Publications by authors named "Borhane Annabi"

92 Publications

TH1902, a new docetaxel-peptide conjugate for the treatment of sortilin-positive triple-negative breast cancer.

Cancer Sci 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous subgroup of cancers which lacks the expression and/or amplification of targetable biomarkers (i.e., ER, PR, and HER2), and is often associated with the worse disease-specific outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. Here, we report that high expression of the sortilin (SORT1) receptor correlates with the decreased survival in TNBC patients, and more importantly in those bearing lymph node metastases. By exploiting SORT1 function in ligand internalization, a new anticancer treatment strategy was designed to target SORT1-positive TNBC-derived cells both in vitro and in two in vivo tumor xenografts models. A peptide (TH19P01), which requires SORT1 for internalization and to which many anti-cancer drugs could be conjugated, was developed. In vitro, while the TH19P01 peptide itself did not exert any anti-proliferative or apoptotic effects, the docetaxel-TH19P01 conjugate (TH1902) exerted potent anti-proliferative and anti-migratory activities when tested on TNBC-derived MDA-MB-231 cells. TH1902 triggered faster and more potent apoptotic cell death than did unconjugated docetaxel. The apoptotic and anti-migratory effects of TH1902 were both reversed by two SORT1 ligands, neurotensin and progranulin, and upon siRNA-mediated silencing of SORT1. TH1902 also altered microtubule polymerization and triggered the down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL biomarker. In vivo, both i.p. and i.v. administrations of TH1902 led to greater tumor regression in two MDA-MB-231 and HCC-70 murine xenograft models than did docetaxel, without inducing neutropenia. Altogether, the data demonstrates the high in vivo efficacy and safety of TH1902 against TNBC through a SORT1 receptor-mediated mechanism. This property allows for selective treatment of SORT1-positive TNBC and makes TH1902 a promising avenue for personalized therapy with the potential of improving the therapeutic window of cytotoxic anticancer drugs such as docetaxel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.15086DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of LM98, a Small-Molecule TEAD Inhibitor Derived from Flufenamic Acid.

ChemMedChem 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Département de chimie, Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC, H3C 3P8, Canada.

The YAP-TEAD transcriptional complex is responsible for the expression of genes that regulate cancer cell growth and proliferation. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway due to overexpression of TEAD has been reported in a wide range of cancers. Inhibition of TEAD represses the expression of associated genes, demonstrating the value of this transcription factor for the development of novel anti-cancer therapies. We report herein the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of LM98, a flufenamic acid analogue. LM98 shows strong affinity to TEAD, inhibits its autopalmitoylation and reduces the YAP-TEAD transcriptional activity. Binding of LM98 to TEAD was supported by F-NMR studies while co-crystallization experiments confirmed that LM98 is anchored within the palmitic acid pocket of TEAD. LM98 reduces the expression of CTGF and Cyr61, inhibits MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration and arrests cell cycling in the S phase during cell division.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.202100432DOI Listing
June 2021

Improvement of colonic healing and surgical recovery with perioperative supplementation of inulin and galacto-oligosaccharides.

Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 27;40(6):3842-3851. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Nutrition and Microbiome Laboratory, Institut du Cancer de Montréal, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), 900 Rue Saint-Denis, Montréal, Québec, H2X 0A9, Canada; Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 2900 Boulevard Edouard-Montpetit, Montréal, Québec, H3T 1J4, Canada. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Anastomotic leak (AL) is a major complication in colorectal surgery. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may affect healing and may cause or prevent AL. Butyrate is a beneficial short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) that is produced as a result of bacterial fermentation of dietary oligosaccharides and has been described as beneficial in the maintenance of colonic health. To assess the impact of oligosaccharides on colonic anastomotic healing in mice, we propose to modulate the microbiota with oligosaccharides to increase butyrate production via enhancement of butyrate-producing bacteria and, consequently, improve anastomotic healing in mice.

Methods: Animal experiments were conducted in mice that were subjected to diets supplemented with inulin, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) or cellulose, as a control, for two weeks before undergoing a surgical colonic anastomosis. Macroscopic and histological assessment of the anastomosis was performed. Extent of epithelial proliferation was assessed by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Gelatin zymography was used to evaluate the extent of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) hydrolytic activity.

Results: Inulin and GOS diets were associated with increased butyrate production and better anastomotic healing. Histological analysis revealed an enhanced mucosal continuity, and this was associated with an increased re-epithelialization of the wound as determined by increased epithelial proliferation. Collagen concentration in peri-anastomotic tissue was higher with inulin and GOS diets and MMP activity, a marker of collagen degradation, was lower with both oligosaccharides. Inulin and GOS diets were further associated with lower bacterial translocation.

Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with inulin and GOS may improve anastomotic healing and reinforce the gut barrier in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.032DOI Listing
June 2021

Computational Methods for Structure-to-Function Analysis of Diet-Derived Catechins-Mediated Targeting of In Vitro Vasculogenic Mimicry.

Cancer Inform 2021 9;20:11769351211009229. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is an adaptive biological phenomenon wherein cancer cells spontaneously self-organize into 3-dimensional (3D) branching network structures. This emergent behavior is considered central in promoting an invasive, metastatic, and therapy resistance molecular signature to cancer cells. The quantitative analysis of such complex phenotypic systems could require the use of computational approaches including machine learning algorithms originating from complexity science.

Procedures: 3D VM was performed with SKOV3 and ES2 ovarian cancer cells cultured on Matrigel. Diet-derived catechins disruption of VM was monitored at 24 hours with pictures taken with an inverted microscope. Three computational algorithms for complex feature extraction relevant for 3D VM, including 2D wavelet analysis, fractal dimension, and percolation clustering scores were assessed coupled with machine learning classifiers.

Results: These algorithms demonstrated the structure-to-function galloyl moiety impact on VM for each of the gallated catechin tested, and shown applicable in quantifying the drug-mediated structural changes in VM processes.

