavior in turn suggests that the affinity for Zn2+ is greater in the closed state of hHV1. Supporting this hypothesis, pulse pairs revealed a rapid component of activation whose amplitude decreased after longer intervals at negative voltages as closed channels bound Zn2+. The lower affinity of Zn2+ in open channels is consistent with the idea that structural rearrangements within the transmembrane region bring Arg205 near position 116, electrostatically expelling Zn2+. This phenomenon provides direct evidence that Asp185 opposes position 116 in closed channels and that Arg205 moves between them when the channel opens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.202012664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7537347PMC
October 2020

Zinc modulation of proton currents in a new voltage-gated proton channel suggests a mechanism of inhibition.

FEBS J 2020 11 6;287(22):4996-5018. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Institut für Physiologie und Pathophysiologie, Paracelsus Universität Salzburg Standort Nürnberg, Nuremberg, Germany.

The H 1 voltage-gated proton (H 1) channel is a key component of the cellular proton extrusion machinery and is pivotal for charge compensation during the respiratory burst of phagocytes. The best-described physiological inhibitor of H 1 is Zn . Externally applied ZnCl drastically reduces proton currents reportedly recorded in Homo sapiens, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Rana esculenta, Helix aspersa, Ciona intestinalis, Coccolithus pelagicus, Emiliania huxleyi, Danio rerio, Helisoma trivolvis, and Lingulodinium polyedrum, but with considerable species variability. Here, we report the effects of Zn and Cd on H 1 from Nicoletia phytophila, NpH 1. We introduced mutations at potential Zn coordination sites and measured Zn inhibition in different extracellular pH, with Zn concentrations up to 1000 μm. Zn inhibition in NpH 1 was quantified by the slowing of the activation time constant and a positive shift of the conductance-voltage curve. Replacing aspartate in the S3-S4 loop with histidine (D145H) enhanced both the slowing of activation kinetics and the shift in the voltage-conductance curve, such that Zn inhibition closely resembled that of the human channel. Histidine is much more effective than aspartate in coordinating Zn in the S3-S4 linker. A simple Hodgkin Huxley model of NpH 1 suggests a decrease in the opening rate if it is inhibited by zinc or cadmium. Limiting slope measurements and high-resolution clear native gel electrophoresis (hrCNE) confirmed that NpH 1 functions as a dimer. The data support the hypothesis that zinc is coordinated in between the dimer instead of the monomer. Zinc coordination sites may be potential targets for drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754295PMC
November 2020

Assessing Structural Determinants of Zn Binding to Human H1 via Multiple MD Simulations.

Biophys J 2020 03 11;118(5):1221-1233. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Klinikum Nuremberg Medical School, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Voltage-gated proton channels (H1) are essential for various physiological tasks but are strongly inhibited by Zn cations. Some determinants of Zn binding have been elucidated experimentally and in computational studies. However, the results have always been interpreted under the assumption that Zn binds to monomeric H1 despite evidence that H1 expresses as a dimer and that the dimer has a higher affinity for zinc than the monomer and experimental data that suggest coordination in the dimer interface. The results of former studies are also controversial, e.g., supporting either one single or two binding sites. Some structural determinants of the binding are still elusive. We performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations to address different structures of the human proton channel, the monomer and two plausible dimer conformations, to compare their respective potential to interact with and bind Zn via the essential histidines. The series consisted of several copies of the system to generate independent trajectories and increase the significance compared to a single simulation. The amount of time simulated totals 29.9 μs for 126 simulations of systems comprising ∼59,000 to ∼187,000 atoms. Our approach confirms the existence of two binding sites in monomeric and dimeric human H1. The dimer interface is more efficient for attracting and binding Zn via the essential histidines than the monomer or a dimer with the histidines in the periphery. The higher affinity is due to the residues in the dimer interface that create an attractive electrostatic potential funneling the zinc cations toward the binding sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2019.12.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063441PMC
March 2020

Hydrophobic gasket mutation produces gating pore currents in closed human voltage-gated proton channels.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 09 28;116(38):18951-18961. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Rush University, Chicago, IL 60612;

The hydrophobic gasket (HG), a ring of hydrophobic amino acids in the voltage-sensing domain of most voltage-gated ion channels, forms a constriction between internal and external aqueous vestibules. Cationic Arg or Lys side chains lining the S4 helix move through this "gating pore" when the channel opens. S4 movement may occur during gating of the human voltage-gated proton channel, hH1, but proton current flows through the same pore in open channels. Here, we replaced putative HG residues with less hydrophobic residues or acidic Asp. Substitution of individuals, pairs, or all 3 HG positions did not impair proton selectivity. Evidently, the HG does not act as a secondary selectivity filter. However, 2 unexpected functions of the HG in H1 were discovered. Mutating HG residues independently accelerated channel opening and compromised the closed state. Mutants exhibited open-closed gating, but strikingly, at negative voltages where "normal" gating produces a nonconducting closed state, the channel leaked protons. Closed-channel proton current was smaller than open-channel current and was inhibited by 10 μM Zn Extreme hyperpolarization produced a deeper closed state through a weakly voltage-dependent transition. We functionally identify the HG as Val, Phe, Val, and Val, which play a critical and exclusive role in preventing H influx through closed channels. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed enhanced mobility of Arg in mutants exhibiting H leak. Mutation of HG residues produces gating pore currents reminiscent of several channelopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1905462116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6754559PMC
September 2019

The function of TRP channels in neutrophil granulocytes.

