Publications by authors named "Bora Kim"

157 Publications

Effects of hypothermia on inflammatory cytokine expression in rat liver following asphyxial cardiac arrest.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 15;21(6):626. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Republic of Korea.

Hypothermic treatment is known to protect against cardiac arrest (CA) and improve survival rate. However, few studies have evaluated the CA-induced liver damage and the effects of hypothermia on this damage. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine possible protective effects of hypothermia on the liver after asphyxial CA. Rats were subjected to a 5-min asphyxial CA followed by return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The body temperature was controlled at 37±0.5˚C (normothermia group) or 33±0.5˚C (hypothermia group) for 4 h after ROSC. Livers were examined at 6, 12 h, 1 and 2 days after ROSC. Histopathological examination was performed by H&E staining. Alterations in the expression levels of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α and interleukin IL-2) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Sinusoidal dilatation and vacuolization were observed after asphyxial CA by histopathological examination. However, these CA-induced structural alterations were prevented by hypothermia. In immunohistochemical examination, the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced in the hypothermia group compared with those in the normothermia group while the expression levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines were increased in the hypothermia group compared with those in the normothermia group. In conclusion, hypothermic treatment for 4 h following asphyxial CA in rats inhibited the increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulated the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines compared with the normothermic group. The results of the present study suggested that hypothermic treatment after asphyxial CA reduced liver damage via the regulation of inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097226PMC
June 2021

Plasmopara viticola causing downy mildew on Vitis davidii in Korea.

Plant Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Natural Sciences, Kunsan National University, Department of Biology, 558 Daehak-ro, Gunsan, Korea (the Republic of), 54150;

Vitis davidii (Rom.Caill.) Foëx, commonly known as spine grape, is a deciduous climber native to China. Its fruits are consumed fresh or used to make wine in South and Central China. In recent years, spine grape has been cultivated in Korea. In July 2020, downy mildew was detected on spine grape vines in Jeongeup (35°42'17″N, 126°54'02″E), Korea, with a disease incidence of 70%. The symptoms appeared as yellowish, brownish, or reddish, vein-limited, poly-angular adaxial leaf spots, correspond to dense, white downy growth abaxially. A representative specimen was deposited in the Kunsan National University Herbarium (KSNUH679). Sporangiophores were tree-like, hyaline, mostly straight, and monopodially branched in orders of three to six; they measured (219.4-)273.2 to 435.1(-546.6) × (4.8-)6.7 to 9.0(-10.0) μm (n = 50). Ultimate branchlets were bi or trifurcate, straight to slightly curved, with truncate or, rarely, a swollen tip and measured 2.9 to 9.7 μm long and 0.8 to 2.5 μm wide at the base (n = 50). Sporangia were hyaline, ovoidal or lemon-shaped; they measured (16.8-)20.0 to 28.8(-34.2) × (11.4-)13.1 to 17.0(-20.1) μm with a length to width ratio of (1.28-)1.46 to 1.78(-2.07) (n = 50). This morphology was as described for Plasmopara viticola (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Berl. & De Toni (Hall, 1989). Genomic DNA was extracted directly from infected V. davidii leaves. Three regions were PCR-amplified and sequenced: cox2 mtDNA with primers cox2F and cox2-RC4 (Choi et al., 2015), actin with primers pve04815-F and pve04815-R, and beta-tubulin with primers pvc389-F3 and pvc389-R4 (Rouxel et al., 2013). The resulting sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession nos. MT834527 for cox2, MT834525 for actin, and MT834526 for beta-tubulin). A BLASTn search revealed that the Korean sample was identical to P. viticola clade aestivalis originating from Vitis species: MK215072 for cox2 sequence, KY933800 for actin, and MK358393 for beta-tubulin. In all phylogenetic analyses of the three genes (cox2, actin, and beta-tubulin), KSNUH679 came out as phylogenetically place within P. viticola clade aestivalis, which has recently been reported on V. coignetiae and V. ficifolia var. sinuata in Korea (Kim et al., 2019). A pathogenicity test was performed twice by inoculating the leaves of 10 healthy spine grape plants with a sporangial suspension (~1 × 106 sporangia·mL-1) and incubating them in a growth chamber at 25 °C, 12-h day/night cycle, and 90% relative humidity; five non-inoculated plants served as controls. After two weeks, all inoculated plants developed typical downy mildew symptoms could be observed, whereas the controls remained symptomless. Morphology and molecular features confirmed the identity of the pathogen of spine grape to be P. viticola. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of downy mildew caused by P. viticola on V. davidii in Korea. Recently, downy mildew outbreaks caused by P. viticola have been recorded in spine grape plantations in southern China (Yi et al., 2019). Considering the potential of spine grape as a novel crop for Korea, P. viticola appears to represent a significant threat to this industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-21-0521-PDNDOI Listing
May 2021

Ischemia-Reperfusion under Hyperthermia Increases Heme Oxygenase-1 in Pyramidal Neurons and Astrocytes with Accelerating Neuronal Loss in Gerbil Hippocampus.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 12;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Gangwon, Korea.