Conclusions: Our study provides evidence of how appropriate 3D VM compression and feature extractors coupled with classification/regression methods could be efficient to study drug-induced perturbation of complex processes. Such approaches could be exploited in the development and characterization of drugs targeting VM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11769351211009229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042551PMC
April 2021

EGCG Inhibits Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation into Adipocytes and Prevents a STAT3-Mediated Paracrine Oncogenic Control of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cell Invasive Phenotype.

Molecules 2021 Mar 10;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, Centre de Recherche CERMO-FC, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3P8, Canada.

Obese subjects have an increased risk of developing triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), in part associated with the chronic low-grade inflammation state. On the other hand, epidemiological data indicates that increased consumption of polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables plays a key role in reducing incidence of some cancer types. Here, we tested whether green tea-derived epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could alter adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into adipocytes, and how this impacts the secretome profile and paracrine regulation of the TNBC invasive phenotype. Here, cell differentiation was performed and conditioned media (CM) from preadipocytes and mature adipocytes harvested. Human TNBC-derived MDA-MB-231 real-time cell migration was performed using the exCELLigence system. Differential gene arrays and RT-qPCR were used to assess gene expression levels. Western blotting was used to assess protein expression and phosphorylation status levels. In vitro vasculogenic mimicry (VM) was assessed with Matrigel. EGCG was found to inhibit the induction of key adipogenic biomarkers, including lipoprotein lipase, adiponectin, leptin, fatty acid synthase, and fatty acid binding protein 4. Increased TNBC-derived MDA-MB-231 cell chemotaxis and vasculogenic mimicry were observed in response to mature adipocytes secretome, and this was correlated with increased STAT3 phosphorylation status. This invasive phenotype was prevented by EGCG, the JAK/STAT inhibitors Tofacitinib and AG490, as well as upon STAT3 gene silencing. In conclusion, dietary catechin-mediated interventions could, in part through the inhibition of adipogenesis and modulation of adipocytes secretome profile, prevent the onset of an obesogenic environment that favors TNBC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998295PMC
March 2021

TACIMA-218: A Novel Pro-Oxidant Agent Exhibiting Selective Antitumoral Activity.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 01 21;20(1):37-49. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

We report the discovery, via a unique high-throughput screening strategy, of a novel bioactive anticancer compound: hiol lkylating ompound nducing assive poptosis (TACIMA)-218. We demonstrate that this molecule engenders apoptotic cell death in genetically diverse murine and human cancer cell lines, irrespective of their p53 status, while sparing normal cells. TACIMA-218 causes oxidative stress in the absence of protective antioxidants normally induced by Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation. As such, TACIMA-218 represses RNA translation and triggers cell signaling cascade alterations in AKT, p38, and JNK pathways. In addition, TACIMA-218 manifests thiol-alkylating properties resulting in the disruption of redox homeostasis along with key metabolic pathways. When administered to immunocompetent animals as a monotherapy, TACIMA-218 has no apparent toxicity and induces complete regression of pre-established lymphoma and melanoma tumors. In sum, TACIMA-218 is a potent oxidative stress inducer capable of selective cancer cell targeting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-20-0333DOI Listing
January 2021

Functional targeting of the TGF-βR1 kinase domain and downstream signaling: A role for the galloyl moiety of green tea-derived catechins in ES-2 ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 01 2;87:108518. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

The galloyl moiety is a specific structural feature which dictates, in part, the chemopreventive properties of diet-derived catechins. In ovarian cancer cells, galloylated catechins were recently demonstrated to target the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-mediated control of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. The specific impact of the galloyl moiety on such signaling, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we questioned whether the sole galloyl moiety interacted with TGF-β-receptors to alter signal transduction and chemotactic migratory response in an ES-2 serous carcinoma-derived ovarian cancer cell model. In line with the LogP and LogS values of the tested molecules, we found that TGF-β-induced Smad-3 phosphorylation and cell migration were optimally inhibited, provided that the lateral aliphatic chain of the galloyl moiety reached 8-10 carbons. Functional inhibition of the TGF-β receptor (TGF-βR1) kinase activity was supported by surface plasmon resonance assays showing direct physical interaction between TGF-βR1 and the galloyl moiety. In silico molecular docking analysis predicted a model where galloylated catechins may bind TGF-βR1 within its adenosine triphosphate binding cleft in a site analogous to that of Galunisertib, a selective adenosine triphosphate-mimetic competitive inhibitor of TGF-βR1. In conclusion, our data suggest that the galloyl moiety of the diet-derived catechins provides specificity of action to galloylated catechins by positioning them within the kinase domain of the TGF-βR1 in order to antagonize TGF-β-mediated signaling that is required for ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108518DOI Listing
January 2021

[10]-Gingerol improves doxorubicin anticancer activity and decreases its side effects in triple negative breast cancer models.

Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2020 Oct 6;43(5):915-929. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Gerontology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, Km 235, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905, Brazil.

Purpose: Although doxorubicin is widely used to treat cancer, severe side effects limit its clinical use. Combination of standard chemotherapy with natural products can increase the efficacy and attenuate the side effects of current therapies. Here we studied the anticancer effects of a combined regimen comprising doxorubicin and [10]-gingerol against triple-negative breast cancer, which does not respond to hormonal or targeted therapies.

Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay, cell cycle progression and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry and signaling pathways were analyzed by Western blotting in human and murine triple negative breast cancer cell systems. The anticancer/antimetastatic and toxic effects of the combined regimen was evaluated using syngeneic and xenograft orthotopic models.

Results: The combination of doxorubicin and [10]-gingerol significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells, compared to each compound alone. In 4T1Br4 cells, the combined regimen was the only condition able to increase the levels of active caspase 3 and γH2AX and to decrease the level of Cdk-6 cyclin. In vivo, doxorubicin (3 mg/Kg, D3) and [10]-gingerol (10 mg/Kg, G10) resulted in a significant reduction in the volume of primary tumors and a decrease in the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Interestingly, only the combined regimen led to decreased tumor burdens to distant organs (i.e., metastasis) and reduced chemotherapy-induced weight loss and hepatotoxicity in tumor-bearing animals. Likewise, in a xenograft model, only the combined regimen was effective in significantly reducing the primary tumor volume and the prevalence of CTCs.

