Publications by authors named "Bon-Kwon Koo"

443 Publications

Association Among Local Hemodynamic Parameters Derived From CT Angiography and Their Comparable Implications in Development of Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 13;8:713835. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Association among local hemodynamic parameters and their implications in development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have not been fully investigated. A total of 216 lesions in ACS patients undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA) before 1-24 months from ACS event were analyzed. High-risk plaque on CCTA was defined as a plaque with ≥2 of low-attenuation plaque, positive remodeling, spotty calcification, and napkin-ring sign. With the use of computational fluid dynamics analysis, fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from CCTA (FFR) and local hemodynamic parameters including wall shear stress (WSS), axial plaque stress (APS), pressure gradient (PG) across the lesion, and delta FFR across the lesion (ΔFFR) were obtained. The association among local hemodynamics and their discrimination ability for culprit lesions from non-culprit lesions were compared. A total of 66 culprit lesions for later ACS and 150 non-culprit lesions were identified. WSS, APS, PG, and ΔFFR were strongly correlated with each other (all < 0.001). This association was persistent in all lesion subtypes according to a vessel, lesion location, anatomical severity, high-risk plaque, or FFR ≤ 0.80. In discrimination of culprit lesions causing ACS from non-culprit lesions, WSS, PG, APS, and ΔFFR were independent predictors after adjustment for lesion characteristics, high-risk plaque, and FFR ≤ 0.80; and all local hemodynamic parameters significantly improved the predictive value for culprit lesions of high-risk plaque and FFR ≤ 0.80 (all < 0.05). The risk prediction model for culprit lesions with FFR ≤ 0.80, high-risk plaque, and ΔFFR had a similar or superior discrimination ability to that with FFR ≤ 0.80, high-risk plaque, and WSS, APS, or PG; and the addition of WSS, APS, or PG into ΔFFR did not improve the model performance. Local hemodynamic indices were significantly intercorrelated, and all indices similarly provided additive and independent predictive values for ACS risk over high-risk plaque and impaired FFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.713835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475759PMC
September 2021

A Simple Method for Automatic 3D Reconstruction of Coronary Arteries From X-Ray Angiography.

Front Physiol 2021 7;12:724216. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

AI Medic Inc., Seoul, South Korea.

Automatic three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the coronary arteries (CA) from medical imaging modalities is still a challenging task. In this study, we present a deep learning-based method of automatic identification of the two ends of the vessel from X-ray coronary angiography (XCA). We also present a method of using template models of CA in matching the two-dimensional segmented vessels from two different angles of XCA. For the deep learning network, we used a U-net consisting of an encoder (Resnet) and a decoder. The two ends of the vessel were manually labeled to generate training images. The network was trained with 2,342, 1,907, and 1,523 labeled images for the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), and right coronary artery (RCA), respectively. For template models of CA, ten reconstructed 3-D models were averaged for each artery. The accuracy of correspondence using template models was compared with that of manual matching. The deep learning network pointed the proximal region (20% of the total length) in 97.7, 97.5, and 96.4% of 315, 201, and 167 test images for LAD, LCX, and RCA, respectively. The success rates in pointing the distal region were 94.9, 89.8, and 94.6%, respectively. The average distances between the projected points from the reconstructed 3-D model to the detector and the points on the segmented vessels were not statistically different between the template and manual matchings. The computed FFR was not significantly different between the two matchings either. Deep learning methodology is feasible in identifying the two ends of the vessel in XCA, and the accuracy of using template models is comparable to that of manual correspondence in matching the segmented vessels from two angles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.724216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8452945PMC
September 2021

Time Course and Risk Factors of New-Onset Complete Atrioventricular Block After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Int Heart J 2021 Sep 17;62(5):988-996. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital.

In this study, we aimed to investigate the time course of new-onset complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) and its reversibility after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We analyzed 206 consecutive patients without baseline CAVB who underwent successful TAVI. The incidence of new-onset CAVB was determined to be 12.6% (26/206). Among these patients, 14 recovered from CAVB within 2 weeks (6.8%, 14/206), while the remaining 12 (5.8%, 12/206) underwent permanent pacemaker (PPM) insertion. Among the 12 patients who received the PPM, 4 were able to recover from CAVB within 4 months. Thus, only 8 among 206 patients (3.8%) showed persistent CAVB. Early-onset CAVB on the day of the procedure was the strongest predictor of PPM implantation (OR = 127). The electrocardiographic changes that occurred after TAVI were mostly recovered after 1 month. The most critical procedural factor that predicts CAVB and PPM insertion is the deep implantation (>4 mm) of a big valve (oversizing index >5.9%). In conclusion, the incidence of CAVB after TAVI was estimated to be at 12.6%. Two-thirds of these patients recovered from CAVB within 3 days, resulting in a final rate of persistent CAVB of 4%. To prevent CAVB, we have to implant an appropriate valve type with an optimal size and depth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.20-824DOI Listing
September 2021