Pflugers Arch 2018 07 1;470(7):1017-1033. Epub 2018 May 1.

Institut für Physiologie II, Robert-Koch-Str. 27b, 48149, Münster, Germany.

Neutrophil granulocytes are exposed to widely varying microenvironmental conditions when pursuing their physiological or pathophysiological functions such as fighting invading bacteria or infiltrating cancer tissue. Examples for harsh environmental challenges include among others mechanical shear stress during the recruitment from the vasculature or the hypoxic and acidotic conditions within the tumor microenvironment. Chemokine gradients, reactive oxygen species, pressure, matrix elasticity, and temperature can be added to the list of potential challenges. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels serve as cellular sensors since they respond to many of the abovementioned environmental stimuli. The present review investigates the role of TRP channels in neutrophil granulocytes and their role in regulating and adapting neutrophil function to microenvironmental cues. Following a brief description of neutrophil functions, we provide an overview of the electrophysiological characterization of neutrophilic ion channels. We then summarize the function of individual TRP channels in neutrophil granulocytes with a focus on TRPC6 and TRPM2 channels. We close the review by discussing the impact of the tumor microenvironment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) on neutrophil granulocytes. Since neutrophil infiltration into PDAC tissue contributes to disease progression, we propose neutrophilic TRP channel blockade as a potential therapeutic option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-018-2146-8DOI Listing
July 2018

Insights into the structure and function of HV1 from a meta-analysis of mutation studies.

J Gen Physiol 2016 08;148(2):97-118

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University, Chicago, IL 60612.

The voltage-gated proton channel (HV1) is a widely distributed, proton-specific ion channel with unique properties. Since 2006, when genes for HV1 were identified, a vast array of mutations have been generated and characterized. Accessing this potentially useful resource is hindered, however, by the sheer number of mutations and interspecies differences in amino acid numbering. This review organizes all existing information in a logical manner to allow swift identification of studies that have characterized any particular mutation. Although much can be gained from this meta-analysis, important questions about the inner workings of HV1 await future revelation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201611619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4969798PMC
August 2016

Identification of an HV 1 voltage-gated proton channel in insects.

FEBS J 2016 Apr 6;283(8):1453-64. Epub 2016 Mar 6.

Institute of Complex Systems, Zelluläre Biophysik (ICS-4) Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany.

Unlabelled: The voltage-gated proton channel 1 (HV 1) is an important component of the cellular proton extrusion machinery and is essential for charge compensation during the respiratory burst of phagocytes. HV 1 has been identified in a wide range of eukaryotes throughout the animal kingdom, with the exception of insects. Therefore, it has been proposed that insects do not possess an HV 1 channel. In the present study, we report the existence of an HV 1-type proton channel in insects. We searched insect transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequence databases and found putative HV 1 orthologues in various polyneopteran insects. To confirm that these putative HV 1 orthologues were functional channels, we studied the HV 1 channel of Nicoletia phytophila (NpHV 1), an insect of the Zygentoma order, in more detail. NpHV 1 comprises 239 amino acids and is 33% identical to the human voltage-gated proton channel 1. Patch clamp measurements in a heterologous expression system showed proton selectivity, as well as pH- and voltage-dependent gating. Interestingly, NpHV 1 shows slightly enhanced pH-dependent gating compared to the human channel. Mutations in the first transmembrane segment at position 66 (Asp66), the presumed selectivity filter, lead to a loss of proton-selective conduction, confirming the importance of this aspartate residue in voltage-gated proton channels.

Database: Nucleotide sequence data have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession number KT780722.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.13680DOI Listing
April 2016

Tryptophan 207 is crucial to the unique properties of the human voltage-gated proton channel, hHV1.

J Gen Physiol 2015 Nov 12;146(5):343-56. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University, Chicago, IL 60612

Part of the "signature sequence" that defines the voltage-gated proton channel (H(V1)) is a tryptophan residue adjacent to the second Arg in the S4 transmembrane helix: RxWRxxR, which is perfectly conserved in all high confidence H(V1) genes. Replacing Trp207 in human HV1 (hH(V1)) with Ala, Ser, or Phe facilitated gating, accelerating channel opening by 100-fold, and closing by 30-fold. Mutant channels opened at more negative voltages than wild-type (WT) channels, indicating that in WT channels, Trp favors a closed state. The Arrhenius activation energy, Ea, for channel opening decreased to 22 kcal/mol from 30-38 kcal/mol for WT, confirming that Trp207 establishes the major energy barrier between closed and open hH(V1). Cation-π interaction between Trp207 and Arg211 evidently latches the channel closed. Trp207 mutants lost proton selectivity at pHo >8.0. Finally, gating that depends on the transmembrane pH gradient (ΔpH-dependent gating), a universal feature of H(V1) that is essential to its biological functions, was compromised. In the WT hH(V1), ΔpH-dependent gating is shown to saturate above pHi or pHo 8, consistent with a single pH sensor with alternating access to internal and external solutions. However, saturation occurred independently of ΔpH, indicating the existence of distinct internal and external pH sensors. In Trp207 mutants, ΔpH-dependent gating saturated at lower pHo but not at lower pHi. That Trp207 mutation selectively alters pHo sensing further supports the existence of distinct internal and external pH sensors. Analogous mutations in H(V1) from the unicellular species Karlodinium veneficum and Emiliania huxleyi produced generally similar consequences. Saturation of ΔpH-dependent gating occurred at the same pHo and pHi in H(V1) of all three species, suggesting that the same or similar group(s) is involved in pH sensing. Therefore, Trp enables four characteristic properties: slow channel opening, highly temperature-dependent gating kinetics, proton selectivity, and ΔpH-dependent gating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201511456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4621752PMC
November 2015

Selectivity Mechanism of the Voltage-gated Proton Channel, HV1.