Conclusions: Our data indicate that [10]-gingerol has potential to be used as a neoadjuvant or in combined therapy with doxorubicin, to improve its anticancer activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13402-020-00539-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Diet-Derived Gallated Catechins Prevent TGF-β-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Cell Migration and Vasculogenic Mimicry in Chemosensitive ES-2 Ovarian Cancer Cells.

Nutr Cancer 2021 4;73(1):169-180. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, CERMO-FC, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Canada.

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β triggers ovarian cancer metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Whereas drug design strategies targeting the TGF-β signaling pathway have been envisioned, the anti-TGF structure:function aspect of chemopreventive diet-derived catechins remains unexplored. We assessed the effects of eight catechins on TGF-β-mediated cell migration and induction of EMT biomarkers, as well as on In Vitro vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a process partly regulated by EMT-related transcription factors. TGF-β-mediated phosphorylation of Smad-3 and p38 signaling intermediates was more effective in a chemosensitive ES-2 ovarian cancer cell line but was inoperative in cis-platinum- and adriamycin-chemoresistant SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. Increases in cell migration and in gene/protein expression of EMT biomarkers Fibronectin, Snail, and Slug were observed in ES-2 cells. When VM was assessed in ES-2 cells, 3D capillary-like structures were formed and increases in EMT biomarkers found. Catechins bearing the galloyl moiety (CG, ECG, GCG, and EGCG) exerted potent inhibition of TGF-β-induced cell migration as well as EMT, and inhibited VM, in part through inhibition of Snail and matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion. Our data suggest that diet-derived catechins exhibit chemopreventive properties that circumvent the TGF-β-mediated signaling which contributes to the ovarian cancer metastatic phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2020.1733624DOI Listing
July 2021

Targeting Ovarian Cancer Cell Cytotoxic Drug Resistance Phenotype with L. Extract.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 15;2019:6073019. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, Centre de Recherche BIOMED, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Emerging drugs aim at targeting the genomic integrity and replication machinery in ovarian cancer. While the antiproliferative activity of L. extract (XFC), a traditional herbal medicine, is believed to alter the mitotic apparatus of Chinese hamster ovary epithelial cells, its capacity to target and overcome the chemoresistance phenotype in ovarian cancer is unknown. Among the cancer cell lines tested, we found that the best proliferation inhibitory effect for XFC was against ovarian cancer cells and ranged from 30 to 35 g/mL. XFC efficiently targeted both the cytotoxic drug chemoresistance phenotype of SKOV-3 cells and of the chemosensitive ES-2 cells. Early apoptosis and late apoptosis were effectively induced by XFC extract in ES-2 cells, whereas late apoptosis and necrosis events were triggered in SKOV-3 cells. Cell cycling regulation was trapped by XFC extract in the G2/M phase in both the ES-2 and SKOV-3 cell models. This effect was, in part, attributable to increased dose-dependent tubulin polymerization, which was increased in SKOV-3 cells. Whereas XFC extract triggered poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in both ES-2 and SKOV-3 cells, it only lowered Nrf2 in ES-2 cells and phosphorylated Akt levels in SKOV-3 cells. Interestingly, cell cycling regulators Cdk4, Cyclin D3, and p27 were all decreased in SKOV-3 cells. XFC extracts were effective in inhibiting migration in both ovarian cancer cell models. Our data support the potential anticancer targeting of chemoresistant human ovarian cancer cells phenotype by XFC extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6073019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885198PMC
November 2019

Dual functions of ARP101 in targeting membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase: Impact on U87 glioblastoma cell invasion and autophagy signaling.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2019 03 30;93(3):272-282. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, Centre de recherche BIOMED, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada.

Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) possesses both extracellular proteolytic and intracellular signal-transducing functions in tumorigenesis. An imbalance in MT1-MMP expression and/or function triggers a metastatic, invasive, and therapy resistance phenotype. MT1-MMP is involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis, activation of latent MMPs, as well as in autophagy signaling in human hepatoma and glioblastoma cells. A low autophagy index in tumorigenesis has been inferred by recent studies where autophagic capacity was decreased during tumor progression. Here, we establish ARP101 as a dual-function small-molecule inhibitor against MT1-MMP ECM hydrolysis and autophagy signal-transducing functions in a model of grade IV glioblastoma cells. ARP101 inhibited concanavalin-A-mediated proMMP-2 activation into MMP-2, as well as MT1-MMP auto-proteolytic processing. When overexpressing recombinant Wt MT1-MMP, ARP101 inhibited proMMP-2 activation and triggered the formation of MT1-MMP oligomers that required trafficking to the plasma membrane. ARP101 further induced cell autophagy as reflected by increased formation of acidic vacuole organelles, LC3 puncta, and autophagy-related protein ATG9 transcription. These were all significantly reversed upon siRNA-mediated gene silencing of MT1-MMP. ARP101 can thus concomitantly inhibit MT1-MMP extracellular catalytic function and exploit its intracellular transducing signal function to trigger autophagy-mediated cell death in U87 glioblastoma cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cbdd.13410DOI Listing
March 2019

Periostin, a signal transduction intermediate in TGF-β-induced EMT in U-87MG human glioblastoma cells, and its inhibition by anthocyanidins.

Oncotarget 2018 Apr 24;9(31):22023-22037. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Centre de Recherche BioMed, Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3P8.