Ten-Year Trends in Coronary Bifurcation Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Prognostic Effects of Patient and Lesion Characteristics, Devices, and Techniques.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Sep 13;10(18):e021632. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Division of Cardiology Department of Internal Medicine Ajou University Hospital Suwon Republic of Korea.

Background Despite advances in devices and techniques, coronary bifurcation lesion remains a challenging lesion subset in the field of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluate 10-year trends in bifurcation PCI and their effects on patient outcomes. Methods and Results We analyzed 10-year trends in patient/lesion characteristics, devices, PCI strategy, stent optimization techniques, and clinical outcomes using data from 5498 patients who underwent bifurcation PCI from 2004 to 2015. Clinical outcomes 2 years after the index procedure were evaluated in terms of target vessel failure (a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization) and a patient-oriented composite outcome (a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and any revascularization). During the 10-year study period, patient and lesion complexity, such as multivessel disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and left main bifurcation, increased continuously (all <0.001). The risk of target vessel failure or patient-oriented composite outcome decreased continuously from 2004 to 2015 (target vessel failure: from 12.3% to 6.9%, log-rank <0.001; patient-oriented composite outcome: from 13.6% to 9.3%, log-rank <0.001). The use of a second-generation drug-eluting stent and decreased target vessel failure risk in true bifurcation lesions were the major contributors to improved patient prognosis (interaction values were <0.001 and 0.013, respectively). Conclusions During the past decade of bifurcation PCI, patient and lesion characteristics, devices, PCI techniques, and patient prognosis have all significantly changed. Despite increased patient and lesion complexity, clinical outcomes after bifurcation PCI have improved, mainly because of better devices and more widespread adoption of procedural optimization techniques and appropriate treatment strategies. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT01642992 and NCT03068494.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.021632DOI Listing
September 2021

Look at the Moon, Not the Finger Pointing to It.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Sep;14(17):1914-1916

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.08.018DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical and Prognostic Impact From Objective Analysis of Post-Angioplasty Fractional Flow Reserve Pullback.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Sep;14(17):1888-1900

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate clinical implications of the residual fractional flow reserve (FFR) gradient after angiographically successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: Recent studies have demonstrated FFR measured after PCI is associated with clinical outcome after PCI. Although post-PCI FFR pull back tracings provide clinically relevant information on the residual FFR gradient, there are no objective criteria for assessing post-PCI FFR pull back tracings.

Methods: A total of 492 patients who underwent angiographically successful PCI and post-PCI FFR measurement with pull back tracings were analyzed. The presence of the major residual FFR gradient after PCI was assessed by both conventional visual interpretation of the pull back tracings and objective analysis using the instantaneous FFR gradient per unit time (dFFR(t)/dt) with a cutoff value of dFFR(t)/dt ≥0.035. Classification agreement between 2 independent operators for the presence of the major residual FFR gradient was compared before and after providing dFFR(t)/dt results. Target vessel failure (TVF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically driven target vessel revascularization at 2 years, was compared according to the presence of the major residual FFR gradient.

Results: Among the study population, 33.9% had the major residual FFR gradient defined by dFFR(t)/dt. The classification agreement between operators' assessments for the major residual FFR gradient increased with dFFR(t)/dt results compared with conventional visual assessment (Cohen's kappa = 0.633 to 0.819; P < 0.001; intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.776 to 0.901; P < 0.001). Patients with major residual FFR gradient were associated with a higher risk of TVF at 2 years than those without major residual FFR gradient (9.0% vs 2.2%; P < 0.001). Inclusion of the major residual FFR gradient to a clinical prediction model significantly increased discrimination and reclassification ability (C-index = 0.539 vs 0.771; P = 0.006; net reclassification improvement = 0.668; P = 0.007; integrated discrimination improvement = 0.033; P = 0.017) for TVF at 2 years. The presence of the major residual FFR gradient was independently associated with TVF at 2 years, regardless of post-PCI FFR or percent FFR increase (adjusted hazard ratio: 3.930; 95% confidence interval: 1.353-11.420; P = 0.012).

