Publications by authors named "Boris Calmels"

57 Publications

[CD34+ cell selection methods, quality controls and expected results: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2020 Dec 7;107(12S):S185-S192. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

CHU de Liège, thérapie cellulaire, 4000 Liège, Belgique. Electronic address:

CD34+ immunomagnetic positive selection allows for CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors separation from CD3+ lymphocytes subsets, usually from an apheresis product collected from a previously mobilized donor. This T-cell depleted stem cell graft is primarily intended for rare cases (around 2% of allotransplanted patients in France) of severe, persistent, symptomatic bi- or tri-cytopenia post-allotransplantation, in order to allow for hematologic reconstitution without increasing the risk of GvHD occurrence. Although semi-manual and complex, the process is of sufficient robustness to consistently generate a cellular product with distinctive features and specifications, based on iterative in-process quality controls, that are discussed within these guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2020.06.005DOI Listing
December 2020

Validation of a flow cytometry-based method to quantify viable lymphocyte subtypes in fresh and cryopreserved hematopoietic cellular products.

Cytotherapy 2021 Jan 25;23(1):77-87. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Centre de Thérapie Cellulaire, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Background Aims: Adoptive cellular therapy with immune effector cells (IECs) has shown promising efficacy against some neoplastic diseases as well as potential in immune regulation. Both inherent variability in starting material and variations in cell composition produced by the manufacturing process must be thoroughly evaluated with a validated method established to quantify viable lymphocyte subtypes. Currently, commercialized immunophenotyping methods determine cell viability with significant errors in thawed products since they do not include any viability staining. We hereby report on the validation of a flow cytometry-based method for quantifying viable lymphocyte immunophenotypes in fresh and cryopreserved hematopoietic cellular products.

Methods: Using fresh or frozen cellular products and stabilized blood, we report on the validation parameters accuracy, uncertainty, precision, sensitivity, robustness and contamination between samples for quantification of viable CD3+, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD3-CD56+CD16+/- NK cells, CD19+ B cells and CD14+ monocytes of relevance to fresh and cryopreserved hematopoietic cellular products using the Cytomics FC500 cytometer (Beckman Coulter).

Results: The acceptance criteria set in the validation plan were all met. The method is able to accommodate the variability in absolute numbers of cells in starting materials collected or cryopreserved from patients or healthy donors (uncertainty of ≤20% at three different concentrations), stability over time (compliance over 3 years during regular inter-laboratory comparisons) and confidence in meaningful changes during cell processing and manufacturing (intra-assay and intermediate precision of 10% coefficient of variation). Furthermore, the method can accurately report on the efficacy of cell depletion since the lower limit of quantification was established (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells at 9, 8 and 8 cells/µL, respectively). The method complies with Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) standards for IEC, FACT-Joint Accreditation Committee of ISCT-EBMT (JACIE) hematopoietic cell therapy standards, International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use Q2(R1) and International Organization for Standardization 15189 standards. Furthermore, it complies with Ligand Binding Assay Bioanalytical Focus Group/American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, International Council for Standardization of Hematology/International Clinical Cytometry Society and European Bioanalysis Forum recommendations for validating such methods.

Conclusions: The implications of this effort include standardization of viable cell immunophenotyping of starting material for cell manufacturing, cell selection and in-process quality controls or dosing of IECs. This method also complies with all relevant standards, particularly FACT-JACIE standards, in terms of enumerating and reporting on the viability of the "clinically relevant cell populations."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2020.06.005DOI Listing
January 2021

Checkpoint inhibition before haploidentical transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide in Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 04;4(7):1242-1249

Department of Hematology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Rozzano, Italy.

We report on 59 Hodgkin lymphoma patients undergoing haploidentical stem cell transplantation (SCT; haplo-SCT) with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, comparing outcomes based on pretransplant exposure to checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). Considering pretransplant characteristics, the 2 cohorts (CPI = 29 patients vs no-CPI = 30 patients) were similar, except for the number of prior lines of therapy (6 vs 4; P < .001). With a median follow-up of 26 months (range, 7.5-55 months), by univariate analysis, the 100-day cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute GVHD was 41% in the CPI group vs 33% in the no-CPI group (P = .456), whereas the 1-year cumulative incidence of moderate to severe chronic GVHD was 7% vs 8%, respectively (P = .673). In the CPI cohort, the 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse appeared lower compared with the no-CPI cohort (0 vs 20%; P = .054). No differences were observed in terms of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (at 2 years, 77% vs 71% [P = .599], 78% vs 53% [P = .066], and 15% vs 21% [P = .578], respectively). By multivariable analysis, CPI before SCT was an independent protective factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; P = .037). Stable disease (SD)/progressive disease (PD) was an independent negative prognostic factor for both OS and PFS (HR, 14.3; P < .001 and HR, 14.1; P < .001, respectively) . In conclusion, CPI as a bridge to haplo-SCT seems to improve PFS, with no impact on toxicity profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160255PMC
April 2020

Analysis of a large single institution cohort of related donors fails to detect a relation between SDF1/CXCR4 or VCAM/VLA4 genetic polymorphisms and the level of hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization in response to G-CSF.

PLoS One 2020 5;15(3):e0228878. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Etablissement Français du Sang PACA Corse, Biologie des Groupes Sanguins, Marseille, France.