Periostin is a secreted protein that is highly expressed in glioblastoma cells as compared to normal brain tissue, and is therefore considered as a potential biomarker in therapeutic modalities. Its contribution in the cancer cells invasive phenotype is, however, poorly understood. This work investigates the role of periostin in U-87 MG glioblastoma cell invasion, cell migration and in Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Periostin gene silencing, using small interfering RNA, decreased TGF-β-induced mesenchymal marker expression of fibronectin and vimentin, partly through reduced Smad2, Akt and Fak phosphorylation as well as U-87 MG cell invasion and migration. The effects of anthocyanidins, the most abundant diet-derived flavonoids, were examined on periostin-mediated downstream signaling pathways. Anthocyanidins were found to decrease periostin expression whether added under pre-, co- or post-treatment conditions along with TGF-β, and altered the Akt and Fak signaling pathways. These effects were similar to Galunisertib (LY2157299), a small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor I kinase. Taken together, our data demonstrate that periostin acts as a central element in TGF-β-induced EMT, which can be prevented by diet-derived anthocyanidins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5955165PMC
April 2018

Biophysical evidence for differential gallated green tea catechins binding to membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase and its interactors.

Biophys Chem 2018 03 25;234:34-41. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Centre de recherche BIOMED, Université du Québec à Montréal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada; Centre de recherche Pharmaqam, Département de Chimie, Université du Québec à Montréal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Electronic address:

Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a transmembrane MMP which triggers intracellular signaling and regulates extracellular matrix proteolysis, two functions that are critical for tumor-associated angiogenesis and inflammation. While green tea catechins, particularly epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), are considered very effective in preventing MT1-MMP-mediated functions, lack of structure-function studies and evidence regarding their direct interaction with MT1-MMP-mediated biological activities remain. Here, we assessed the impact in both cellular and biophysical assays of four ungallated catechins along with their gallated counterparts on MT1-MMP-mediated functions and molecular binding partners. Concanavalin-A (ConA) was used to trigger MT1-MMP-mediated proMMP-2 activation, expression of MT1-MMP and of endoplasmic reticulum stress biomarker GRP78 in U87 glioblastoma cells. We found that ConA-mediated MT1-MMP induction was inhibited by EGCG and catechin gallate (CG), that GRP78 induction was inhibited by EGCG, CG, and gallocatechin gallate (GCG), whereas proMMP-2 activation was inhibited by EGCG and GCG. Surface plasmon resonance was used to assess direct interaction between catechins and MT1-MMP interactors. We found that gallated catechins interacted better than their ungallated analogs with MT1-MMP as well as with MT1-MMP binding partners MMP-2, TIMP-2, MTCBP-1 and LRP1-clusterIV. Overall, current structure-function evidence supports a role for the galloyl moiety in both direct and indirect interactions of green tea catechins with MT1-MMP-mediated oncogenic processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpc.2018.01.002DOI Listing
March 2018

Chitosan-doxycycline hydrogel: An MMP inhibitor/sclerosing embolizing agent as a new approach to endoleak prevention and treatment after endovascular aneurysm repair.

Acta Biomater 2017 12 18;64:94-105. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

CHUM Research Center (CRCHUM), 900 St Denis, Tour Viger, Montréal, QC H2X 0A9, Canada; Department of Mechanical Engineering, École de technologie supérieure, 1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada; Department of Radiology, Université de Montréal, 2900 Edouard-Montpetit Blvd, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada. Electronic address:

The success of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms remains limited due to the development of endoleaks. Sac embolization has been proposed to manage endoleaks, but current embolizing materials are associated with frequent recurrence. An injectable agent that combines vascular occlusion and sclerosing properties has demonstrated promise for the treatment of endoleaks. Moreover, the inhibition of aneurysmal wall degradation via matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may further prevent aneurysm progression. Thus, an embolization agent that promotes occlusion, MMP inhibition and endothelial ablation was hypothesized to provide a multi-faceted approach for endoleak treatment. In this study, an injectable, occlusive chitosan (CH) hydrogel containing doxycycline (DOX)-a sclerosant and MMP inhibitor-was developed. Several CH-DOX hydrogel formulations were characterized for their mechanical and sclerosing properties, injectability, DOX release rate, and MMP inhibition. An optimized formulation was assessed for its short-term ability to occlude blood vessels in vivo. All formulations were injectable and gelled rapidly at body temperature. Only hydrogels prepared with 0.075M sodium bicarbonate and 0.08M phosphate buffer as the gelling agent presented sufficient mechanical properties to immediately impede physiological flow. DOX release from this gel was in a two-stage pattern: a burst release followed by a slow continuous release. Released DOX was bioactive and able to inhibit MMP-2 activity in human glioblastoma cells. Preliminary in vivo testing in pig renal arteries showed immediate and delayed embolization success of 96% and 86%, respectively. Altogether, CH-DOX hydrogels appear to be promising new multifunctional embolic agents for the treatment of endoleaks.

Statement Of Significance: An injectable embolizing chitosan hydrogel releasing doxycycline (DOX) was developed as the first multi-faceted approach for the occlusion of blood vessels. It combines occlusive properties with DOX sclerosing and MMP inhibition properties, respectively known to prevent recanalization process and to counteract the underlying pathophysiology of vessel wall degradation and aneurysm progression. After drug release, the biocompatible scaffold can be invaded by cells and slowly degrade. Local DOX delivery requires lower drug amount and decreases risks of side effects compared to systemic administration. This new gel could be used for the prevention or treatment of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair, but also for the embolization of other blood vessels such as venous or vascular malformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2017.09.021DOI Listing
December 2017

A Transcriptional Regulatory Role for the Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase in Carcinogen-Induced Inflammasome Gene Expression.