Sci Rep 2015 May 8;5:10320. Epub 2015 May 8.

1] Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan [2] Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan.

Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, trigger bioluminescence in dinoflagellates, enable calcification in coccolithophores, and play multifarious roles in human health. Because the proton concentration is minuscule, exquisite selectivity for protons over other ions is critical to HV1 function. The selectivity of the open HV1 channel requires an aspartate near an arginine in the selectivity filter (SF), a narrow region that dictates proton selectivity, but the mechanism of proton selectivity is unknown. Here we use a reduced quantum model to elucidate how the Asp-Arg SF selects protons but excludes other ions. Attached to a ring scaffold, the Asp and Arg side chains formed bidentate hydrogen bonds that occlude the pore. Introducing H3O(+) protonated the SF, breaking the Asp-Arg linkage and opening the conduction pathway, whereas Na(+) or Cl(-) was trapped by the SF residue of opposite charge, leaving the linkage intact, thus preventing permeation. An Asp-Lys SF behaved like the Asp-Arg one and was experimentally verified to be proton-selective, as predicted. Hence, interacting acidic and basic residues form favorable AspH(0)-H2O(0)-Arg(+) interactions with hydronium but unfavorable Asp(-)-X(-)/X(+)-Arg(+) interactions with anions/cations. This proposed mechanism may apply to other proton-selective molecules engaged in bioenergetics, homeostasis, and signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep10320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4429351PMC
May 2015

Enhanced activation of an amino-terminally truncated isoform of the voltage-gated proton channel HVCN1 enriched in malignant B cells.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Dec 25;111(50):18078-83. Epub 2014 Nov 25.

Centre for Cancer and Inflammation, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom;

HVCN1 (Hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1) is the only mammalian voltage-gated proton channel. In human B lymphocytes, HVCN1 associates with the B-cell receptor (BCR) and is required for optimal BCR signaling and redox control. HVCN1 is expressed in malignant B cells that rely on BCR signaling, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. However, little is known about its regulation in these cells. We found that HVCN1 was expressed in B cells as two protein isoforms. The shorter isoform (HVCN1S) was enriched in B cells from a cohort of 76 CLL patients. When overexpressed in a B-cell lymphoma line, HVCN1S responded more profoundly to protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation. This more potent enhanced gating response was mediated by increased phosphorylation of the same residue responsible for enhanced gating in HVCN1L, Thr(29). Furthermore, the association of HVCN1S with the BCR was weaker, which resulted in its diminished internalization upon BCR stimulation. Finally, HVCN1S conferred a proliferative and migratory advantage as well as enhanced BCR-dependent signaling. Overall, our data show for the first time, to our knowledge, the existence of a shorter isoform of HVCN1 with enhanced gating that is specifically enriched in malignant B cells. The properties of HVCN1S suggest that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of BCR-dependent B-cell malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1411390111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4273330PMC
December 2014

Peregrination of the selectivity filter delineates the pore of the human voltage-gated proton channel hHV1.

J Gen Physiol 2013 Dec 11;142(6):625-40. Epub 2013 Nov 11.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University, Chicago, IL 60612.

Extraordinary selectivity is crucial to all proton-conducting molecules, including the human voltage-gated proton channel (hHV1), because the proton concentration is >10(6) times lower than that of other cations. Here we use "selectivity filter scanning" to elucidate the molecular requirements for proton-specific conduction in hHV1. Asp(112), in the middle of the S1 transmembrane helix, is an essential part of the selectivity filter in wild-type (WT) channels. After neutralizing Asp(112) by mutating it to Ala (D112A), we introduced Asp at each position along S1 from 108 to 118, searching for "second site suppressor" activity. Surprisingly, most mutants lacked even the anion conduction exhibited by D112A. Proton-specific conduction was restored only with Asp or Glu at position 116. The D112V/V116D channel strikingly resembled WT in selectivity, kinetics, and ΔpH-dependent gating. The S4 segment of this mutant has similar accessibility to WT in open channels, because R211H/D112V/V116D was inhibited by internally applied Zn(2+). Asp at position 109 allowed anion permeation in combination with D112A but did not rescue function in the nonconducting D112V mutant, indicating that selectivity is established externally to the constriction at F150. The three positions that permitted conduction all line the pore in our homology model, clearly delineating the conduction pathway. Evidently, a carboxyl group must face the pore directly to enable conduction. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate reorganization of hydrogen bond networks in the external vestibule in D112V/V116D. At both positions where it produces proton selectivity, Asp frequently engages in salt linkage with one or more Arg residues from S4. Surprisingly, mean hydration profiles were similar in proton-selective, anion-permeable, and nonconducting constructs. That the selectivity filter functions in a new location helps to define local environmental features required to produce proton-selective conduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201311045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840923PMC
December 2013

Construction and validation of a homology model of the human voltage-gated proton channel hHV1.