It has been studied that the damage or death of neurons in the hippocampus is different according to hippocampal subregions, cornu ammonis 1-3 (CA1-3), after transient ischemia in the forebrain, showing that pyramidal neurons located in the subfield CA1 (CA1) are most vulnerable to this ischemia. Hyperthermia is a proven risk factor for brain ischemia and can develop more severe and extensive brain damage related with mortality rate. It is well known that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity and expression is increased by various stimuli in the brain, including hyperthermia. HO-1 can be either protective or deleterious in the central nervous system, and its roles depend on the expression levels of enzymes. In this study, we investigated the effects of hyperthermia during ischemia on HO-1 expression and neuronal damage/death in the hippocampus to examine the relationship between HO-1 and neuronal damage/death following 5-min transient ischemia in the forebrain using gerbils. Gerbils were assigned to four groups: (1) sham-operated gerbils with normothermia (Normo + sham group); (2) ischemia-operated gerbils with normothermia (Normo + ischemia group); (3) sham-operated gerbils with hyperthermia (39.5 ± 0.2 °C) during ischemia (Hyper + sham group); and (4) ischemia-operated gerbils with hyperthermia during ischemia (Hyper + ischemia group). HO-1 expression levels in CA1-3 of the Hyper + ischemia group were significantly higher than those in the Normo + ischemia group. HO-1 immunoreactivity in the Hyper + ischemia group was significantly increased in pyramidal neurons and astrocytes with time after ischemia, and the immunoreactivity was significantly higher than that in the Normo + ischemia group. In the Normo + Ischemia group, neuronal death was shown in pyramidal neurons located only in CA1 at 5 days after ischemia. However, in the Hyper + ischemia group, pyramidal neuronal death occurred in CA1-3 at 2 days after ischemia. Taken together, our findings showed that brain ischemic insult during hyperthermic condition brings up earlier and severer neuronal damage/death in the hippocampus, showing that HO-1 expression in neurons and astrocytes is different according to brain subregions and temperature condition. Based on these findings, we suggest that hyperthermia in patients with ischemic stroke must be taken into the consideration in the therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068892PMC
April 2021

Prenatal exposure to paternal smoking and likelihood for autism spectrum disorder.

Autism 2021 Apr 20:13623613211007319. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Lay Abstract: Genetics, (including mutations), environmental factors (including toxic exposures), and their interactions impact autism spectrum disorder etiology. Paternal smoking is a candidate risk for autism spectrum disorder due to biological plausibility, high prevalence, and potential intervention. This original study and its replication confirms that paternal factors can substantially contribute to autism spectrum disorder risk for their offspring. It specifically indicates that paternal smoking both before and during pregnancy contributes significantly to autism spectrum disorder risk. Smoking prevention, especially in pregnancy planning, may decrease autism spectrum disorder risk in offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13623613211007319DOI Listing
April 2021

Long-term effects of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal cell transplantation in Pde6b knockout rats.

Exp Mol Med 2021 Apr 8;53(4):631-642. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Retinal degenerative disorders, including age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), are characterized by the irreversible loss of photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells; however, the long-term effect of implanting both human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived RPE and photoreceptor for retinal regeneration has not yet been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of hiPSC-derived RPE and photoreceptor cell transplantation in Pde6b knockout rats to study RP; cells were injected into the subretinal space of the right eyes of rats before the appearance of signs of retinal degeneration at 2-3 weeks of age. Ten months after transplantation, we evaluated the cells using fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, and histological evaluation, and no abnormal cell proliferation was observed. A relatively large number of transplanted cells persisted during the first 4 months; subsequently, the number of these cells decreased gradually. Notably, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the hiPSC-derived retinal cells showed characteristics of both RPE cells and photoreceptors of human origin after transplantation. Functional analysis of vision by scotopic electroretinogram revealed significant preservation of vision after transplantation. Our study suggests that the transplantation of hiPSC-derived retinal cells, including RPE cells and photoreceptors, has a potential therapeutic effect against irreversible retinal degenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00588-wDOI Listing
April 2021

CD5L as an Extracellular Vesicle-Derived Biomarker for Liquid Biopsy of Lung Cancer.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 30;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Electronic Information System Research, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Techno-Jungangdaero 333, Dague 42988, Korea.