Gene Regul Syst Bio 2017 8;11:1177625017713996. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, Centre de recherche BIOMED, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Signal-transducing functions driven by the cytoplasmic domain of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) are believed to regulate many inflammation-associated cancer cell functions including migration, proliferation, and survival. Aside from upregulation of the inflammation biomarker cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, MT1-MMP's role in relaying intracellular signals triggered by extracellular pro-inflammatory cues remains poorly understood. Here, we triggered inflammation in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an inducer of COX-2 and of MT1-MMP. To assess the global transcriptional regulatory role that MT1-MMP may exert on inflammation biomarkers, we combined gene array screens with a transient MT1-MMP gene silencing strategy. Expression of MT1-MMP was found to exert both stimulatory and repressive transcriptional control of several inflammasome-related biomarkers such as interleukin (IL)-1B, IL-6, IL-12A, and IL-33, as well as of transcription factors such as EGR1, ELK1, and ETS1/2 in PMA-treated cells. Among the signal-transducing pathways explored, the silencing of MT1-MMP prevented PMA from phosphorylating extracellular signal-regulated kinase, inhibitor of κB, and p105 nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) intermediates. We also found a signaling axis linking MT1-MMP to MMP-9 transcriptional regulation. Altogether, our data indicate a significant involvement of MT1-MMP in the transcriptional regulation of inflammatory biomarkers consolidating its contribution to signal transduction functions in addition to its classical hydrolytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1177625017713996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5467917PMC
June 2017

Cerebrovascular Angiogenic Reprogramming upon LRP1 Repression: Impact on Sphingosine-1-Phosphate-Mediated Signaling in Brain Endothelial Cell Chemotactism.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Apr 17;55(4):3551-3563. Epub 2017 May 17.

From the Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Centre de recherche BIOMED, Département de Chimie, Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8, Canada.

Switches in sphingolipid metabolism have recently been associated with oncogenic transformation, and a role for the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) proangiogenic signaling inferred. S1P signaling crosstalk with LRP1 in brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) is however unclear. Transient in vitro siLRP1 gene silencing was compared to stable shLRP1 knockdown. We observed decreased expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), a transcription factor for which multiple binding sites are found within the promoter sequences of all five S1P receptor members, upon stable but not transient LRP1 repression. Chemotactic migration of brain EC isolated from Lrp1(EC) mice and of stable shLRP1 HBMEC became unresponsive to S1P, partly due to altered ERK and p38 MAPK pathways, whereas chemotactism remained unaltered following transient in vitro siLRP1 repression. Diminished S1P1, S1P3, and S1P5 expression were observed in stable shLRP1 HBMEC and in brain EC isolated from Lrp1(EC) mice. Overexpression of LRP1 cluster IV rescued S1P-mediated cell migration through increased S1P3 transcription in shLRP1 HBMEC. Our study highlights an adaptive signaling crosstalk between LRP1 and specific S1P receptors which may regulate the angiogenic response of brain EC and be targeted at the blood-brain barrier in future therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-017-0614-3DOI Listing
April 2018

Cavin-2 Functions as a Suppressive Regulator in TNF-induced Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Inflammation and Angiogenic Phenotypes.

Int J Stem Cells 2017 May;10(1):103-113

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, Centre de recherche BIOMED, Université du Québec à Montréal, Quebec, Canada.

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)- activation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) enhances their tumour-suppressive properties and tumour-homing ability. The molecular actors involved are unknown. We found that TNF induced MSC migration and tubulogenesis which correlated with a dose-dependent increase in -1 and -3 transcript levels. TNF triggered cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, whereas specific siRNA-mediated gene silencing of -2 resulted in an amplified COX-2 expression, tubulogenesis, and migratory response partially due to a rapid and sustained increase in NF-B phosphorylation status. Our results highlight a suppressive role for the caveolar component -2 in the angiogenic and inflammatory regulation of TNF-activated MSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15283/ijsc16032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5488782PMC
May 2017

Anthocyanidins inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition through a TGFβ/Smad2 signaling pathway in glioblastoma cells.

Mol Carcinog 2017 03 4;56(3):1088-1099. Epub 2016 Oct 4.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Centre de Recherche BioMed, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Epidemiological studies have convincingly demonstrated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables play an important role in preventing cancer due to their polyphenol content. Among polyphenols, the anthocyanidins are known to possess anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, anti-angiogenic, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Despite the well-known role of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in high grade gliomas, the impact of anthocyanidins on TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that allows benign tumor cells to infiltrate surrounding tissues, remains poorly understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of anthocyanidins such as cyanidin (Cy), delphinidin (Dp), malvidin (Mv), pelargonidin (Pg), and petunidin (Pt) on TGF-β-induced EMT and to determine the mechanism(s) underlying such action. Human U-87 glioblastoma (U-87 MG) cells were treated with anthocyanidins prior to, along with or following the addition of TGF-β. We found that anthocyanidins differently affected TGF-β-induced EMT, depending on the treatment conditions. Dp was the most potent EMT inhibitor through its inhibitory effect on the TGF-β Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. These effects altered expression of the EMT mesenchymal markers fibronectin and Snail, as well as markedly reducing U-87 MG cell migration. Our study highlights a new action of anthocyanidins against EMT that supports their beneficial health and chemopreventive effects in dietary-based strategies against cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.22575DOI Listing
March 2017

Impact of Concanavalin-A-Mediated Cytoskeleton Disruption on Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Internalization and Cell Surface Expression in Glioblastomas.

Biomark Cancer 2016 19;8:77-87. Epub 2016 May 19.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Centre de recherche BIOMED, Département de Chimie, Université du Québec à Montréal, QC, Canada.