Conclusions: Objective analysis of post-PCI FFR pull back tracings using dFFR(t)/dt improved classification agreement on the presence of the major residual FFR gradient among operators. Presence of the major residual FFR gradient defined by dFFR(t)/dt after angiographically successful PCI was independently associated with an increased risk of TVF at 2 years. (Automated Algorithm Detecting Physiologic Major Stenosis and Its Relationship with Post-PCI Clinical Outcomes [Algorithm-PCI]; NCT04304677; Influence of FFR on the Clinical Outcome After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [COE-PERSPECTIVE]; NCT01873560).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.07.014DOI Listing
September 2021

Physiological Distribution and Local Severity of Coronary Artery Disease and Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Aug;14(16):1771-1785

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic implications of physiological 2-dimensional disease patterns on the basis of distribution and local severity of coronary atherosclerosis determined by quantitative flow ratio (QFR) virtual pull back.

Background: The beneficial effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is determined by physiological distribution and local severity of coronary atherosclerosis.

Methods: The study population included 341 patients who underwent angiographically successful PCI and post-PCI fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement. Using pre-PCI virtual pull backs of QFR, physiological distribution was determined by pull back pressure gradient index, with a cutoff value of 0.78 to define predominant focal versus diffuse disease. Physiological local severity was assessed by instantaneous QFR gradient per unit length, with a cutoff value of ≥0.025/mm to define a major gradient. Suboptimal post-PCI physiological results were defined as both post-PCI FFR ≤0.85 and percentage FFR increase ≤15%. Clinical outcome was assessed by target vessel failure (TVF) at 2 years.

Results: QFR pull back pressure gradient index was correlated with post-PCI FFR (R = 0.423; P < 0.001), and instantaneous QFR gradient per unit length was correlated with percentage FFR increase (R = 0.370; P < 0.001). Using the 2 QFR-derived indexes, disease patterns were classified into 4 categories: predominant focal disease with and without major gradient (group 1 [n = 150] and group 2 [n = 21], respectively) and predominant diffuse disease with and without major gradient (group 3 [n = 115] and group 4 [n = 55], respectively). Proportions of suboptimal post-PCI physiological results were significantly different according to the 4 disease patterns (18.7%, 23.8%, 22.6%, and 56.4% from group 1 to group 4, respectively; P < 0.001). Cumulative incidence of TVF after PCI was significantly higher in patients with predominant diffuse disease (8.1% in group 3 and 9.9% in group 4 vs 1.4% in group 1 and 0.0% in group 2; overall P = 0.024).

Conclusions: Both physiological distribution and local severity of coronary atherosclerosis could be characterized without pressure-wire pull backs, which determined post-PCI physiological results. After successful PCI, TVF risk was determined mainly by the physiological distribution of coronary atherosclerosis. (Automated Algorithm Detecting Physiologic Major Stenosis and Its Relationship With Post-PCI Clinical Outcomes [Algorithm-PCI], NCT04304677; Influence of FFR on the Clinical Outcome After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PERSPECTIVE], NCT01873560).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.06.013DOI Listing
August 2021

Benefit of Extended Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Duration in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Treated with Drug Eluting Stents for Coronary Bifurcation Lesions (from the BIFURCAT Registry).

Am J Cardiol 2021 10 2;156:16-23. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular , Division of Cardiology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria "Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele," Catania, Italy.

Optimal dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary bifurcations is an unmet issue. The BIFURCAT registry was obtained by merging two registries on coronary bifurcations. Three groups were compared in a two-by-two fashion: short-term DAPT (≤ 6 months), intermediate-term DAPT (6-12 months) and extended DAPT (>12 months). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), target-lesion revascularization and stent thrombosis) were the primary endpoint. Single components of MACE were the secondary endpoints. Events were appraised according to the clinical presentation: chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) versus acute coronary syndrome (ACS). 5537 patients (3231 ACS, 2306 CCS) were included. After a median follow-up of 2.1 years (IQR 0.9-2.2), extended DAPT was associated with a lower incidence of MACE compared with intermediate-term DAPT (2.8% versus 3.4%, adjusted HR 0.23 [0.1-0.54], p <0.001), driven by a reduction of all-cause death in the ACS cohort. In the CCS cohort, an extended DAPT strategy was not associated with a reduced risk of MACE. In conclusion, among real-world patients receiving PCI for coronary bifurcation, an extended DAPT strategy was associated with a reduction of MACE in ACS but not in CCS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.07.005DOI Listing
October 2021