We studied a cohort of 367 healthy related donors who volunteered to donate their hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation. All donors were homogeneously cared for at a single institution, and received rhG-CSF as a mobilization treatment prior to undergoing apheresis. Peripheral blood CD34+ cell counts were used as the main surrogate marker for rhG-CSF induced mobilization. We searched whether inter-individual variations in known genetic polymorphisms located in genes whose products are functionally important for mobilization, could affect the extent of CD34+ mobilization, either individually or in combination. We found little or no influence of individual SNPs or haplotypes for the SDF1, CXCR4, VCAM and VLA4 genes, whether using CD34+ cell counts as a continuous or a categorical variable. Simple clinical characteristics describing donors such as body mass index, age and possibly sex are more potent predictors of stem cell mobilization. The size of our cohort remains relatively small for genetic analyses, however compares favorably with cohorts analyzed in previously published reports suggesting associations of genetic traits to response to rhG-CSF; notwithstanding this limitation, our data do not support the use of genetic analyses when the choice exists of several potential donors for a given patient.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228878PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058310PMC
June 2020

A matched-pair analysis reveals marginally reduced CD34+ cell mobilization on second occasion in 27 related donors who underwent peripheral blood stem cell collection twice at the same institution.

Transfusion 2019 11 18;59(11):3442-3447. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Centre de Thérapie Cellulaire, Cell Collection & Cell Processing Facility, Marseille, France.

Background: In a small proportion of cases, hematopoietic function is insufficient after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as a result of poor graft function or graft failure. These complications are common indications of re-mobilization of the initial donor, either for a second allograft or for an infusion of CD34+ Selected stem Cell Boost (SCB).

Methods And Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the results of two cycles of CD34+ cell mobilization and collection. CD34+ cells mobilized and collected at each cycle were compared. When CD34+ cell selection from the collected allogeneic mononuclear cells was indicated, it was performed with the Clinimacs Plus® medical device, and results from in-process and final quality checks were analyzed. To assess the efficacy of CD34+ SCB, transfusion needs before and after the infusion of selected CD34+ cells were calculated.

Results: The median peripheral blood concentration of CD34+ cells/μL was marginally reduced during the second cycle (35.6 vs 33.8, p < 0.05); results revealed a strong correlation between paired values (r = 0.85). The cumulative number of collected CD34+ cells were similar for both cycles; the total processed blood volume was higher during the second cycle (p = 0.023). For CD34+ immune-selection procedures, CD34+ cell recovery and purity were respectively 57% and 95%, with a median T-cell depletion of 6.7 log. Recipients' needs for platelet and red blood cell transfusions were significantly reduced after CD34+ SCB.

Conclusion: This study confirms the feasibility of a second cycle of mobilization in healthy related donors and the benefits of CD34+ SCB on hematopoietic reconstitution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15545DOI Listing
November 2019

Epigenetic down-regulation of the HIST1 locus predicts better prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia with NPM1 mutation.

Clin Epigenetics 2019 10 12;11(1):141. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Epigenetic Factors in Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis Team, Aix Marseille University, CNRS, Inserm, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, CRCM, 27 Boulevard Lei Roure, 13273, Marseille Cedex 09, France.

Background: The epigenetic machinery is frequently altered in acute myeloid leukemia. Focusing on cytogenetically normal (CN) AML, we previously described an abnormal H3K27me3 enrichment covering 70 kb on the HIST1 cluster (6.p22) in CN-AML patient blasts. Here, we further investigate the molecular, functional, and prognosis significance of this epigenetic alteration named H3K27me3 HIST1 in NPM1-mutated (NPM1mut) CN-AML.

Results: We found that three quarter of the NPM1mut CN-AML patients were H3K27me3 HIST1. H3K27me3 HIST1 group of patients was associated with a favorable outcome independently of known molecular risk factors. In gene expression profiling, the H3K27me3 HIST1 mark was associated with lower expression of the histone genes HIST1H1D, HIST1H2BG, HIST1H2AE, and HIST1H3F and an upregulation of genes involved in myelomonocytic differentiation. Mass spectrometry analyses confirmed that the linker histone protein H1d, but not the other histone H1 subtypes, was downregulated in the H3K27me3 HIST1 group of patients. H1d knockdown primed ATRA-mediated differentiation of OCI-AML3 and U937 AML cell lines, as assessed on CD11b/CD11c markers, morphological and gene expression analyses.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that NPM1mut AML prognosis depends on the epigenetic silencing of the HIST1 cluster and that, among the H3K27me3 silenced histone genes, HIST1H1D plays a role in AML blast differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-019-0738-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790061PMC
October 2019

Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide vs. antithymocyte globulin as GVHD prophylaxis for mismatched unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 02 18;55(2):349-355. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is an efficient GVHD prophylaxis but has not been extensively evaluated in mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) allo-HSCT, for which antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is still considered as a standard. Thus, we evaluated the outcome of MMUD allo-HSCT with PT-Cy (n = 22) and performed a historical comparison with a control group receiving ATG (n = 40) in a single center experience. Compared with the ATG group, the risk of grade 2-4 acute GVHD was significantly lower in the PT-Cy group (HR = 0.12, 95% CI = [0.03-0.48], p = 0.002). No difference was observed in the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD. The risk of both NRM and relapse was significantly lower in the PT-Cy group (NRM: HR = 0.05, 95% CI = [0.00-0.63], p = 0.021; relapse: HR = 0.31; 95% CI = [0.09-1.10], p = 0.07). Thus, we observed significantly better PFS (HR = 0.22, 95% CI = (0.07-0.65); p = 0.006), OS (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = (0.07-0.84); p = 0.026), and GRFS (HR = 0.37, 95% CI = (0.17-0.80); p = 0.011) in the PT-Cy group. We conclude that PT-Cy is an effective GVHD prophylaxis in the setting of MMUD allo-HSCT, resulting in a better outcome compared with standard prophylaxis using ATG. This suggests that as it was shown in the setting of haploidentical allo-HSCT, the use of PT-Cy can overcome the impact of HLA disparity, leading to promising survivals that approach those observed after HLA matched allo-HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0682-2DOI Listing
February 2020