The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) is a multiligand endocytic receptor, which plays a pivotal role in controlling cytoskeleton dynamics during cancer cell migration. Its rapid endocytosis further allows efficient clearance of extracellular ligands. Concanavalin-A (ConA) is a lectin used to trigger in vitro physiological cellular processes, including cytokines secretion, nitric oxide production, and T-lymphocytes activation. Given that ConA exerts part of its effects through cytoskeleton remodeling, we questioned whether it affected LRP-1 expression, intracellular trafficking, and cell surface function in grade IV U87 glioblastoma cells. Using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, we found that loss of the cell surface 600-kDa mature form of LRP-1 occurs upon ConA treatment. Consequently, internalization of the physiological α2-macroglobulin and the synthetic angiopep-2 ligands of LRP-1 was also decreased. Silencing of known mediators of ConA, such as the membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, and the Toll-like receptors (TLR)-2 and TLR-6 was unable to rescue ConA-mediated LRP-1 expression decrease, implying that the loss of LRP-1 was independent of cell surface relayed signaling. The ConA-mediated reduction in LRP-1 expression was emulated by the actin cytoskeleton-disrupting agent cytochalasin-D, but not by the microtubule inhibitor nocodazole, and required both lysosomal- and ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated degradation. Our study implies that actin cytoskeleton integrity is required for proper LRP-1 cell surface functions and that impaired trafficking leads to specialized compartmentation and degradation. Our data also strengthen the biomarker role of cell surface LRP-1 functions in the vectorized transport of therapeutic angiopep bioconjugates into brain cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4137/BIC.S38894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4874747PMC
May 2016

Isotope-labeled differential profiling of metabolites using N-benzoyloxysuccinimide derivatization coupled to liquid chromatography/high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2015 Sep;29(18):1632-40

Université du Québec à Montréal, Chemistry Department/Pharmaqam, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Rationale: An isotopic labeling strategy based on derivatizing amine-containing metabolites has been developed using light ((12) C6 ) and heavy ((13) C6 ) N-benzoyloxysuccinimide reagents for semi-targeted metabolomic applications.

Methods: Differentially labeled samples were combined and analyzed simultaneously by liquid chromatography/high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC/HR-MS/MS) to compare relative amounts of amine-containing metabolites. The selectivity of the reaction was determined with model metabolites and was shown to also be applicable to thiol and phenol moieties. The potential for relative quantitation was evaluated in cell extracts and the method was then applied to quantify metabolic perturbations occurring in human cultured cells under normal vs. oxidative stress conditions.

Results: A total of 279 derivatized features were detected in HL60 cell extracts, 77 of which yielded significant concentration changes upon oxidative stress treatment. Based on accurate mass measurements and MS/MS spectral matching with reference standard solutions, 10 metabolites were clearly identified. Derivatized compounds were found to have diagnostic fragment ions from the reagent itself, as well as structurally informative ions useful for metabolite identification.

Conclusions: This simple derivatization reaction can be applied to the relative quantitation of amine-, thiol- and phenol-containing compounds, with improved sensitivity and chromatographic peak shapes due to the increased hydrophobicity of polar metabolites not readily amenable to reversed-phase LC/MS analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.7264DOI Listing
September 2015

Olive oil compounds inhibit the paracrine regulation of TNF-α-induced endothelial cell migration through reduced glioblastoma cell cyclooxygenase-2 expression.

J Nutr Biochem 2016 Jan 1;27:136-45. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Centre de Recherche BioMed, Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8. Electronic address:

The established causal relationship between the chronic inflammatory microenvironment, tumor development and cancer recurrence has provided leads for developing novel preventive strategies. Accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data has provided support for the chemopreventive properties of olive oil compounds traditionally found within the Mediterranean diet. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein and oleic acid (OA), four compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can prevent tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (an inflammation biomarker) in a human glioblastoma cell (U-87 MG) model. We found that Tyr and OA significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced COX-2 gene and protein expression, as well as PGE2 secretion. Both compounds also inhibited TNF-α-induced JNK and ERK phosphorylation, whereas only Tyr inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB phosphorylation. Paracrine-regulated migration of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) was assessed using growth factor-enriched conditioned media (CM) isolated from U-87 MG cells. We found that while PGE2 triggered HBMEC migration, the CM isolated from U-87 MG cells, where either COX-2 or NF-κB had been silenced or had been treated with Tyr or OA, exhibited decreased chemotactic properties. These observations demonstrate that olive oil compounds inhibit the effect of the chronic inflammatory microenvironment on glioblastoma progression through TNF-α actions and may be useful in cancer chemoprevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.08.026DOI Listing
January 2016

Evidence of MTCBP-1 interaction with the cytoplasmic domain of MT1-MMP: Implications in the autophagy cell index of high-grade glioblastoma.

Mol Carcinog 2016 Feb 15;55(2):148-60. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Centre de recherche Biomed, Quebec, Canada.

Progression of astrocytic tumors is, in part, related to their dysregulated autophagy capacity. Recent evidence indicates that upstream autophagy signaling events can be triggered by MT1-MMP, a membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase that contributes to the invasive phenotype of brain cancer cells. The signaling functions of MT1-MMP require its intracellular domain, and recent identification of MTCBP-1, a cytoplasmic 19 kDa protein involved in the inhibition of MT1-MMP-mediated cell migration, suggests that modulation of MT1-MMP cytoplasmic domain-mediated signaling may affect other carcinogenic processes. Using qPCR and screening of cDNA generated from brain tumor tissues of grades I, II, III, and IV, MT1-MMP gene expression was found to correlate with increased grade of tumors. Inversely, MTCBP-1 expression decreased with increasing grade of brain tumor. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis revealed that overexpressing a cytoplasmic-deleted MT1-MMP recombinant protein mutant prevented MTCBP-1 recruitment to the intracellular leaf of plasma membrane in U87 glioblastoma cells. The interaction between MTCBP-1 and the 20 amino acids peptide representing the MT1-MMP cytoplasmic domain was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. Overexpression of a full-length Wt-MT1-MMP triggered acidic autophagy vesicle formation and autophagic puncta formation for green fluorescent microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (GFP-LC3). Autophagic vesicles and GFP-LC3 puncta formation were abrogated in the presence of MTCBP-1. Our data elucidate a new role for MTCBP-1 regulating the intracellular function of MT1-MMP-mediated autophagy. The inverse correlation between MTCBP-1 and MT1-MMP expression with brain tumor grades could also contribute to the decreased autophagic index observed in high-grade tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.22264DOI Listing
February 2016

A Role for the Cavin-3/Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Signaling Axis in the Regulation of PMA-Activated Human HT1080 Fibrosarcoma Cell Neoplastic Phenotype.