Cancer screening and diagnosis can be achieved by analyzing specific molecules within serum-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). This study sought to profile EV-derived proteins to identify potential lung cancer biomarkers. EVs were isolated from 80 serum samples from healthy individuals and cancer patients via polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based precipitation and immunoaffinity separation using antibodies against CD9, CD63, CD81, and EpCAM. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2-D gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The expression of proteins that were differentially upregulated in the EVs or tissue of lung cancer samples was validated by Western blotting. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the predictability of each differentially expressed protein (DEP) for lung cancer. A total of 55 upregulated protein spots were selected, seven of which (CD5L, CLEC3B, ITIH4, SERFINF1, SAA4, SERFINC1, and C20ORF3) were found to be expressed at high levels in patient-derived EVs by Western blotting. Meanwhile, only the expression of EV CD5L correlated with that in cancer tissues. CD5L also demonstrated the highest AUC value (0.943) and was found to be the core regulator in a pathway related to cell dysfunction. Cumulatively, these results show that EV-derived CD5L may represent a potential biomarker-detected via a liquid biopsy-for the noninvasive diagnosis of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11040620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067192PMC
March 2021

A novel modified RANKL variant can prevent osteoporosis by acting as a vaccine and an inhibitor.

Clin Transl Med 2021 Mar;11(3):e368

Laboratory of Orthopaedic Research, Chosun University Hospital, Dong-Gu, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Background: The discovery of receptor activator of nuclear factor-ĸB ligand (RANKL) as the final effector in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis has led to a better understanding of bone remodeling. When RANKL binds to its receptor (RANK), osteoclastic differentiation and activation are initiated. Herein, we propose a strategy using a novel RANKL variant as a competitive inhibitor for RANKL. The RANKL variant activates LGR4 signaling, which competitively regulates RANK and acts as an immunogen that induces anti-RANKL antibody production.

Methods: We modified the RANK-binding site on RANKL using minimal amino acid changes in the RANKL complex and its counterpart receptor RANK and tried to evaluate the inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis.

Results: The novel RANKL variant did not bind RANK in osteoclast progenitor cells, but activated LGR4 through the GSK3-β signaling pathway, thereby suppressing activated T cell cytoplasmic nuclear factor calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) expression and activity during osteoclastogenesis. Our RANKL variant generated high levels of RANKL-specific antibodies, blocked osteoclastogenesis, and inhibited osteoporosis in ovariectomized mouse models. Generated anti-RANKL antibodies showed a high inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro.

Conclusions: We observed that the novel RANKL indeed blocks RANKL via LGR4 signaling and generates anti-RANKL antibodies, demonstrating an innovative strategy in the development of general immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967917PMC
March 2021

Mediating effects of achievement emotions between peer support and learning satisfaction in graduate nursing students.

Nurse Educ Pract 2021 Mar 11;52:103003. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

College of Nursing, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea.

Graduate nursing students experience considerable stress due to their multiple responsibilities, including professional responsibilities, graduate coursework and family commitments. Peer support can help graduate students overcome stress and may heavily influence their learning satisfaction. However, the mechanisms underlying the influence of peer support on learning satisfaction in graduate students remain unclear. Thus, this cross-sectional study examined the relationship between peer support, achievement emotions (learner-specific emotions related to achievement activities) and learning satisfaction, as well as the mediating effects of achievement emotions among 225 graduate nursing students working in the Korean health care system. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Pearson correlation was conducted to investigate the relationship between the variables and Baron and Kenny's regression analysis and Sobel test were conducted to examine the mediating effects of achievement emotions. Peer support correlated positively with positive achievement emotions and learning satisfaction and negatively with negative emotions. Positive emotions were positively and negative emotions were negatively, correlated with learning satisfaction. Achievement emotions mediated the relationship between peer support and learning satisfaction. Our findings indicate that peer support plays an important role in improving learning satisfaction, emphasizing the advantages of positive emotions and the disadvantages of negative emotions in graduate nursing students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2021.103003DOI Listing
March 2021

Unusual Hole Transfer Dynamics of the NiO Layer in Methylammonium Lead Tri-iodide Absorber Solar Cells.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Mar 12;12(11):2770-2779. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Physics, Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea.

Nickel oxides (NiO) as hole transport layers (HTLs) in inverted-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have been widely studied mainly because of their high stability under illumination. Increases in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) with NiO HTLs have been presented in numerous reports, although the photoluminescence (PL) quenching behavior does not coincide with the PCE increase. The dynamics of the charge carrier transport between the NiO HTLs and the organic-inorganic halide perovskite absorbers is not clearly understood yet and quite unusual, in contrast to organic/polymerics HTLs. We deposited NiO HTLs with precisely controlled thicknesses by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and studied their photovoltaic performances and hole transfer characteristics. Ground state bleaching (GSB) recovery was observed by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS), which suggested that backward hole injection occurred between the perovskites and NiO HTLs, so that the uncommon PL behaviors can be clearly explained. Backward hole injection from the NiO HTL to the perovskite absorber originated from their similar valence band (VB) energy positions. The thickness increase of the NiO HTLs induced VB sharing, which caused a red-shift of the photoinduced hole absorption spectrum in near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond TAS and a decrease in the PL intensity. Our studies on inorganic metal oxide transport layers, NiO in this work, with a thickness dependence and the comparison with organic layers provide a better understanding of the interfacial carrier dynamics in PSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00335DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison of age-dependent alterations in thioredoxin 2 and thioredoxin reductase 2 expressions in hippocampi between mice and rats.