Differential Factors for Predicting Outcomes in Left Main versus Non-Left Main Coronary Bifurcation Stenting.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 7;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Background: No large-scale study has compared the clinical and angiographic predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with left main bifurcation (LMB) and non-LMB stenting after second-generation DES implantation. Herein, we investigated differential clinical and angiographic factors for predicting outcomes in LMB versus non-LMB stenting.

Methods: A total of 2648 patients with bifurcation lesions treated with second-generation DESs from the retrospective patient cohort were divided into an LMB group ( = 935) and a non-LMB group ( = 1713). The primary outcome was the 7-year incidence of target lesion failure (TLF), defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization.

Results: The incidence of TLF was 9.8%. Those in the LMB group were associated with a higher risk of TLF (14.2% versus 7.5%, < 0.001) than those in the non-LMB group. Regarding the LMB group, independent predictors of TLF were chronic kidney disease (CKD), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and two-stenting. Regarding the non-LMB group, CKD, reduced LVEF, old age, diabetes, and small diameter of the main vessel stent were independent predictors of TLF.

Conclusions: The two-stent strategy could potentially increase TLF for the LMB lesions, and achieving the maximal diameter of the main vessel stent could result in better clinical outcomes for non-LMB lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10143024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306985PMC
July 2021

Incidence and Predictors of Stent Thrombosis in Patients Treated with Stents for Coronary Bifurcation Narrowing (From the BIFURCAT Registry).

Am J Cardiol 2021 10 19;156:24-31. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Department, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Percutaneous coronary interventions performed at coronary bifurcations yield high rates of stent thrombosis (ST). The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictors of ST in contemporary coronary bifurcation percutaneous coronary interventions. We retrospectively investigated the BIFURCAT (comBined Insights From the Unified RAIN and COBIS bifurcAtion regisTries) registry on coronary bifurcations to assess the incidence and predictors of definite ST, which were the study primary endpoints. Predictors of ST among patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) were also examined. A total of 5330 patients were included. After a mean 2-years follow-up, 64 (1.2%) patients experienced ST. 42 (65.6%) ST patients were on DAPT. At multivariable analysis, age (HR 1.02, CI 1.01 to 1.05, p = 0,027), smoking status (HR 2.57, CI 1.49 to 4.44, p = 0.001), chronic kidney disease (HR 2.26, CI 1.24 to 4.12, p = 0.007) and a 2-stent strategy (HR 2.38, CI 1.37 to 4.14, p = 0.002) were independent predictors of ST, whereas intracoronary imaging (HR 0.42, CI 0.23 to 0.78, p = 0.006) and final kissing balloon (FKB) (HR 0.48, CI 0.29 to 0.82, p = 0.007) were protective against ST. Among patients on DAPT, smoking status and a 2-stent strategy significantly increased the risk of ST, while intracoronary imaging and FKB reduced the risk. In conclusion, age, smoking status, chronic kidney disease and a 2-stent strategy were significant predictors of ST, whereas intracoronary imaging use and FKB had a protective effect. Only smoking status and a 2-stent strategy significantly predicted ST in DAPT subgroup, while intracoronary imaging and FKB had a protective role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.06.031DOI Listing
October 2021

Coronary microcirculation assessment using functional angiography: Development of a wire-free method applicable to conventional coronary angiograms.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital Clínico San Carlos IDISSC and Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: We aimed to develop a novel wire- and adenosine-free microcirculatory resistive index from functional angiography (angio-IMR) to estimate coronary microcirculatory resistance, and to investigate how this method can improve clinical interpretation of physiological stenosis assessment with quantitative flow ratio (QFR).

Background: Hyperemic index of coronary microcirculatory resistance (IMR) is a widely used tool to assess microcirculatory dysfunction. However, the need of dedicated intracoronary wire and hyperemia limits its adoption in clinical practice.

Methods: We performed our study in two separate stages: (1) development of a formula (angio-IMR) to estimate IMR from resting angiograms and aortic pressure (Pa), and (2) validation of the method in a clinical population using invasively measured IMR as reference. Additionally, QFR diagnostic performance was assessed considering angio-IMR values.