Validation of a semi automatic device to standardize quantification of Colony-Forming Unit (CFU) on hematopoietic stem cell products.

Cytotherapy 2019 08 28;21(8):820-823. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Insitut Paoli-Calmettes, Département de Biologie du Cancer, Marseille, France; Inserm CBT1409 Centre d'Investigations Cliniques en Biothérapie, Marseille, France.

Accurate characterization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) products is needed to better anticipate the hematopoietic reconstitution and the outcome in patients. Although CD34+ viable cells enumeration is a key predictor of time to correction of aplasia, it does not fully inform about functionality of cells contained in the graft. CFU assay is the gold standard in vitro potency assay to assess clonogenicity of HSC and consists on the count and identification of colonies several days after culture in a semi solid media. Manual count of colonies with optic microscope is the most commonly used method but its important variability and subjectivity hinders the universal implementation of this potency assay. The aim of this study is to validate a standardized method using the STEMvision™ system, the first semi-automated instrument for imaging and scoring hematopoietic colonies, according to French and European recommendations. Results obtained highlight better performance criteria with STEMvision™ system than the manual method. This semi-automatic device tends to reduce the coefficients of variation of repeatability, inter-operator variability and intermediate precision. This newly available platform could represent an interesting option, significantly improving performances of CFU assays used for the characterization of hematopoietic progenitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2019.06.005DOI Listing
August 2019

Thiotepa, Fludarabine, and Busulfan Conditioning Regimen before T Cell-Replete Haploidentical Transplantation with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide for Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Bicentric Experience of 100 Patients.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 09 22;25(9):1803-1809. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France; Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, Inserm U1068, UMR 7258, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille University, UM 105, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is an alternative treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients who lack HLA-matched donors. Relapse after haplo-SCT remains a major concern, especially after nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens. Promising results were reported for TBF-based conditioning regimens (thiotepa, busulfan, and fludarabine) in patients transplanted from different categories of donors and for various disease types but not specifically in PT-Cy haplo-SCT for AML. Here we evaluate the outcome of 100 AML patients who received haplo-SCT with PT-Cy after TBF conditioning regimens (reduced-intensity conditioning, n = 77; myeloablative conditioning, n = 23) in 2 transplant programs. Cumulative incidences of grades III to IV acute and moderate or severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 7% and 14%, respectively. NRM at 2 years was 28%, significantly influenced by disease status at haplo-SCT (first complete response [CR1] versus advanced AML: 16% versus 38%, P = .016) but not by conditioning intensity or age. The cumulative incidences of relapse at 2 years were 17% and 24% in CR1 and advanced AML, respectively (not significant). Progression-free survival, overall survival, and GVHD and relapse-free survival at 2 years were 67%, 71%, and 49% in CR1 patients, respectively, whereas comparative values in patients with advanced disease were 37%, 41%, and 32%. Our study suggests that TBF conditioning for PT-Cy haplo-SCT is safe and effective for AML patients in CR1. In patients with more advanced disease, the relatively low incidence of relapse seems counterbalanced by a high nonrelapse mortality, underlining the need for alternative strategies to decrease relapse risk, without increasing the intensity of conditioning regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.014DOI Listing
September 2019

Peripheral blood stem cell for haploidentical transplantation with post-transplant high dose cyclophosphamide: detailed analysis of 181 consecutive patients.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 11 19;54(11):1730-1737. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Hematology Department, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France.

While bone marrow (BM) grafts were initially used for T-replete HLA-haploidentical related donors transplantation (Haplo-SCT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy), the use of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) remains debated. We thus conducted a detailed analysis evaluating the incidence, risk factors, and prevalence of GVHD after PBSC Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy. One hundred and eighty-one patients with hematological diseases were included. Median time for neutrophil and platelet recovery was 21 and 30 days, respectively. The cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 acute GVHD and severe chronic GVHD were 8% and 4%, respectively, approaching what was observed after BM Haplo-SCT. NRM at 2 years was 21%, and 41% of the non-relapse deaths were caused by GVHD. The cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was 17% in the whole cohort, and 13% among AML patients (n = 54), suggesting a high GVL effect. As surrogate markers for good quality of life, we observed a 2-year GVHD-relapse-free survival probability of 50% and found that 6% and 2% of disease-free patients at 2 years were still living with GVHD and immunosuppressive treatments, respectively. Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy using PBSC grafts results in low incidence GVHD and promising disease control, making PBSCs a valuable alternative to BM graft in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0500-xDOI Listing
November 2019

[Donor Lymphocyte Infusions (DLI): Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2019 Jan 20;106(1S):S35-S39. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

CHU de Nantes, Hôtel-Dieu, service d'hématologie, 1, place Ricordeau, 44000 Nantes, France. Electronic address:

Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) can be proposed to treat or prevent the relapse of malignant hemopathies following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The efficiency has been mainly reported in the treatment of CML and low-grade lymphomas while the anti-tumoral activity is less in forms of acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. The GVL benefit should always be compared to the possible toxic effects of GVHD. This article updates the initial SFGM-TC recommendations, proposed in 2013, that were focused on the use of DLI. Doses of DLI in the context of haplo-identical stem cell transplantation are now indicated. We confirm that remaining mobilized stem cells may be used as classical DLI. The definition and the place of preemptive and prophylactic DLI are precisely given. Recommendations regarding the quality of thawed DLI as well as necessary clinical and biological follow-up are also described in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2018.10.002DOI Listing
January 2019

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based haploidentical versus Atg-based unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients younger than 60 years with hematological malignancies: a single-center experience of 209 patients.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 07 6;54(7):1067-1076. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited by availability of HLA-matched sibling donors (MSDs). The alternative use of unrelated donors (UDs) is currently challenged by haploidentical-related donors (HRDs). We retrospectively analyzed 209 consecutive patients younger than 60 years undergoing allo-HSCT from UDs (n = 128) or HRDs (n = 81). Cumulative incidences of grade 3-4 acute (17 vs. 2%, p = 0.003) and 2-year moderate and severe chronic (20 vs. 2%, p < 0.001) GVHD were significantly higher with UD. Progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly better with HRD (51 vs. 69%, p = 0.019), without significant difference in the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analyses confirmed the lower risk of acute and chronic GVHD (grade 2-4, HR = 0.43, p = 0.005; grade 3-4, HR = 0.20, p = 0.017; all grades, HR = 0.43, p = 0.012; moderate or severe, HR = 0.12, p = 0.004), better PFS (HR = 0.61, p = 0.046), and GRFS (HR = 0.47, p = 0.001) with HRD. This was confirmed in match-paired analysis. In the absence of MSDs, HRD could be considered as a suitable alternative for patients younger than 60 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0387-yDOI Listing
July 2019

HLA-Matched Sibling versus Unrelated versus Haploidentical Related Donor Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients Aged Over 60 Years with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Single-Center Donor Comparison.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 07 12;24(7):1449-1454. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France; Inserm U1068, CNRS UMR 7258, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, Marseille, France; UM 105, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

Haploidentical related donor (HRD) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) was developed as a valid option for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the absence of a matched donor. However, many investigators are reluctant to consider the use of this alternative in elderly patients, anticipating high morbidity. Here, we report a single-center comparison of HRD versus matched sibling donor (MSD) and unrelated donor (UD) allo-HSCT for patients with AML aged ≥60 years. Ninety-four patients (MSD: n = 31; UD: n = 30; HRD: n = 33) were analyzed. The median age was 65 (range, 60 to 73) years. We observed a higher cumulative incidence of grade 3 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after UD allo-HSCT (MSD versus UD versus HRD: 3% versus 33% versus 6%, respectively; P = .006). Two-year cumulative incidence of moderate or severe chronic GVHD was 17%, 27%, and 16% in the MSD, UD, and HRD groups, respectively (P = .487). No difference was observed in the 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse or nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (relapse: MSD versus UD versus HRD: 32% versus 25% versus 25%, respectively; P = .411; NRM: MSD versus UD versus HRD: 19% versus 27% versus 24%, respectively; P = .709). At 2 years, progression-free survival, overall survival, and GVHD- and relapse-free survival were 48%, 50%, and 39%, respectively, in the MSD group; 48%, 51%, and 23%, respectively, in the UD group; and 50%, 52%, and 32%, respectively, in the HRD group, without statistically significant differences between the groups. We conclude that HRD allo-HSCT is highly feasible and no less efficient than MSD or UD allo-HSCT in patients with AML aged ≥60 years. Thus, the absence of a HLA-identical donor should not limit the consideration of allo-HSCT for the treatment of AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.02.002DOI Listing
July 2018

From clinical proof-of-concept to commercialization of CAR T cells.

Drug Discov Today 2018 Apr 6;23(4):758-762. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

CBT-1409: INSERM, Aix Marseille Univ, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, AP-HM, Marseille, France; Cell Processing and Cell Collection Facility/Tissue Establishment, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France; EBMT Cell Therapy & Immunobiology Working Party. Electronic address:

The development of CAR T cells currently represents an exciting opportunity to convert the already published clinical successes observed in clinical trials into commercially available efficient therapies. However, the path toward successful commercialization is still hindered by many hurdles. Here, we review such issues as: the need for structured collaborations between hospital collection and clinical facilities and industry manufacturing facilities to streamline the supply chain; necessity for uniform and efficient medical procedures to cope with severe toxicities associated with CAR T cells; and absolute need to define an economical and sustainable model for manufacturers and payers. The fast pace at which the field is evolving requires careful assessments for the benefit of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2018.01.024DOI Listing
April 2018

Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor-Ligand Mismatch in Donor versus Recipient Direction Provides Better Graft-versus-Tumor Effect in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies Undergoing Allogeneic T Cell-Replete Haploidentical Transplantation Followed by Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 03 13;24(3):549-554. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France; Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), Inserm U1068, CNRS UMR 7258, Marseille, France; Medical Faculty, Aix-Marseille University, UM 105, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