Lab Anim Res 2021 Mar 6;37(1):11. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, 24252, Chuncheon, Gangwon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Aging is one of major causes triggering neurophysiological changes in many brain substructures, including the hippocampus, which has a major role in learning and memory. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a class of small redox proteins. Among the Trx family, Trx2 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential and is controlled by TrxR2. Hitherto, age-dependent alterations in Trx2 and TrxR2 in aged hippocampi have been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine changes in Trx2 and TrxR2 in mouse and rat hippocampi by age and to compare their differences between mice and rats.

Results: Trx2 and TrxR2 levels using Western blots in mice were the highest at young age and gradually reduced with time, showing that no significant differences in the levels were found between the two subfields. In rats, however, their expression levels were the lowest at young age and gradually increased with time. Nevertheless, there were no differences in cellular distribution and morphology in their hippocampi when it was observed by cresyl violet staining. In addition, both Trx2 and TrxR2 immunoreactivities in the CA1-3 fields were mainly shown in pyramidal cells (principal cells), showing that their immunoreactivities were altered like changes in their protein levels.

Conclusions: Our current findings suggest that Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the brain may be different according to brain regions, age and species. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the reasons of the differences of Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the hippocampus between mice and rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42826-021-00088-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937215PMC
March 2021

Transient forebrain ischemia under hyperthermic condition accelerates memory impairment and neuronal death in the gerbil hippocampus by increasing NMDAR1 expression.

Mol Med Rep 2021 04 4;23(4). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Republic of Korea.

Altered expression levels of N‑methyl‑D‑aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a ligand‑gated ion channel, have a harmful effect on cellular survival. Hyperthermia is a proven risk factor of transient forebrain ischemia (tFI) and can cause extensive and severe brain damage associated with mortality. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether hyperthermic preconditioning affected NMDAR1 immunoreactivity associated with deterioration of neuronal function in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following tFI via histological and western blot analyses. Hyperthermic preconditioning was performed for 1 h before tFI, which was developed by ligating common carotid arteries for 5 min. tFI‑induced cognitive impairment under hyperthermia was worse compared with that under normothermia. Loss (death) of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region occurred fast and was more severe under hyperthermia compared with that under normothermia. NMDAR1 immunoreactivity was not observed in the somata of pyramidal neurons of sham gerbils with normothermia. However, its immunoreactivity was strong in the somata and processes at 12 h post‑tFI. Thereafter, NMDAR1 immunoreactivity decreased with time after tFI. On the other hand, NMDAR1 immunoreactivity under hyperthermia was significantly increased in the somata and processes at 6 h post‑tFI. The change pattern of NMDAR1 immunoreactivity under hyperthermia was different from that under normothermia. Overall, accelerated tFI‑induced neuronal death under hyperthermia may be closely associated with altered NMDAR1 expression compared with that under normothermia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.11895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893780PMC
April 2021

Quantifying cultural tightness-looseness in Ecuador.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(1):e0246064. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador.

Cultural tightness-looseness represents the degree to which a particular culture possesses strong behavioral norms, and the degree to which members of that culture are likely to sanction individuals who deviate from those norms. While tightness-looseness has been quantified for a large and growing number of countries around the world, there are many countries where a tightness-looseness score has yet to be determined, thus impeding the inclusion of those countries in cross-cultural research with a tightness-looseness focus. There is a dearth of research on cultural tightness-looseness in South America in particular. We report results from a national survey of 1,265 Ecuadorian residents which provided quantification of the relatively tight culture of Ecuador.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246064PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7845950PMC
January 2021

CD200 Change Is Involved in Neuronal Death in Gerbil Hippocampal CA1 Field Following Transient Forebrain Ischemia and Postischemic Treatment with Risperidone Displays Neuroprotection without CD200 Change.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 23;22(3). Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Chungnam, Korea.