J Gen Physiol 2013 Apr;141(4):445-65

Molecular Structure and Function, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada.

The topological similarity of voltage-gated proton channels (H(V)1s) to the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) of other voltage-gated ion channels raises the central question of whether H(V)1s have a similar structure. We present the construction and validation of a homology model of the human H(V)1 (hH(V)1). Multiple structural alignment was used to construct structural models of the open (proton-conducting) state of hH(V)1 by exploiting the homology of hH(V)1 with VSDs of K(+) and Na(+) channels of known three-dimensional structure. The comparative assessment of structural stability of the homology models and their VSD templates was performed using massively repeated molecular dynamics simulations in which the proteins were allowed to relax from their initial conformation in an explicit membrane mimetic. The analysis of structural deviations from the initial conformation based on up to 125 repeats of 100-ns simulations for each system reveals structural features consistently retained in the homology models and leads to a consensus structural model for hH(V)1 in which well-defined external and internal salt-bridge networks stabilize the open state. The structural and electrostatic properties of this open-state model are compatible with proton translocation and offer an explanation for the reversal of charge selectivity in neutral mutants of Asp(112). Furthermore, these structural properties are consistent with experimental accessibility data, providing a valuable basis for further structural and functional studies of hH(V)1. Each Arg residue in the S4 helix of hH(V)1 was replaced by His to test accessibility using Zn(2+) as a probe. The two outermost Arg residues in S4 were accessible to external solution, whereas the innermost one was accessible only to the internal solution. Both modeling and experimental data indicate that in the open state, Arg(211), the third Arg residue in the S4 helix in hH(V)1, remains accessible to the internal solution and is located near the charge transfer center, Phe(150).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201210856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3607825PMC
April 2013

Biophysical properties of the voltage gated proton channel H(V)1.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Membr Transp Signal 2012 Sep 11;1(5):605-620. Epub 2012 May 11.

Rush Medical Center, molec. biophysics and physiology, DeCoursey, Thomas; Rush Medical Center.

The biophysical properties of the voltage gated proton channel (H(V)1) are the key elements of its physiological function. The voltage gated proton channel is a unique molecule that in contrast to all other ion channels is exclusively selective for protons. Alone among proton channels, it has voltage and time dependent gating like other "classical" ion channels. H(V)1 is furthermore a sensor for the pH in the cell and the surrounding media. Its voltage dependence is strictly coupled to the pH gradient across the membrane. This regulation restricts opening of the channel to specific voltages at any given pH gradient, therefore allowing H(V)1 to perform its physiological task in the tissue it is expressed in. For H(V)1 there is no known blocker. The most potent channel inhibitor is zinc (Zn(2+)) which prevents channel opening. An additional characteristic of H(V)1 is its strong temperature dependence of both gating and conductance. In contrast to single-file water filled pores like the gramicidin channel, H(V)1 exhibits pronounced deuterium effects and temperature effects on conduction, consistent with a different conduction mechanism than other ion channels. These properties may be explained by the recent identification of an aspartate in the pore of H(V)1 that is essential to its proton selectivity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462886PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wmts.55DOI Listing
September 2012

NOX5 in human spermatozoa: expression, function, and regulation.

J Biol Chem 2012 Mar 30;287(12):9376-88. Epub 2012 Jan 30.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

Physiological and pathological processes in spermatozoa involve the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the identity of the ROS-producing enzyme system(s) remains a matter of speculation. We provide the first evidence that NOX5 NADPH oxidase is expressed and functions in human spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence microscopy detected NOX5 protein in both the flagella/neck region and the acrosome. Functionally, spermatozoa exposed to calcium ionophore, phorbol ester, or H(2)O(2) exhibited superoxide anion production, which was blocked by addition of superoxide dismutase, a Ca(2+) chelator, or inhibitors of either flavoprotein oxidases (diphenylene iododonium) or NOX enzymes (GKT136901). Consistent with our previous overexpression studies, we found that H(2)O(2)-induced superoxide production by primary sperm cells was mediated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl. Moreover, the H(V)1 proton channel, which was recently implicated in spermatozoa motility, was required for optimal superoxide production by spermatozoa. Immunoprecipitation experiments suggested an interaction among NOX5, c-Abl, and H(V)1. H(2)O(2) treatment increased the proportion of motile sperm in a NOX5-dependent manner. Statistical analyses showed a pH-dependent correlation between superoxide production and enhanced sperm motility. Collectively, our findings show that NOX5 is a major source of ROS in human spermatozoa and indicate a role for NOX5-dependent ROS generation in human spermatozoa motility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.314955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3308784PMC
March 2012

Aspartate 112 is the selectivity filter of the human voltage-gated proton channel.

Nature 2011 Oct 23;480(7376):273-7. Epub 2011 Oct 23.