We evaluated the impact of unidirectional donor versus recipient killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-ligand mismatch (KIR-Lmm) on the outcomes of T cell-replete haploidentical stem cell transplantation (Haplo-SCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) in a cohort of 144 patients treated for various hematologi diseases. We separately analyzed 81 patients in complete remission (CR group) and 63 with active disease (no CR group) at the time of Haplo-SCT. One-third of patients in each group had KIR-Lmm. In the no CR group, KIR-Lmm was associated with a significantly lower incidence of relapse (hazard ratio, .21; P = .013) and better progression-free survival (hazard ratio, .42; P = .028), with no significant increase in graft-versus-host disease incidence or nonrelapse mortality. In contrast, in the CR group no benefit of KIR-Lmm was observed. Our results encourage considering KIR-Lmm as an additional tool to improve donor selection for T cell-replete Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy, especially in patients with high-risk diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.11.042DOI Listing
March 2018

Pre-clinical assessment of the Lovo device for dimethyl sulfoxide removal and cell concentration in thawed hematopoietic progenitor cell grafts.

Cytotherapy 2017 12 14;19(12):1501-1508. Epub 2017 Oct 14.

Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France; Inserm CBT 1409, Centre d'Investigations Cliniques en Biothérapie, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Background: Cryopreserved hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) grafts are widely infused to patients with malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Despite reduction of immediate side effects linked to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), cell debris-containing grafts and comparable hematopoietic engraftment between washed and unwashed cryopreserved products, bedside infusion of thawed HPC grafts is still preferred. Introduction of automated devices is important for standardization and consistency of graft manipulation. Additionally, these techniques are likely to be useful for the delivery of innovative cell-based medicinal products that are currently under development.

Methods: In this study, we evaluated three consecutive versions of the Lovo device (Fresenius Kabi) for automated washing of thawed HPC products. A total of 42 HPC products intended for destruction were used. Measured outcomes included viable CD34 cell recovery, viability, total processing time and post-washing stability.

Results: Preliminary data using the prototype Lovo 0.0 to process a single HPC unit showed better recovery and viability of CD34 cells using a two-cycle than a three-cycle wash, with >95% DMSO elimination. The Lovo 1.0 performed equally well. When simultaneously processing two HPC units, the upgraded Lovo 2.0 device demonstrated comparable CD34 recovery, DMSO elimination efficiencies and time-saving capacity. Furthermore, washed cell products were stable for 4 hours at room temperature.

Discussion: Lovo device satisfies clinically relevant issues: ability to efficiently wash two HPC units simultaneously and compatibility with transport to nearby transplantation centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2017.09.001DOI Listing
December 2017

[Impact of Her2 and BRCA1/2 status in high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cells transplantation in the treatment of breast cancer: The Institut Paoli Calmettes' experience].

Bull Cancer 2017 Apr 16;104(4):332-343. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Institut Paoli-Calmettes (IPC), département d'oncologie médicale, 232, boulevard de Sainte-Marguerite, 13009 Marseille cedex 9, France; Centre de recherches en cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), UMR Inserm 1068/CNRS 7258/AMU 105/IPC, 232, boulevard de Sainte-Marguerite, 13009 Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille université, Jardin du Pharo, 58, boulevard Charles-Livon, 13284 Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Studies evaluating chemotherapy high dose chemotherapy with autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HDC-ACSH) in the treatment of metastatic (MBC), locally advanced (LABC) and inflammatory (IBC) breast cancer have in common lack of biomarker information, in particular the HER2 status.

Patients And Methods: All consecutive female patients treated for breast cancer with HDC and AHSCT at Institut Paoli Calmettes between 2003 and 2012 were included. Patients were categorized in three subtypes based on hormonal receptor (HR) and HER2 status of the primary tumor: luminal, (HR+/HER2-), HER2 (HER2+, any HR) and triple negative (TN) (HER2- and HR-). The main objective was the analysis of overall survival (OS) according to the IHC subtypes.

Results: Three hundred and seventy-seven patients were included. For MBC, the TN subtype appeared to have the worst prognosis with a median OS of 19.68 months (95 % CI 11.76-44.4) compared to 44.64 months (95 % CI 40.32-67.56) for the luminal subtype and a median OS not reached for the HER2 subtype (P<0.01). For IBC, HER2 subgroup appeared to have the best prognosis with a 5-year OS of 89 % (95 % CI 64-97) compared to 57 % (95 % CI 33-76) for the TN subgroup (HR 5.38, 95 % CI 1.14-25.44; P=0.034). For CSLA, luminal subgroup appeared to have the best prognosis with a 5-year OS of 92 % (95 % CI 71-98) against 75 % (95 % CI 46-90) for HER 2 subtype and 70 % (95 %CI 97-88) for TN subtype (P=0.301).

Conclusion: The HDC-ACSH does not change the prognosis value of IHC subtype in breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2016.12.007DOI Listing
April 2017

Manufacturing Natural Killer Cells as Medicinal Products.