Results: We developed the formula: angio-IMR = (Pa-[0.1*Pa])*QFR*e-Tmn (where e-Tmn is an estimation of hyperaemic mean transit time) and validated it in 115 vessels (104 patients). Angio-IMR correlated well with IMR (Spearman's rho = 0.70, p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, accuracy and area under the curve of angio-IMR to predict IMR were 87.5% (73.2-95.8), 85.3% (75.3-92.4), 76.1% (64.5-84.8), 92.8% (84.9-96.7), 85% and 0.90 (0.83-0.95), respectively. False positive QFR measurements decreased from 19.5% to 8.5% when angio-IMR was incorporated into the QFR interpretation workflow.

Conclusions: Estimation of IMR without physiology wire and adenosine is feasible. Coronary microcirculatory dysfunction causing high IMR can be ruled-out with high confidence in vessels with low angio-IMR. Awareness of angio-IMR contributes to a better clinical interpretation of functional stenosis assessment with QFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29863DOI Listing
July 2021

Dynamic cardiac PET motion correction using 3D normalized gradient fields in patients and phantom simulations.

Med Phys 2021 Sep 20;48(9):5072-5084. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

This work expands on the implementation of three-dimensional (3D) normalized gradient fields to correct for whole-body motion and cardiac creep in [N-13]-ammonia patient studies and evaluates its accuracy using a dynamic phantom simulation model.

Methods: A full rigid-body algorithm was developed using 3D normalized gradient fields including a multi-resolution step and sampling off the voxel grid to reduce interpolation artifacts. Optimization was performed using a weighted similarity metric that accounts for opposing gradients between images of blood pool and perfused tissue without the need for segmentation. Forty-three retrospective dynamic [N-13]-ammonia PET/CT rest/adenosine-stress patient studies were motion corrected and the mean motion parameters plotted at each frame time point. Motion correction accuracy was assessed using a comprehensive dynamic XCAT simulation incorporating published physiologic parameters of the heart's trajectory following adenosine infusion as well as corrupted attenuation correction commonly observed in clinical studies. Accuracy of the algorithm was assessed objectively by comparing the errors between isosurfaces and centers of mass of the motion corrected XCAT simulations.

Results: In the patient studies, the overall mean cranial-to-caudal translation was 7 mm at stress over the duration of the adenosine infusion. Noninvasive clinical measures of relative flow reserve and myocardial flow reserve were highly correlated with their invasive analogues. Motion correction accuracy assessed with the XCAT simulations showed an error of <1 mm in late perfusion frames that broadened gradually to <3 mm in earlier frames containing blood pool.

Conclusion: This work demonstrates that patients undergoing [N-13]-ammonia dynamic PET/CT exhibit a large cranial-to-caudal translation related to cardiac creep primarily at stress and to a lesser extent at rest, which can be accurately corrected by optimizing their 3D normalized gradient fields. Our approach provides a solution to the challenging condition where the image intensity and its gradients are opposed without the need for segmentation and remains robust in the presence of PET-CT mismatch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455441PMC
September 2021

Five-year clinical outcomes of the first Korean-made sirolimus-eluting coronary stent with abluminal biodegradable polymer.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(19):e25765

Department of Cardiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon.

Abstract: This study evaluated the 5-year clinical outcomes of the Genoss DES, the first Korean-made sirolimus-eluting coronary stent with abluminal biodegradable polymer.We previously conducted the first-in-patient prospective, multicenter, randomized trial with a 1:1 ratio of patients using the Genoss DES and Promus Element stents; the angiographic and clinical outcomes of the Genoss DES stent were comparable to those of the Promus Element stent. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which was a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 5 years.We enrolled 38 patients in the Genoss DES group and 39 in the Promus Element group. Thirty-eight patients (100%) from the Genoss DES group and 38 (97.4%) from the Promus Element group were followed up at 5 years. The rates of MACE (5.3% vs 12.8%, P = .431), death (5.3% vs 10.3%, P = .675), TLR (2.6% vs 2.6%, P = 1.000), and target vessel revascularization (TVR) (7.9% vs 2.6%, P = .358) at 5 years did not differ significantly between the groups. No TLR or target vessel revascularization was reported from years 1 to 5 after the index procedure, and no MI or stent thrombosis occurred in either group during 5 years.The biodegradable polymer Genoss DES and durable polymer Promus Element stents showed comparable low rates of MACE at the 5-year clinical follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133141PMC
May 2021

Non-invasive vs. Invasive Functional Tests after Coronary Stent Implantation.