It has been reported that CD200 (Cluster of Differentiation 200), expressed in neurons, regulates microglial activation in the central nervous system, and a decrease in CD200 expression causes an increase in microglial activation and neuronal loss. The aim of this study was to investigate time-dependent changes in CD200 expression in the hippocampus proper (CA1, 2, and 3 fields) after transient forebrain ischemia for 5 min in gerbils. In this study, 5-min ischemia evoked neuronal death (loss) of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 field, but not in the CA2/3 fields, at 5 days postischemia. In the sham group, CD200 expression was found in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 field, and the immunoreactivity in the group with ischemia was decreased at 6 h postischemia, dramatically increased at 12 h postischemia, decreased (to level found at 6 h postischemia) at 1 and 2 days postischemia, and significantly increased again at 5 days postischemia. At 5 days postischemia, CD200 immunoreactivity was strongly expressed in microglia and GABAergic neurons. However, in the CA3 field, the change in CD200 immunoreactivity in pyramidal neurons was markedly weaker than that in the CA1 field, showing there was no expression of CD 200 in microglia and GABAergic neurons. In addition, treatment of 10 mg/kg risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic drug) after the ischemia hardly changed CD200 immunoreactivity in the CA1 field, showing that CA1 pyramidal neurons were protected from the ischemic injury. These results indicate that the transient ischemia-induced change in CD200 expression may be associated with specific and selective neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 field following transient forebrain ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865463PMC
January 2021

Experimental pretreatment with YES-10, a plant extract rich in scutellarin and chlorogenic acid, protects hippocampal neurons from ischemia/reperfusion injury via antioxidant role.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Mar 7;21(3):183. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Republic of Korea.

(L.) PERS (EALP) and RUPR. (CMR) have been used in traditional remedies due to their medicinal effects. Recently, we reported that pretreatment with 200 mg/kg of YES-10 (a combination of extracts from leaves of EALP and CMR) displayed neuroprotective effects against brain ischemia and reperfusion injury. The present study analyzed the major ingredients of YES-10 and investigated whether neuroprotection from YES-10 was dependent upon antioxidant effects in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) field in the gerbil hippocampus, after transient forebrain ischemia for 5 min. YES-10 was demonstrated to predominantly contain scutellarin and chlorogenic acid. Pretreatment with YES-10 significantly increased protein levels and the immunoreactivity of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and manganese-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was in the pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 field when these were examined prior to transient ischemia induction. The increased SODs in CA1 pyramidal neurons following YES-10 treatment were maintained after ischemic injury. In this case, the CA1 pyramidal neurons were protected from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Oxidative stress was significantly attenuated in the CA1 pyramidal neurons, and this was determined by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal immunohistochemistry and dihydroethidium histofluorescence staining. Taken together, the results indicated that YES-10 significantly attenuated transient ischemia-induced oxidative stress and may be utilized for developing a protective agent against ischemic insults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.9614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812581PMC
March 2021

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the fork-tailed threadfin bream, (Spariformes, Nemipteridae) and phylogenetic analysis.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Aug 7;5(3):3130-3131. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Genetic Resources Research, National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea, Seocheon-gun, Republic of Korea.

The complete mitochondrial genome of the fork-tailed threadfin bream, , which belongs to the family Nemipteridae was first determined. The complete mitochondrial genome was 16,882 bp in size and encoded of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region. has a mitochondrial gene arrangement that is typical of vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial genomes of 11 related species revealed that formed a well-supported monophyletic group with the other Nemipteridae species. This mitochondrial genome provides a useful information for addressing taxonomic issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1778576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783152PMC
August 2020

Complete mitochondrial genome of the orange-spotted trevally, (Perciformes, Carangidae) and a comparative analysis with other Carangidae species.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Aug 3;5(3):3120-3121. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Genetic Resources Research, National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea, Janghang-eup, Republic of Korea.

The complete mitochondrial genome of the orange-spotted trevally, , which belongs to the family Carangidae was determined. The complete mitochondrial genome has a length of 16,556 bp and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a control region. has a mitochondrial gene arrangement that is typical of vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial genomes of 13 related species revealed that formed a well-supported monophyletic group with the other Carangidae species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1797587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782907PMC
August 2020

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Butterfly whiptail, (Spariformes, Nemipteridae) and phylogenetic analysis.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jul 20;5(3):2898-2899. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Genetic Resources Research, National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea, Seocheon-gun, Republic of Korea.

The complete mitochondrial genome of which belongs to the family Nemipteridae was first determined. The complete mitochondrial genome was 16,836 bp in length with 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial genomes of 11 related species revealed that formed a well-supported monophyletic group with the other Nemipteridae species. This mitochondrial genome provides a useful information for resolving the taxonomic issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1791022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782546PMC
July 2020

Complete mitochondrial genome of the double-lined fusileer, (Perciformes, Caesionidae): mitogenome characterization and phylogenetic analysis.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jul 2;5(3):2617-2618. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Genetic Resources Research, National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea, Seocheon-Gun, Republic of Korea.