Front Immunol 2016 15;7:504. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

CBT-1409: INSERM, Aix Marseille Univ, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, AP-HM, Marseille, France; CRCM: INSERM, CNRS, Aix Marseille Univ, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, CRCM, Marseille, France.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells (ILC) with cytotoxic and regulatory properties. Their functions are tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activating receptors, and their mechanisms of activation strongly differ from antigen recognition in the context of human leukocyte antigen presentation as needed for T-cell activation. NK cells thus offer unique opportunities for new and improved therapeutic manipulation, either or , in a variety of human diseases, including cancers. NK cell activity can possibly be modulated through direct or indirect actions exerted by small molecules or monoclonal antibodies. NK cells can also be adoptively transferred following more or less substantial modifications through cell and gene manufacturing, in order to empower them with new or improved functions and ensure their controlled persistence and activity in the recipient. In the present review, we will focus on the technological and regulatory challenges of NK cell manufacturing and discuss conditions in which these innovative cellular therapies can be brought to the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5108783PMC
November 2016

Prognostic impact of hormone receptor- and HER2-defined subtypes in inflammatory breast cancer treated with high-dose chemotherapy: a retrospective study.

J Cancer 2016 23;7(14):2077-2084. Epub 2016 Oct 23.

Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, F-13284, France.; Centre de Thérapie Cellulaire, Département de Biologie du Cancer, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, F-13273, France.; Centre d'Investigations Cliniques en Biothérapies, Inserm CBT-1409, Marseille, F-13009, France.

Studies examining high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HDC-AHSCT) strategies in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), showed encouraging results in terms of disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). The lack of data regarding HER2 status in all of these studies prevented any prognostic analysis involving breast cancer subtypes. All consecutive female patients treated for IBC with HDC and AHSCT at Institut Paoli-Calmettes between 2003 and 2012 were included. Since 2005, trastuzumab was included in initial treatment. Patient, tumor and treatment characteristics were collected. Patients were categorized in three subtypes based on hormonal receptor (HR) and HER2 status of the primary tumor: Luminal, (HR+/HER2-), HER2 (HER2+, any HR), and triple negative (TN) (HER2- and HR-). The main objective was the analysis of OS according to the IHC subtypes. Sixty-seven patients were included. Eleven patients received trastuzumab. Median follow up was 80.04 months (95% CI 73.2-88.08). Five-year OS and DFS for the whole population patients were 74% (95% CI 61-83) and 65 % (95% CI 52-75), respectively. OS differed across subtypes (p=0.057) : HER2 subgroup appeared to have the best prognosis with a 5-year OS of 89% (95% CI 64-97) compared to 57% (95% CI 33-76) for the TN subgroup (HR 5.38, 95% CI 1.14-25.44; p=0.034). In IBC patients receiving HDC-AHSCT, OS favorably compares with data available in the literature on similar groups of patients. TN patients carried the least favourable OS and HER2 patients, half of them also receiving trastuzumab, had the best outcome. These findings provide additional information and options for patients with IBC and who could potentially benefit of HDC-AHSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.15797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5118671PMC
October 2016

[Modalities for preparation, cryopreservation, thawing of hematopoietic stem cells and precautions for infusion to patient: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2016 Nov 31;103(11S):S267-S272. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

CHU Sart-Tilman, hématologie clinique, bâtiment B35, 4000 Liège, Belgique. Electronic address:

To date, despite an existing regulatory framework and standards, there are no true technical recommendations. A survey of 23 cell processing facilities (France, Belgium and Switzerland) has allowed to overview current practices according to cellular products specifications upon arrival at the facility, with modalities for their preparation prior to cryopreservation, storage, thawing and finally for infusion to patient. Data analysis shows great variability of collected volumes and cell concentrations in cellular products. Despite homogeneous practices for handling cells at the facility, methods vary between centers, especially for the choice of cryoprotective solutions and thawing methods. During the workshop, practices have been discussed and summarized to write of recommendations about the following topics: processing and cryopreservation, thawing, bedside precautions (for infusion). This work identifies some improvements in terms of collection, choice of wash solution of thawed cells and validation of the conditions of carriage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2016.09.002DOI Listing
November 2016

Corrigendum to "Immunohistochemical subtypes predict survival in metastatic breast cancer receiving high-dose chemotherapy with autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation" [Eur J Cancer 57 (April 2016) 118-126].

Eur J Cancer 2016 11 24;67:223. Epub 2016 Sep 24.

Département d'Oncologie Médicale, Institut Paoli-Calmettes (IPC), Marseille, F-13273, France; Centre de Recherches en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), UMR Inserm 1068/CNRS 7258/AMU 105/IPC, Marseille, F-13009, France; Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, F-13284, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2016.09.002DOI Listing
November 2016

Immunohistochemical subtypes predict survival in metastatic breast cancer receiving high-dose chemotherapy with autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Eur J Cancer 2016 04 23;57:118-26. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Département d'Oncologie Médicale, Institut Paoli-Calmettes (IPC), Marseille, F-13273, France; Centre de Recherches en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), UMR Inserm 1068/CNRS 7258/AMU 105/IPC, Marseille, F-13009, France; Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, F-13284, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients affected with different subtypes of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) following treatment with high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous haematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (AHSCT).

Methods: All consecutive female patients treated for MBC with HDC and AHSCT at the Institut Paoli-Calmettes between 2003 and 2012 were included. Patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were collected. Patients were categorised in three subtypes based on hormonal receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status of the primary tumour: luminal (L), (HR+/HER2-), HER2 (HER2+, any HR), and triple negative (TN) (HER2- and HR-). The main objective was the analysis of overall survival (OS) according to the immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes.