Department of Molecular Biophysics & Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

The ion selectivity of pumps and channels is central to their ability to perform a multitude of functions. Here we investigate the mechanism of the extraordinary selectivity of the human voltage-gated proton channel, H(V)1 (also known as HVCN1). This selectivity is essential to its ability to regulate reactive oxygen species production by leukocytes, histamine secretion by basophils, sperm capacitation, and airway pH. The most selective ion channel known, H(V)1 shows no detectable permeability to other ions. Opposing classes of selectivity mechanisms postulate that (1) a titratable amino acid residue in the permeation pathway imparts proton selectivity, or (2) water molecules 'frozen' in a narrow pore conduct protons while excluding other ions. Here we identify aspartate 112 as a crucial component of the selectivity filter of H(V)1. When a neutral amino acid replaced Asp 112, the mutant channel lost proton specificity and became anion-selective or did not conduct. Only the glutamate mutant remained proton-specific. Mutation of the nearby Asp 185 did not impair proton selectivity, indicating that Asp 112 has a unique role. Although histidine shuttles protons in other proteins, when histidine or lysine replaced Asp 112, the mutant channel was still anion-permeable. Evidently, the proton specificity of H(V)1 requires an acidic group at the selectivity filter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237871PMC
October 2011

Strong glucose dependence of electron current in human monocytes.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2012 Jan 19;302(1):C286-95. Epub 2011 Oct 19.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by human monocytes differs profoundly from that by neutrophils and eosinophils in its dependence on external media glucose. Activated granulocytes produce vast amounts of ROS, even in the absence of glucose. Human peripheral blood monocytes (PBM), in contrast, are suspected not to be able to produce any ROS if glucose is absent from the media. Here we compare ROS production by monocytes and neutrophils, measured electrophysiologically on a single-cell level. Perforated-patch-clamp measurements revealed that electron current appeared after stimulation of PBM with phorbol myristate acetate. Electron current reflects the translocation of electrons through the NADPH oxidase, the main source of ROS production. The electron current was nearly abolished by omitting glucose from the media. Furthermore, in preactivated glucose-deprived cells, electron current appeared immediately with the addition of glucose to the bath. To characterize glucose dependence of PBM further, NADPH oxidase activity was assessed as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and was recorded fluorometrically. H(2)O(2) production exhibited similar glucose dependence as did electron current. We show fundamental differences in the glucose dependence of ROS in human monocytes compared with human neutrophils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00335.2011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328910PMC
January 2012

Voltage-gated proton channel in a dinoflagellate.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 Nov 17;108(44):18162-7. Epub 2011 Oct 17.

Department of Pathology, Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Fogel and Hastings first hypothesized the existence of voltage-gated proton channels in 1972 in bioluminescent dinoflagellates, where they were thought to trigger the flash by activating luciferase. Proton channel genes were subsequently identified in human, mouse, and Ciona intestinalis, but their existence in dinoflagellates remained unconfirmed. We identified a candidate proton channel gene from a Karlodinium veneficum cDNA library based on homology with known proton channel genes. K. veneficum is a predatory, nonbioluminescent dinoflagellate that produces toxins responsible for fish kills worldwide. Patch clamp studies on the heterologously expressed gene confirm that it codes for a genuine voltage-gated proton channel, kH(V)1: it is proton-specific and activated by depolarization, its g(H)-V relationship shifts with changes in external or internal pH, and mutation of the selectivity filter (which we identify as Asp(51)) results in loss of proton-specific conduction. Indirect evidence suggests that kH(V)1 is monomeric, unlike other proton channels. Furthermore, kH(V)1 differs from all known proton channels in activating well negative to the Nernst potential for protons, E(H). This unique voltage dependence makes the dinoflagellate proton channel ideally suited to mediate the proton influx postulated to trigger bioluminescence. In contrast to vertebrate proton channels, whose main function is acid extrusion, we propose that proton channels in dinoflagellates have fundamentally different functions of signaling and excitability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1115405108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3207696PMC
November 2011

Oligomerization of the voltage-gated proton channel.

Channels (Austin) 2010 Jul-Aug;4(4):260-5. Epub 2010 Jul 24.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

The voltage-gated proton channel exists as a dimer, although each protomer has a separate conduction pathway, and when forced to exist as a monomer, most major functions are retained. However, the proton channel protomers appear to interact during gating. Proton channel dimerization is thought to result mainly from coiled-coil interaction of the intracellular C-termini. Several types of evidence are discussed that suggest that the dimer conformation may not be static, but is dynamic and can sample different orientations. Zn(2+) appears to link the protomers in an orientation from which the channel(s) cannot open. A tandem WT-WT dimer exhibits signs of cooperative gating, indicating that despite the abnormal linkage, the correct orientation for opening can occur. We propose that C-terminal interaction functions mainly to tether the protomers together. Comparison of the properties of monomeric and dimeric proton channels speaks against the hypothesis that enhanced gating reflects monomer-dimer interconversion.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3025757PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/chan.4.4.12789DOI Listing
March 2011

Zinc inhibition of monomeric and dimeric proton channels suggests cooperative gating.

J Physiol 2010 May 15;588(Pt 9):1435-49. Epub 2010 Mar 15.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Voltage-gated proton channels are strongly inhibited by Zn(2+), which binds to His residues. However, in a molecular model, the two externally accessible His are too far apart to coordinate Zn(2+). We hypothesize that high-affinity Zn(2+) binding occurs at the dimer interface between pairs of His residues from both monomers. Consistent with this idea, Zn(2+) effects were weaker in monomeric channels. Mutation of His(193) and His(140) in various combinations and in tandem dimers revealed that channel opening was slowed by Zn(2+) only when at least one His was present in each monomer, suggesting that in wild-type (WT) H(V)1, Zn(2+) binding between His of both monomers inhibits channel opening. In addition, monomeric channels opened exponentially, and dimeric channels opened sigmoidally. Monomeric channel gating had weaker temperature dependence than dimeric channels. Finally, monomeric channels opened 6.6 times faster than dimeric channels. Together, these observations suggest that in the proton channel dimer, the two monomers are closely apposed and interact during a cooperative gating process. Zn(2+) appears to slow opening by preventing movement of the monomers relative to each other that is prerequisite to opening. These data also suggest that the association of the monomers is tenuous and allows substantial freedom of movement. The data support the idea that native proton channels are dimeric. Finally, the idea that monomer-dimer interconversion occurs during activation of phagocytes appears to be ruled out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2010.188318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2876801PMC
May 2010

HVCN1 modulates BCR signal strength via regulation of BCR-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species.