Cancer Growth Metastasis 2014 8;7:43-51. Epub 2014 Dec 8.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, Centre de Recherche BIOMED, Université du Québec à Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ; Département de Physiologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montreal, Montreal, Canada.

Caveolae are specialized cell membrane invaginations known to regulate several cancer cell functions and oncogenic signaling pathways. Among other caveolar proteins, they are characterized by the presence of proteins of the cavin family. In this study, we assessed the impact of cavin-1, cavin-2, and cavin-3 on cell migration in a human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma model. We found that all cavin-1, -2 and -3 transcripts were expressed and that treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which is known to prime cell migration and proliferation, specifically upregulated cavin-3 gene and protein expression. PMA also triggered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion, but reduced the global cell migration index. Overexpression of recombinant forms of the three cavins demonstrated that only cavin-3 was able to reduce basal cell migration, and this anti-migratory effect was potentiated by PMA. Interestingly, cavin-3 overexpression inhibited PMA-induced MMP-9, while cavin-3 gene silencing led to an increase in MMP-9 gene expression and secretion. Furthermore, recombinant cavin-3 significantly prevented PMA-mediated dephosphorylation of AKT, a crucial regulator in MMP-9 transcription. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that cellular cavin-3 expression may repress MMP-9 transcriptional regulation in part through AKT. We suggest that the balance in cavin-3-to-MMP-9 expression regulates the extent of extracellular matrix degradation, confirming the tumor-suppressive role of cavin-3 in controlling the invasive potential of human fibrosarcoma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4137/CGM.S18581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260767PMC
December 2014

ANG4043, a novel brain-penetrant peptide-mAb conjugate, is efficacious against HER2-positive intracranial tumors in mice.

Mol Cancer Ther 2015 Jan 9;14(1):129-40. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

Angiochem Inc., Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been shown to reduce tumor size and increase survival in patients with breast cancer, but they are ineffective against brain metastases due to poor brain penetration. In previous studies, we identified a peptide, known as Angiopep-2 (An2), which crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently via receptor-mediated transcytosis, and, when conjugated, endows small molecules and peptides with this property. Extending this strategy to higher molecular weight biologics, we now demonstrate that a conjugate between An2 and an anti-HER2 mAb results in a new chemical entity, ANG4043, which retains in vitro binding affinity for the HER2 receptor and antiproliferative potency against HER2-positive BT-474 breast ductal carcinoma cells. Unlike the native mAb, ANG4043 binds LRP1 clusters and is taken up by LRP1-expressing cells. Measuring brain exposure after intracarotid delivery, we demonstrate that the new An2-mAb conjugate penetrates the BBB with a rate of brain entry (Kin) of 1.6 × 10(-3) mL/g/s. Finally, in mice with intracranially implanted BT-474 xenografts, systemically administered ANG4043 increases survival. Overall, this study demonstrates that the incorporation of An2 to the anti-HER2 mAb confers properties of increased uptake in brain endothelial cells as well as BBB permeability. These characteristics of ANG4043 result in higher exposure levels in BT-474 brain tumors and prolonged survival following systemic treatment. Moreover, the data further validate the An2-drug conjugation strategy as a way to create brain-penetrant biologics for neuro-oncology and other CNS indications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-14-0399DOI Listing
January 2015

Biphasic effects of luteolin on interleukin-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in glioblastoma cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2015 Jan 18;1853(1):126-35. Epub 2014 Oct 18.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Centre de Recherche BioMed, Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3P8, Canada. Electronic address:

Success in developing therapeutic approaches to target brain tumor-associated inflammation in patients has been limited. Given that the inflammatory microenvironment is a hallmark signature of solid tumor development, anti-inflammatory targeting strategies have been envisioned as preventing glioblastoma initiation or progression. Consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers, a chemopreventive effect that is, in part, attributed to their high content of phytochemicals with potent anti-inflammatory properties. We explored whether luteolin, a common flavonoid in many types of plants, may inhibit interleukin (IL)-1β function induction of the inflammation biomarker cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. We found that IL-1β triggered COX-2 expression in U-87 glioblastoma cells and synergized with luteolin to potentiate or inhibit that induction in a biphasic manner. Luteolin pretreatment of cells inhibited IL-1β-mediated phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB, nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2, and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase in a concentration-dependent manner. Luteolin also inhibited AKT phosphorylation and survivin expression, while it triggered both caspase-3 cleavage and expression of glucose-regulated protein 78. These effects were all potentiated by IL-1β, in part through increased nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Finally, luteolin was able to reduce IL-1 receptor gene expression, and treatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist or gene silencing of IL-1 receptor prevented IL-1β/luteolin-induced COX-2 expression. Our results document a novel adaptive cellular response to luteolin, which triggers anti-survival and anti-inflammatory mechanisms that contribute to the chemopreventive properties of this diet-derived molecule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2014.10.010DOI Listing
January 2015

Caveolin and cavin family members: dual roles in cancer.

Biochimie 2014 Dec 21;107 Pt B:188-202. Epub 2014 Sep 21.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Centre de Recherche BioMed, Département de Chimie, Université du Québec à Montréal, Québec H3C 3P8, Canada.

Caveolae are specialized plasma membrane subdomains with distinct lipid and protein compositions, which play an essential role in cell physiology through regulation of trafficking and signaling functions. The structure and functions of caveolae have been shown to require the proteins caveolins. Recently, members of the cavin protein family were found to be required, in concert with caveolins, for the formation and function of caveolae. Caveolins have a paradoxical role in the development of cancer formation. They have been involved in both tumor suppression and oncogenesis, depending on tumor type and progress stage. High expression of caveolins and cavins leads to inhibition of cancer-related pathways, such as growth factor signaling pathways. However, certain cancer cells that express caveolins and cavins have been shown to be more aggressive and metastatic because of their increased potential for anchorage-independent growth. Here, we will survey the functional roles of caveolins and of different cavin family members in cancer regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2014.09.010DOI Listing
December 2014

Transcriptional targeting of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor S1P2 by epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated signaling in macrophage-differentiated HL-60 promyelomonocytic leukemia cells.