The complete mitochondrial genome of the double-lined fusileer, , which belongs to the family Caesionidae was determined. The complete mitochondrial genome has a length of 16,504 bp and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region. has a mitochondrial gene arrangement that is typical of vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial genomes of 15 related species revealed that formed a well-supported monophyletic group with the other Caesionidae and Lutjanidae species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1778575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782221PMC
July 2020

Increased Calbindin D28k Expression via Long-Term Alternate-Day Fasting Does Not Protect against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: A Focus on Delayed Neuronal Death, Gliosis and Immunoglobulin G Leakage.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 11;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Korea.

Calbindin-D28k (CB), a calcium-binding protein, mediates diverse neuronal functions. In this study, adult gerbils were fed a normal diet (ND) or exposed to intermittent fasting (IF) for three months, and were randomly assigned to sham or ischemia operated groups. Ischemic injury was induced by transient forebrain ischemia for 5 min. Short-term memory was examined via passive avoidance test. CB expression was investigated in the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus via western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Finally, histological analysis was used to assess neuroprotection and gliosis (microgliosis and astrogliosis) in the CA1 region. Short-term memory did not vary significantly between ischemic gerbils with IF and those exposed to ND. CB expression was increased significantly in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of ischemic gerbils with IF compared with that of gerbils fed ND. However, the CB expression was significantly decreased in ischemic gerbils with IF, similarly to that of ischemic gerbils exposed to ND. The CA1 pyramidal neurons were not protected from ischemic injury in both groups, and gliosis (astrogliosis and microgliosis) was gradually increased with time after ischemia. In addition, immunoglobulin G was leaked into the CA1 parenchyma from blood vessels and gradually increased with time after ischemic insult in both groups. Taken together, our study suggests that IF for three months increases CB expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons; however, the CA1 pyramidal neurons are not protected from transient forebrain ischemia. This failure in neuroprotection may be attributed to disruption of the blood-brain barrier, which triggers gliosis after ischemic insults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827208PMC
January 2021

Therapeutic hypothermia reduces inflammation and oxidative stress in the liver after asphyxial cardiac arrest in rats.

Acute Crit Care 2020 Nov 30;35(4):286-295. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.

Background: Few studies have evaluated the effects of hypothermia on cardiac arrest (CA)-induced liver damage. This study aimed to investigate the effects of hypothermic therapy on the liver in a rat model of asphyxial cardiac arrest (ACA).

Methods: Rats were subjected to 5-minute ACA followed by return of spontaneous circulation (RoSC). Body temperature was controlled at 33°C±0.5°C or 37°C±0.5°C for 4 hours after RoSC in the hypothermia group and normothermia group, respectively. Liver tissues in each group were collected at 6 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, and 2 days after RoSC. To examine hepatic inflammation, mast cells were stained with toluidine blue. Superoxide anion radical production was evaluated using dihydroethidium fluorescence straining and expression of endogenous antioxidants (superoxide dismutase 1 [SOD1] and SOD2) was examined using immunohistochemistry.

Results: There were significantly more mast cells in the livers of the normothermia group with ACA than in the hypothermia group with ACA. Gradual increase in superoxide anion radical production was found with time in the normothermia group with ACA, but production was significantly suppressed in the hypothermia group with ACA relative to the normothermia group with ACA. SOD1 and SOD2 levels were higher in the hypothermia group with ACA than in the normothermia group with ACA.

Conclusions: Experimental hypothermic treatment after ACA significantly inhibited inflammation and superoxide anion radical production in the rat liver, indicating that this treatment enhanced or maintained expression of antioxidants. Our findings suggest that hypothermic therapy after CA can reduce mast cell-mediated inflammation through regulation of oxidative stress and the expression of antioxidants in the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808856PMC
November 2020

Neuronal Death in the CNS Autonomic Control Center Comes Very Early after Cardiac Arrest and Is Not Significantly Attenuated by Prompt Hypothermic Treatment in Rats.

Cells 2021 Jan 2;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Autonomic dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) can cause death after recovery from a cardiac arrest (CA). However, few studies on histopathological changes in animal models of CA have been reported. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of neuronal death and damage in various brain regions and the spinal cord at early times after asphyxial CA and we studied the relationship between the mortality rate and neuronal damage following hypothermic treatment after CA. Rats were subjected to 7-8 min of asphyxial CA, followed by resuscitation and prompt hypothermic treatment. Eight regions related to autonomic control (the cingulate cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, myelencephalon, and spinal cord) were examined using cresyl violet (a marker for Nissl substance) and Fluoro-Jade B (a marker for neuronal death). The survival rate was 44.5% 1 day post-CA, 18.2% 2 days post-CA and 0% 5 days post-CA. Neuronal death started 12 h post-CA in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus and caudoventrolateral reticular nucleus in the myelencephalon and lamina VII in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal cord, of which neurons are related to autonomic lower motor neurons. In these regions, Iba-1 immunoreactivity indicating microglial activation (microgliosis) was gradually increased with time after CA. Prompt hypothermic treatment increased the survival rate at 5 days after CA with an attenuation of neuronal damages and death in the damaged regions. However, the survival rate was 0% at 12 days after CA. Taken together, our study suggests that the early damage and death of neurons related to autonomic lower motor neurons was significantly related to the high mortality rate after CA and that prompt hypothermic therapy could increase the survival rate temporarily after CA, but could not ultimately save the animal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10010060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824613PMC
January 2021