Results: A total of 235 patients were included, median age was 46 (range 21-62). Median follow up was 53.28 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 45.12-57.6). The TN subtype appeared to have the worst prognosis with a median OS of 19.68 months (95% CI 11.76-44.4) compared to 44.64 months (95% CI 40.32-67.56) for the luminal subtype and a median OS not reached for the HER2 subtype (p < 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, the TN subtype retained an independent poor prognosis value compared to the luminal subtype, with a hazard ratio of 2.03 (95% CI 1.26-3.29, p = 0.037).

Conclusion: HDC-AHSCT does not change the prognostic value of IHC subtypes in MBC patients. OS favourably compares with data available in the literature on similar groups of patients. These findings provide additional information and options for patients with MBC and who could potentially benefit of HDC-AHSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2016.01.005DOI Listing
April 2016

The efficacy and safety of a new reduced-toxicity conditioning with 4 days of once-daily 100 mg/m(2) intravenous busulfan associated with fludarabine and antithymocyte globulins prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or acute leukemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2016 10 17;57(10):2315-20. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

a Département d'Onco-Hématologie , Institut Paoli-Calmettes , Marseille , France ;

The optimal intensity of myeloablation associated with a reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimen in order to decrease the relapse rate without increasing non-relapse mortality (NRM), is not well established yet. This retrospective analysis was done on 30 patients with hematological malignancies. The aim was to assess the safety of a RTC regimen based on the busulfan at a dose of 100 mg/m(2)/d intravenously for 4 d, fludarabine at a dose of 30 mg/m(2)/d for 5 d, and anti-thymoglobulins at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/d for 2 d. The cumulative incidences of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and all grades chronic GVHD were 37% and 42%, respectively. Median 1-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 66% and 50%, respectively. At 1 year, the cumulative incidence of relapse/disease progression was 33%. NRM was 3% and 17% at day 100 and 1 year, respectively. This RTC conditioning regimen can lead to a long-term disease control. Moreover, it appears to be safe with a low NRM rate among high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2016.1146948DOI Listing
October 2016

[Academic cell therapy facilities are challenged by European regulation on advanced therapy medicinal products].

Med Sci (Paris) 2014 May 13;30(5):576-83. Epub 2014 Jun 13.

Inserm UMR 1027, épidémiologie et analyses en santé publique : risques, maladies chroniques et handicaps, équipe génomique, biothérapies et santé publique-approche interdisciplinaire, Toulouse, France - université Paul Sabatier-Toulouse 3, Toulouse, France - Institut de recherche en droit européen, international et comparé (IRDEIC), université Toulouse 1-Capitole, Toulouse, France.

Regulation (EC) n° 1394/2007 from the European Parliament and the Council describes a new category of health products termed « Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products » (ATMPs). ATMPs derive from cell engineering, tissue engineering or genetic manipulations, and can in some instances be combined with medical devices. ATMPs are distributed and administered to patients, after biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies have obtained a marketing authorization that is granted by the European Commission on the basis of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) assessment. Seven years after the publication of the regulation, few of these therapies have received a marketing authorization, and even fewer have met commercial success, suggesting that a number of medical and economic issues still need to be sorted out in order to achieve sustainability in this field. The coexistence of three sets of rules for three categories of health products that are biologically and medically related - ATMPs, ATMPs produced under the hospital exemption rule, and cell therapy products (CTPs) (a specific legal category in France) that have long been used in hematopoietic cell transplantation - constitutes a complex regulatory framework. This situation raises significant issues for historical as well as emerging operators in this moving field that are discussed thereafter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/medsci/20143005022DOI Listing
May 2014

Poor outcome with nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen before cord blood transplantation for patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia compared with matched related or unrelated donor transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Oct 14;20(10):1560-5. Epub 2014 Jun 14.

Hematology Department, Transplantation Program, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Inserm UMR 1068/Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, Marseille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) is recommended for patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In many situations, a matched related (MRD) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) is lacking, in which case unrelated cord blood units (UCB) provide an alternative. We analyzed the outcome of consecutive high-risk AML patients prepared with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens and allografted with UCB (n = 32) and compared their outcome with high-risk AML patients who underwent transplantation with MRD/MUD (n = 49) in the same period of time. Grade III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred slightly more frequently in the UCB group (25%) than in the MRD/MUD group (8%) (P = .069). Conversely, we found a lower incidence of extensive chronic GVHD in the UCB group (6%) than in the MRD/MUD group (20%, P = .085). Nonrelapse mortality at 4 years was 16% and 22% in the UCB and MRD/MUD groups, respectively (P = .529). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 4 years was significantly higher in the UCB group (60%) than in the MRD/MUD group (27%, P = .006). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) at 4 years were 25% and 34%, respectively, in the UCB group and 50% and 56%, respectively, in the MRD/MUD group (LFS, P = .029; OS, P = .072). Multivariate analyses adjusted by cytogenetics and disease status at the time of Allo-HSCT revealed that use of UCB remained an independent predictive factor of shorter LFS (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 3.6; P = .018), and was associated with a trend for shorter OS (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, .9 to 3.2; P = .093). Whereas UCB provides an alternative for patients with high-risk AML lacking an MRD/MUD, the high incidence of relapse after RIC-based UCB Allo-HSCT is a concern. Attempts to improve leukemic control with UCB Allo-HSCT are warranted, as well as the evaluation of other alternative donors in this context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.06.006DOI Listing
October 2014

CD34(+)-selected stem cell boost without further conditioning for poor graft function after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with hematological malignancies.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Mar 7;20(3):382-6. Epub 2013 Dec 7.