Nat Immunol 2010 Mar 7;11(3):265-72. Epub 2010 Feb 7.

Medical Research Council Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Voltage-gated proton currents regulate generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytic cells. In B cells, stimulation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in the production of ROS that participate in B cell activation, but the involvement of proton channels is unknown. We report here that the voltage-gated proton channel HVCN1 associated with the BCR complex and was internalized together with the BCR after activation. BCR-induced generation of ROS was lower in HVCN1-deficient B cells, which resulted in attenuated BCR signaling via impaired BCR-dependent oxidation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. This resulted in less activation of the kinases Syk and Akt, impaired mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis and diminished antibody responses in vivo. Our findings identify unanticipated functions for proton channels in B cells and demonstrate the importance of ROS in BCR signaling and downstream metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.1843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3030552PMC
March 2010

Identification of Thr29 as a critical phosphorylation site that activates the human proton channel Hvcn1 in leukocytes.

J Biol Chem 2010 Feb 26;285(8):5117-21. Epub 2009 Dec 26.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

Voltage-gated proton channels and NADPH oxidase function cooperatively in phagocytes during the respiratory burst, when reactive oxygen species are produced to kill microbial invaders. Agents that activate NADPH oxidase also enhance proton channel gating profoundly, facilitating its roles in charge compensation and pH(i) regulation. The "enhanced gating mode" appears to reflect protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation. Here we examine two candidates for PKC-delta phosphorylation sites in the human voltage-gated proton channel, H(V)1 (Hvcn1), Thr(29) and Ser(97), both in the intracellular N terminus. Channel phosphorylation was reduced in single mutants S97A or T29A, and further in the double mutant T29A/S97A, by an in vitro kinase assay with PKC-delta. Enhanced gating was evaluated by expressing wild-type (WT) or mutant H(V)1 channels in LK35.2 cells, a B cell hybridoma. Stimulation by phorbol myristate acetate enhanced WT channel gating, and this effect was reversed by treatment with the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. The single mutant T29A or double mutant T29A/S97A failed to respond to phorbol myristate acetate or GF109203X. In contrast, the S97A mutant responded like cells transfected with WT H(V)1. We conclude that under these conditions, direct phosphorylation of the proton channel molecule at Thr(29) is primarily responsible for the enhancement of proton channel gating. This phosphorylation is crucial to activation of the proton conductance during the respiratory burst in phagocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.C109.082727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2820736PMC
February 2010

Voltage-gated proton channels maintain pH in human neutrophils during phagocytosis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009 Oct 5;106(42):18022-7. Epub 2009 Oct 5.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Phagocytosis of microbial invaders represents a fundamental defense mechanism of the innate immune system. The subsequent killing of microbes is initiated by the respiratory burst, in which nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase generates vast amounts of superoxide anion, precursor to bactericidal reactive oxygen species. Cytoplasmic pH regulation is crucial because NADPH oxidase functions optimally at neutral pH, yet produces enormous quantities of protons. We monitored pH(i) in individual human neutrophils during phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan, using confocal imaging of the pH sensing dye SNARF-1, enhanced by shifted excitation and emission ratioing, or SEER. Despite long-standing dogma that Na(+)/H(+) antiport regulates pH during the phagocyte respiratory burst, we show here that voltage-gated proton channels are the first transporter to respond. During the initial phagocytotic event, pH(i) decreased sharply, and recovery required both Na(+)/H(+) antiport and proton current. Inhibiting myeloperoxidase attenuated the acidification, suggesting that diffusion of HOCl into the cytosol comprises a substantial acid load. Inhibiting proton channels with Zn(2+) resulted in profound acidification to levels that inhibit NADPH oxidase. The pH changes accompanying phagocytosis in bone marrow phagocytes from HVCN1-deficient mice mirrored those in control mouse cells treated with Zn(2+). Both the rate and extent of acidification in HVCN1-deficient cells were twice larger than in control cells. In summary, acid extrusion by proton channels is essential to the production of reactive oxygen species during phagocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0905565106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2764923PMC
October 2009

The intimate and mysterious relationship between proton channels and NADPH oxidase.