Onco Targets Ther 2014 7;7:667-77. Epub 2014 May 7.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Centre de recherche BIOMED, Département de Chimie, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Macrophage chemotaxis followed by blood-brain barrier transendothelial migration is believed to be associated with inflammation in the central nervous system. Antineuroinflammatory strategies have identified the dietary-derived epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as an efficient agent to prevent neuroinflammation-associated neurodegenerative diseases by targeting proinflammatory mediator signaling.

Methods: Given that high levels of sphingosine kinase and its product, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), are present in brain tumors, we used quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting to test whether EGCG may impact on S1P receptor gene expression and prevent S1P response in undifferentiated and in terminally differentiated macrophages.

Results: Promyelomonocytic human leukemia (HL)-60 cells were differentiated into macrophages, and S1P triggered phosphorylation in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) intracellular signaling, as shown by Western blot analysis. Pretreatment of cells with EGCG prior to differentiation inhibited the response to S1P in all three pathways, while EGCG abrogated P38 MAPK phosphorylation when present only during differentiation. Terminally-differentiated macrophages were, however, insensitive to EGCG treatment. Using qRT-PCR, gene expression of the S1P receptors S1P1, S1P2, and S1P5 was predominantly induced in terminally-differentiated macrophages, while the S1P2 was decreased by EGCG treatment.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that diet-derived EGCG achieves efficient effects as a preventive agent, targeting signaling pathways prior to cell terminal differentiation. Such properties could impact on cell chemotaxis through the blood-brain barrier and prevent cancer-related neuroinflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S62717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4019616PMC
May 2014

Tetracycline derivative minocycline inhibits autophagy and inflammation in concanavalin-a-activated human hepatoma cells.

Gene Regul Syst Bio 2014 4;8:63-73. Epub 2014 Mar 4.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, Université du Québec à Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Inhibition of soluble matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is among the non-antibiotic cellular effects exerted by the anti-inflammatory tetracycline derivative minocycline. The impact of minocycline on the signal transduction functions of membrane-bound MMPs is however unknown. We assessed minocycline in a concanavalin-A (ConA)-activated human HepG2 hepatoma cell model, a condition known to increase the expression of membrane type-1 MMP (MT-MMP) and to trigger inflammatory and autophagy processes. We found that minocycline inhibited ConA-induced formation of autophagic acidic vacuoles, green fluorescent microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) puncta formation, gene and protein expression of autophagy biomarker BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), invasion biomarker MT1-MMP, and inflammation biomarker cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Gene silencing of MT1-MMP abrogated ConA-induced formation of autophagic acidic vacuoles and ConA-induced expressions of BNIP3 and COX-2. Minocycline was also shown to inhibit ConA-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation as well as gene expression of NANOS1, a biomarker believed to colocalize with MT1-MMP and the specific silencing of which further inhibited ConA-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that part of minocycline's effects on autophagy could be exerted through the inhibition of MT1-MMP signaling functions, which contribute to the autophagy and inflammatory phenotype of ConA-activated HepG2 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4137/GRSB.S13946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3948715PMC
March 2014

Induction of autophagy biomarker BNIP3 requires a JAK2/STAT3 and MT1-MMP signaling interplay in Concanavalin-A-activated U87 glioblastoma cells.

Cell Signal 2014 May 22;26(5):917-24. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Centre de recherche BIOMED, Département de Chimie, Université du Québec à Montréal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Plant lectins have been considered as possible anti-tumor drugs because of their property to induce autophagic cell death. Given that expression of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) has been found to regulate expression of the autophagy biomarker Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), we sought to investigate possible signaling interplay mechanisms between MT1-MMP and BNIP3 in Concanavalin-A (ConA) lectin-activated U87 glioblastoma cells. ConA induced acidic vacuole organelle formation as well as BNIP3 and MT1-MMP gene and protein expressions, whereas only BNIP3 expression was dose-dependently inhibited by the JAK2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG490 suggesting a requirement for some STAT-mediated signaling. Gene silencing of MT1-MMP and of STAT3 abrogated ConA-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and BNIP3 expression. Correlative analysis shows that STAT3 signaling events occur downstream from MT1-MMP induction. Overexpression of a full length MT1-MMP recombinant protein led to increased BNIP3 gene and protein expressions. The cytoplasmic domain of MT1-MMP was also found necessary for transducing STAT3 phosphorylation. Among JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2, only JAK2 gene silencing abrogated ConA's effects on MT1-MMP and BNIP3 gene and protein expressions. Our study elucidates how MT1-MMP signals autophagy, a process which could contribute to the chemoresistance phenotype in brain cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.01.012DOI Listing
May 2014

Mesenchymal stromal cell ciliogenesis is abrogated in response to tumor necrosis factor-α and requires NF-κB signaling.

Cancer Lett 2014 Apr 11;345(1):100-5. Epub 2013 Dec 11.

Laboratoire d'Oncologie Moléculaire, Département de Chimie, Centre de Recherche BioMED, Université du Québec à Montréal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

The primary cilium is a cell surface-anchored sensory organelle which expression is lost in hypoxic cancer cells and during mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) adaptation to low oxygen levels. Since pro-inflammatory cues are among the early events which promote tumor angiogenesis, we tested the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and found that it triggered a dose-dependent loss of the primary cilia in MSC. This loss was independent of IFT88 expression, was abrogated by progranulin, an antagonist of the TNF receptor and required the NF-κB signaling intermediates IκB kinase α, β, and γ, as well as NF-κB p65. These findings strengthen the concept that the primary cilium may serve as a biomarker reflecting the tumor-supporting potential of MSC and their capacity to adapt to hypoxic and pro-inflammatory cues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2013.11.021DOI Listing
April 2014
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