The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sleep Problems among Adolescent Students: Mediation by Depression or Anxiety.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 30;18(1). Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Psychiatry, Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are known to be closely related to depression, anxiety and sleep problems. However, it remains unclear whether adolescents with ACEs have sleep problems regardless of depression or anxiety or under a mediating effect from depression or anxiety. Therefore, our aim was to examine whether depression or anxiety mediates the relationship between ACEs and sleep problems in adolescents by using a community sample. The Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF) and List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire (LTE-Q) were used to assess traumatic ACEs. Ultimately, data from 737 students (M = 448, F = 289, 15.1 ± 1.4 years old) were included in the statistical analysis. A total of 576 (78.1%) participants reported that they had experienced one or more ACEs. Adolescents with ACEs had higher levels of depression, anxiety and sleep problems than did adolescents without ACEs, and boys tended to experience more trauma than girls. Depression and anxiety partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and sleep problems. The results of this study suggest the need for depression and anxiety interventions for adolescents with ACEs to reduce the long-term consequences, including sleep problems and physical health problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794994PMC
December 2020

Chemical Composition of a Novel Distillate from Fermented Mixture of Nine Anti-Inflammatory Herbs and Its UVB-Protective Efficacy in Mouse Dorsal Skin via Attenuating Collagen Disruption and Inflammation.

Molecules 2020 Dec 29;26(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Korea.

Since ancient times, various herbs have been used in Asia, including Korea, China, and Japan, for wound healing and antiaging of the skin. In this study, we manufactured and chemically analyzed a novel distillate obtained from a fermented mixture of nine anti-inflammatory herbs (, , , , , , ., , and ). The fermentation of natural plants possesses beneficial effects in living systems. These activities are attributed to the chemical conversion of the parent plants to functional constituents which show more potent biological activities. In our current study, the distillate has been manufactured after fermenting the nine oriental medical plants with , followed by distilling. We analyzed the chemical ingredients involved in the distillate and evaluated the effects of topical application of the distillate on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin damage in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Topical application of the distillate significantly ameliorated the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the dorsal skin against photodamage induced by UVB radiation. Additionally, our current results showed that topical application of the distillate alleviated collagen disruption and reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 β expressions) in the dorsal skin against UVB radiation. Taken together, our current findings suggest that the distillate has a potential to be used as a material to develop a photoprotective adjuvant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795019PMC
December 2020

Gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genome of robust tonguefish, (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae) and a comparative analysis with other fishes.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Dec 23;5(1):353-354. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Department of Genetic Resources Research, National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea, Seocheon-gun, Republic of Korea.

The complete mitochondrial genome was determined for the Robust tonguefish belonging to the family Cynoglossidae. The length of the complete mitochondrial genome is 16,720 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a control region. Rearrangements of the tRNA and a control region gene were found and tRNA is translocated from the light to the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial genomes of 12 species showed that formed a well-supported monophyletic group with other species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1637297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720723PMC
December 2019

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of (Syngnathiformes, Dactylopteridae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Dec 23;5(1):351-352. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Department of Genetic Resources Research, National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea, Seocheon-gun, Republic of Korea.

The complete mitochondrial genome was determined for the flying gurnard belonging to the family Dactylopteridae. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,632 bp, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a control region. It has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial genomes of 20 species showed that formed a well-supported monophyletic group with other Dactylopteridae species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1704651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748829PMC
December 2019

Person-Centered Care in Persons Living with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Gerontologist 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Yonsei University College of Nursing, Seoul, South Korea.

Background And Objectives: The concept of person-centered care has been utilized/adapted to various interventions to enhance health-related outcomes and ensure the quality of care delivered to persons living with dementia. A few systematic reviews have been conducted on the use of person-centered interventions in the context of dementia care, but to date, none have analyzed intervention effect by intervention type and target outcome. This study aimed to review person-centered interventions used in the context of dementia care and examine their effectiveness.

Research Design And Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. We searched through five databases for randomized controlled trials that utilized person-centered interventions in persons living with dementia from 1998 to 2019. Study quality was assessed using the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The outcomes of interest for the meta-analysis were behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) and cognitive function assessed immediately after the baseline measurement.

Results: In total, 36 studies were systematically reviewed. Intervention types were: reminiscence, music, and cognitive therapies, and multisensory stimulation. Thirty studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed a moderate effect size for overall intervention, a small one for music therapy, and a moderate one for reminiscence therapy on BPSD and cognitive function.