FEBS Lett 2009 Jan 10;583(1):7-12. Epub 2008 Dec 10.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Voltage gated proton channels and NADPH oxidase function cooperatively in phagocytes during the respiratory burst, when reactive oxygen species are produced to kill microbial invaders. Although these molecules are distinct entities, with no proven physical interaction, their presence and activity in many cells appears to be coordinated. We describe these interactions and discuss several types of mechanisms that might explain them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2008.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2630394PMC
January 2009

A pH-stabilizing role of voltage-gated proton channels in IgE-mediated activation of human basophils.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008 Aug 29;105(31):11020-5. Epub 2008 Jul 29.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Eosinophils and other phagocytes use NADPH oxidase to kill bacteria. Proton channels in human eosinophils and neutrophils are thought to sustain NADPH oxidase activity, and their opening is greatly enhanced by a variety of NADPH oxidase activators, including phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). In nonphagocytic cells that lack NADPH oxidase, no clear effect of PMA on proton channels has been reported. The basophil is a granulocyte that is developmentally closely related to the eosinophil but nevertheless does not express NADPH oxidase. Thus, one might expect that stimulating basophils with PMA would not affect proton currents. However, stimulation of human basophils in perforated-patch configuration with PMA, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, or anti-IgE greatly enhanced proton currents, the latter suggesting involvement of proton channels during activation of basophils by allergens through their highly expressed IgE receptor (Fc epsilonRI). The anti-IgE-stimulated response occurred in a fraction of cells that varied among donors and was less profound than that to PMA. PKC inhibition reversed the activation of proton channels, and the proton channel response to anti-IgE or PMA persisted in Ca(2+)-free solutions. Zn(2+) at concentrations that inhibit proton current inhibited histamine release elicited by PMA or anti-IgE. Studied with confocal microscopy by using SNARF-AM and the shifted excitation and emission ratioing of fluorescence approach, anti-IgE produced acidification that was exacerbated in the presence of 100 microM Zn(2+). Evidently, proton channels are active in basophils during IgE-mediated responses and prevent excessive acidification, which may account for their role in histamine release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0800886105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2504794PMC
August 2008

Subunit-dependent modulation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor open-close equilibrium by n-alcohols.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007 Jun 7;321(3):1069-74. Epub 2007 Mar 7.

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University Hospital Giessen-Marburg GmbH, Marburg Campus, Baldingerstrasse, 35033 Marburg, Germany.

5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptors belong to the alcohol-sensitive superfamily of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, and they are thought to play an important role in alcoholism. Alcohols with small molecular volumes increase the amplitude of currents evoked by low 5-HT concentrations and shift the 5-HT concentration-response curve for 5-HT(3) receptor activation leftward, indicative of increased receptor sensitivity to agonist. This action is significantly smaller when currents are mediated by heteromeric 5-HT(3AB) receptors compared with homomeric 5-HT(3A) receptors. In this study, we used the highly inefficacious 5-HT(3) receptor agonist dopamine to determine whether this difference between 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3AB) receptors reflects differential alcohol modulation of agonist binding affinity or channel gating efficacy. Human recombinant 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3AB) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and currents were measured in the absence and presence of alcohols using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Modulation by alcohols of peak currents elicited by maximally activating concentrations of dopamine was alcohol concentration-dependent. Potentiation by smaller alcohols was consistently significantly greater in 5-HT(3A) than in 5-HT(3AB) receptors, whereas inhibition by larger alcohols was not. A representative small (butanol) and large (octanol) alcohol failed to alter the EC(50) value for channel activation by dopamine. We conclude that the presence of the 5-HT(3B) subunit in 5-HT(3AB) receptors significantly reduces the enhancement of gating efficacy by small alcohols without altering the inhibitory actions of large alcohols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.106.118752DOI Listing
June 2007

Effects of divalent cations and spermine on the K+ channel TASK-3 and on the outward current in thalamic neurons.

J Physiol 2006 May;572(Pt 3):639-57

Institut für Physiologie, Universität Marburg, Deutschhausstrasse 2, 35037 Marburg, Germany.

The potassium channels TASK-1 and TASK-3 show high sequence homology but differ in their sensitivity to extracellular divalent cations. Heterologous expression in HEK293 cells showed that the single-channel conductance of TASK-3 increased approximately four-fold after removal of external divalent cations, whereas the conductance of TASK-1 was unaffected. Replacing the glutamate at position 70 of TASK-3 by a lysine or arginine residue abolished the sensitivity to divalent cations. The reverse mutation in TASK-1 (K70E) induced sensitivity to divalent cations. The organic polycations spermine and ruthenium red modulated the conductance of TASK-3 in a similar way as Ca2+ or Mg2+. Our data suggest that these effects were mediated by shielding of the negative charges in the extracellular loops of TASK-3. Whole-cell currents carried by TASK-3 channels were inhibited by spermine and ruthenium red even in the presence of external divalent cations. These data suggest that, in addition to their effect on single-channel conductance, spermine and ruthenium red decreased the open probability of TASK-3 channels, probably by binding to residue E70. The standing outward current in thalamocortical relay neurons, which is largely carried by TASK channels, was also inhibited by divalent cations and spermine. Using the differential sensitivity of TASK-1 and TASK-3 to divalent cations and spermine we found that about 20% of the standing outward current in thalamocortical relay neurons flows through TASK-3 channels. We conclude from our results that inhibition of TASK-3 channels may contribute to the neuromodulatory effect of spermine released from neurons during repetitive activity or during hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2006.106898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1780017PMC
May 2006

"Host tissue damage" signal ATP promotes non-directional migration and negatively regulates toll-like receptor signaling in human monocytes.

J Biol Chem 2005 Sep 19;280(37):32459-67. Epub 2005 Jul 19.

Institute of Immunology, Marburg University, Germany.

The activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by lipopolysaccharide or other ligands evokes a proinflammatory immune response, which is not only capable of clearing invading pathogens but can also inflict damage to host tissues. It is therefore important to prevent an overshoot of the TLR-induced response where necessary, and here we show that extracellular ATP is capable of doing this in human monocytes. Using reverse transcription-PCR, we showed that monocytes express P2Y(1), P2Y(2), P2Y(4), P2Y(11), and P2Y(13) receptors, as well as several P2X receptors. To elucidate the function of these receptors, we first studied Ca(2+) signaling in single cells. ATP or UTP induced a biphasic increase in cytosolic Ca(2+), which corresponded to internal Ca(2+) release followed by activation of store-operated Ca(2+) entry. The evoked Ca(2+) signals stimulated Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, producing transient membrane hyperpolarization. In addition, ATP promoted cytoskeleton reorganization and cell migration; however, unlike chemoattractants, the migration was non-directional and further analysis showed that ATP did not activate Akt, essential for sensing gradients. When TLR2, TLR4, or TLR2/6 were stimulated with their respective ligands, ATPgammaS profoundly inhibited secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) but increased the production of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. In radioimmune assays, we found that ATP (or ATPgammaS) strongly increased cAMP levels, and, moreover, the TLR-response was inhibited by forskolin, whereas UTP neither increased cAMP nor inhibited the TLR-response. Thus, our data suggest that ATP promotes non-directional migration and, importantly, acts as a "host tissue damage" signal via the G(s) protein-coupled P2Y(11) receptor and increased cAMP to negatively regulate TLR signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M505301200DOI Listing
September 2005

Extracellular ATP induces oscillations of intracellular Ca2+ and membrane potential and promotes transcription of IL-6 in macrophages.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004 Jun 11;101(25):9479-84. Epub 2004 Jun 11.

Institute of Physiology, Marburg University, Deutschhausstrasse 2, 35037 Marburg, Germany.

The effects of low concentrations of extracellular ATP on cytosolic Ca(2+), membrane potential, and transcription of IL-6 were studied in monocyte-derived human macrophages. During inflammation or infection many cells secrete ATP. We show here that application of 10 microM ATP or 10 microM UTP induces oscillations in cytosolic Ca(2+) with a frequency of approximately 12 min(-1) and oscillations in membrane potential. RT-PCR analysis showed expression of P2Y(1), P2Y(2), P2Y(11), P2X(1), P2X(4), and P2X(7) receptors, large-conductance (KCNMA1 and KCNMB1-4), and intermediate-conductance (KCNN4) Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. The Ca(2+)oscillations were unchanged after removal of extracellular Ca(2+), indicating that they were mainly due to movements of Ca(2+) between intracellular compartments. Comparison of the effects of different nucleotides suggests that the Ca(2+) oscillations were elicited by activation of P2Y(2) receptors coupled to phospholipase C. Patch-clamp experiments showed that ATP induced a transient depolarization, probably mediated by activation of P2X(4) receptors, followed by membrane potential oscillations due to opening of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. We also found that 10 microM ATP gamma S increased transcription of IL-6 approximately 40-fold within 2 h. This effect was abolished by blockade of P2Y receptors with 100 microM suramin. Our results suggest that ATP released from inflamed, damaged, or metabolically impaired cells represents a "danger signal" that plays a major role in activating the innate immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0400733101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC439002PMC
June 2004

Interaction with 14-3-3 proteins promotes functional expression of the potassium channels TASK-1 and TASK-3.

J Physiol 2002 11;545(1):13-26

Institute of Physiology, Marburg University, Deutschhausstrasse 2, 35037 Marburg, Germany.

The two-pore-domain potassium channels TASK-1, TASK-3 and TASK-5 possess a conserved C-terminal motif of five amino acids. Truncation of the C-terminus of TASK-1 strongly reduced the currents measured after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes or HEK293 cells and decreased surface membrane expression of GFP-tagged channel proteins. Two-hybrid analysis showed that the C-terminal domain of TASK-1, TASK-3 and TASK-5, but not TASK-4, interacts with isoforms of the adapter protein 14-3-3. A pentapeptide motif at the extreme C-terminus of TASK-1, RRx(S/T)x, was found to be sufficient for weak but significant interaction with 14-3-3, whereas the last 40 amino acids of TASK-1 were required for strong binding. Deletion of a single amino acid at the C-terminal end of TASK-1 or TASK-3 abolished binding of 14-3-3 and strongly reduced the macroscopic currents observed in Xenopus oocytes. TASK-1 mutants that failed to interact with 14-3-3 isoforms (V411*, S410A, S410D) also produced only very weak macroscopic currents. In contrast, the mutant TASK-1 S409A, which interacts with 14-3-3-like wild-type channels, displayed normal macroscopic currents. Co-injection of 14-3-3zeta cRNA increased TASK-1 current in Xenopus oocytes by about 70 %. After co-transfection in HEK293 cells, TASK-1 and 14-3-3zeta (but not TASK-1DeltaC5 and 14-3-3zeta) could be co-immunoprecipitated. Furthermore, TASK-1 and 14-3-3 could be co-immunoprecipitated in synaptic membrane extracts and postsynaptic density membranes. Our findings suggest that interaction of 14-3-3 with TASK-1 or TASK-3 may promote the trafficking of the channels to the surface membrane.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2290646PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2002.027052DOI Listing
November 2002
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