Department for Stem Cell Transplantation, University Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of a CD34(+)-selected stem cell boost (SCB) without prior conditioning in 32 patients (male/22; median age of 54 years; range, 20 to 69) with poor graft function, defined as neutrophils ≤1.5 x 10(9)/L, and/or platelets ≤30 x 10(9)/L, and/or hemoglobin ≤8.5 g/dL). The median interval between stem cell transplantation and SCB was 5 months (range, 2 to 228). The median number of CD34(+) and CD3(+) cells were 3.4 x 10(6)/kg (.96 to 8.30) and 9 x 10(3)/kg body weight (range, 2 to 70), respectively. Hematological improvement was observed in 81% of patients and noted after a median of 30 days (range, 14 to 120) after SCB. The recipients of related grafts responded faster than recipients of unrelated grafts (20 versus 30 days, P = .04). The cumulative incidence of acute (grade II to IV) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after SCB was 17% and 26%, respectively. Patients with acute GVHD received a higher median CD3(+) cell dose. The 2-year probability of overall survival was 45%. We suggest that SCB represents an effective approach to improve poor graft function post transplantation, but optimal timing of SCB administration, anti-infective, and GVHD prophylaxis needs further evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.11.034DOI Listing
March 2014

Antithymocyte globulin in reduced-intensity conditioning regimen allows a high disease-free survival exempt of long-term chronic graft-versus-host disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Mar 4;20(3):370-4. Epub 2013 Dec 4.

Hematology Department, Transplantation Program, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Nonmyeloablative (NMA) regimens allow the use of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in patients considered unfit for standard myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens using high-dose alkylating agents with or without total body irradiation (TBI). Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens, based on fludarabine (Flu), busulfan (Bu), and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG), represent an intermediate alternative between NMA and MAC regimens. This platform was subsequently optimized by the introduction of i.v. Bu and the use of 5 mg/kg r-ATG, based on the hypothesis that these modifications would improve the safety of RIC allo-HSCT. Here we report a study conducted at our institution on 206 patients, median age 59 years, who underwent allo-HSCT after conditioning with Flu, 2 days of i.v. Bu, and 5 mg/kg r-ATG (FBx-ATG) between 2005 and 2012. The prevalence of grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 9%, and that of extensive chronic GVHD was 22%. Four-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and overall survival (OS) rates were 22%, 36%, and 54%, respectively. NRM tended to be influenced by comorbidities (hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index [HCT-CI] <3 versus HCT-CI ≥3: 18% versus 27%; P = .075), but not by age (<60 years, 20% versus ≥60 years, 25%; P = .142). Disease risk significantly influenced relapse (2 years: low, 8%, intermediate, 28%, high, 34%; very high, 63%; P = .017). Both disease risk (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: intermediate, 2.1 [0.8 to 5.2], P = .127; high, 3.4 [1.3 to 9.1], P = .013; very high, 4.0 [1.1 to 14], P = .029) and HCT-CI (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: HCT-CI ≥3, 1.7 (1.1 to 2.8), P = .018) influenced OS, but age and donor type did not. The FBx-ATG RIC regimen reported here is associated with low mortality and high long-term disease-free survival without persistent GVHD in both young and old patients. It represents a valuable platform for developing further post-transplantation strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of relapse, particularly in the setting of high-risk disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.11.030DOI Listing
March 2014

A conditioning platform based on fludarabine, busulfan, and 2 days of rabbit antithymocyte globulin results in promising results in patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation from both matched and mismatched unrelated donor.

Am J Hematol 2014 Jan;89(1):83-7

Département d'Onco-Hématologie, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Unité de Transplantation et de Thérapie Cellulaire, F-13273, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Université, F-13007, Marseille, France; Inserm UMR1068, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), F-13009, Marseille, France.

Conditioning regimen including fludarabine, intravenous busulfan (Bx), and 5 mg/kg total dose of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG) (FBx-ATG) results in low incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) from HLA-matched related or unrelated donors (MUD). However, whether this platform produces similar results in the setting of one mismatch unrelated donor (MMUD) Allo-HSCT is not known. We retrospectively analyzed patients aged less than 65 years who were diagnosed with hematological malignancies and received FBx-ATG regimen prior to Allo-HSCT from MUD (N = 74) or MMUD (N = 40). We compared outcome of MUD versus MMUD patients. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD (MUD: 34% vs. MMUD: 35%, P = 0.918), but MMUD patients developed more grade III-IV acute GVHD (MUD: 5% vs. MMUD: 15%, P = 0.016). The cumulative incidences of overall chronic GVHD (MUD: 33% vs. MMUD: 22%, P = 0.088) and extensive chronic GVHD (MUD: 20% vs. MMUD: 19%, P = 0.594) were comparable. One-year NRM was similar in both groups (MUD: 16% vs. MMUD: 14%, P = 0.292); similarly, progression-free survival (MUD: 59% vs. MMUD: 55%, P = 0.476) and overall survival (MUD: 63% vs. MMUD: 61%, P = 0.762) were not different between both groups. With a median follow up of 24 months, 35 of 74 MUD patients (47%) and 19 of 40 MMUD patients (48%) were free of both disease progression and immunosuppressive treatment. We conclude that the FBx-ATG regimen results in low incidences of NRM and GVHD in both MUD and the MMUD recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.23592DOI Listing
January 2014