Discussion And Implications: Generally speaking, person-centered interventions showed immediate intervention effects on reducing BPSD and improving cognitive function, although the effect size and significance of each outcome differed by intervention type. Thus, healthcare providers should consider person-centered interventions as a vital element in dementia care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnaa207DOI Listing
December 2020

Person-Centered Care in Persons Living with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Gerontologist 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Yonsei University College of Nursing, Seoul, South Korea.

Background And Objectives: The concept of person-centered care has been utilized/adapted to various interventions to enhance health-related outcomes and ensure the quality of care delivered to persons living with dementia. A few systematic reviews have been conducted on the use of person-centered interventions in the context of dementia care, but to date, none have analyzed intervention effect by intervention type and target outcome. This study aimed to review person-centered interventions used in the context of dementia care and examine their effectiveness.

Research Design And Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. We searched through five databases for randomized controlled trials that utilized person-centered interventions in persons living with dementia from 1998 to 2019. Study quality was assessed using the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The outcomes of interest for the meta-analysis were behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) and cognitive function assessed immediately after the baseline measurement.

Results: In total, 36 studies were systematically reviewed. Intervention types were: reminiscence, music, and cognitive therapies, and multisensory stimulation. Thirty studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed a moderate effect size for overall intervention, a small one for music therapy, and a moderate one for reminiscence therapy on BPSD and cognitive function.

Discussion And Implications: Generally speaking, person-centered interventions showed immediate intervention effects on reducing BPSD and improving cognitive function, although the effect size and significance of each outcome differed by intervention type. Thus, healthcare providers should consider person-centered interventions as a vital element in dementia care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnaa207DOI Listing
December 2020

Prevalence of and Factors Associated with School Bullying in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Cross-Cultural Meta-Analysis.

Yonsei Med J 2020 Nov;61(11):909-922

Center for ASD and Neurodevelopmental Disorders, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2020.61.11.909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593096PMC
November 2020

Opposite Polarity Surface Photovoltage of MoS Monolayers on Au Nanodot versus Nanohole Arrays.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Oct 13;12(43):48991-48997. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.

We prepared MoS monolayers on Au nanodot (ND) and nanohole (NH) arrays. Both these sample arrays exhibited enhanced photoluminescence intensity compared with that of a bare SiO/Si substrate. The reflectance spectra of MoS/ND and MoS/NH had clear features originating from excitation of localized surface plasmon and propagating surface plasmon polaritons. Notably, the surface photovoltages (SPV) of these hybrid plasmonic nanostructures had opposite polarities, indicating negative and positive charging at MoS/ND and MoS/NH, respectively. Surface potential maps, obtained by Kelvin probe force microscopy, suggested that the potential gradient led to a distinct spatial distribution of photo-generated charges in these two samples under illumination. Furthermore, the local density of photo-generated excitons, as predicted from optical simulations, explained the SPV spectra of MoS/ND and MoS/NH. We show that the geometric configuration of the plasmonic nanostructures modified the polarity of photo-generated excess charges in MoS. These findings point to a useful means of optimizing optoelectronic characteristics and improving the performance of MoS-based plasmonic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c14563DOI Listing
October 2020

Topical Application of Extract Rich in Chlorogenic Acid and Rutin Reduces UVB-Induced Skin Damage via Attenuating Collagen Disruption in Mice.

Molecules 2020 Oct 7;25(19). Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Korea.

, a black chokeberry, contains high levels of phenolic acids and polyphenolic flavonoids and displays antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Through high-performance liquid chromatography for extracts from , we discovered that the extract contained chlorogenic acid and rutin as major ingredients. In this study, we examined the protective effects of the extract against ultraviolet B- (UVB)-induced photodamage in the dorsal skin of institute of cancer research (ICR) mice. Their dorsal skin was exposed to UVB, thereafter; the extract was topically applied once a day for seven days. Photoprotective properties of the extract in the dorsal skin were investigated by clinical skin severity score for skin injury, hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathology, Masson's trichrome staining for collagens. In addition, we examined change in collagen type I and III, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 by immunohistochemistry. In the UVB-exposed mice treated with the extract, UVB-induced epidermal damage was significantly ameliorated, showing that epidermal thickness was moderated. In these mice, immunoreactivities of collagen type I and III were significantly increased, whereas immunoreactivities of MMP-1 and 3 were significantly decreased compared with those in the UVB-exposed mice. These results indicate that treatment with extract attenuates UV-induced photodamage by attenuating UVB-induced collagen disruption: these findings might be a result of the chlorogenic acid and rutin contained in the extract. Based on the current results, we suggest that can be a useful material for developing photoprotective adjuvant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7582310PMC
October 2020