Korean Circ J 2021 Jun;51(6):549-550

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2021.1561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176065PMC
June 2021

Comparison of 2-Stenting Strategies Depending on Sequence or Technique for Bifurcation Lesions in the Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Era - Analysis From the COBIS (Coronary Bifurcation Stenting) III Registry.

Circ J 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital.

Background: It has not been determined which specific 2-stenting strategy is the best for bifurcation lesions. Our aim was to investigate the clinical outcomes of various 2-stenting strategies in the era of 2nd-generation drug-eluting stents (2G-DES).Methods and Results:We analyzed 454 patients who finally underwent 2-stenting for a bifurcation lesion, from among 2,648 patients enrolled in the COBIS III registry. The primary outcome was target lesion failure (TLF). Patients were analyzed according to stenting sequence (provisional [main vessel stenting first] vs. systemic [side branch stenting first]) and stenting technique (crush vs. T vs. culotte vs. kissing/V stenting). Overall, 4.4 years' TLF after 2-stenting treatment for bifurcation lesion was excellent: TLF 11.2% and stent thrombosis 1.3%. There was no difference in TLF according to 2-stenting strategy (11.1% vs. 10.5%, P=0.990 for provisional and systemic sequence; 8.6% vs. 14.4% vs. 12.9% vs. 12.2%, P=0.326 for crush, T, culotte, kissing/V technique, respectively). Only left main (LM) disease and a shorter duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) were associated with TLF. The distribution of DAPT duration differed between patients with and without TLF, and the time-point of intersection was 2.5 years. Also, the side branch was the most common site of restenosis.

Conclusions: The stenting sequence or technique did not affect clinical outcomes, but LM disease and shorter DAPT were associated with TLF, in patients with bifurcation lesions undergoing 2-stenting with 2G-DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0999DOI Listing
June 2021

Determination of [N-13]-ammonia extraction fraction in patients with coronary artery disease by calibration to invasive coronary and fractional flow reserve.

J Nucl Cardiol 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory School of Medicine, Emory University, 1841 Clifton Rd. NE, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

Background: This study presents a new extraction fraction (EF) model based on physiological measures of invasive coronary flow reserve (CFR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and normal index microcirculatory resistance (IMR). To ascertain the clinical relevance of the new EFs, flow measurements using the newly patient-determined EFs were compared to flow measurements using traditional animal-determined EFs.

Methods: 39 patients were retrospectively selected that included a total of 91 vascular territories with invasive coronary angiography physiological measures. [N-13]-ammonia dynamic rest/adenosine-stress PET imaging was conducted in all patients and absolute myocardial flow was estimated using four published compartmental models. The extraction fraction during hyperemic flow was iteratively estimated by maximizing the agreement between invasive CFR and FFR with the non-invasive analogs myocardial flow reserve (MFR) and relative flow reserve (RFR) at similar physiological states, respectively.

Results: Using the new patient-determined EFs, agreement between CFR vs MFR for Model 1 and 2 was moderate and poor for Model 3 and 4. All models showed moderate agreement for FFR vs RFR. When using published models of animal-determined EFs, agreement between CFR vs MFR remained moderate for Model 1 and 2, and poor for Model 3 and 4. Similarly, all models showed moderate agreement for FFR vs RFR using animal-determined EF values. None of the observed differences were statistically significant.

Conclusions: Flow measurements using extraction fraction correction for [N-13]-ammonia based on calibration to invasive intracoronary angiography physiological measures in patients with CAD were not discordant from those reported in the literature. Either patient-determined or traditional animal-determined EF correction, when used with the appropriate flow model, yields moderate agreement with invasive measurements of coronary flow reserve and fractional flow reserve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12350-021-02628-4DOI Listing
May 2021

High-Risk Morphological and Physiological Coronary Disease Attributes as Outcome Markers After Medical Treatment and Revascularization.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Oct 19;14(10):1977-1989. Epub 2021 May 19.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the prognostic impact of plaque morphology and coronary physiology on outcomes after medical treatment or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: Although fractional flow reserve (FFR) is currently best practice, morphological characteristics of coronary artery disease also contribute to outcomes.

Methods: A total of 872 vessels in 538 patients were evaluated by invasive FFR and coronary computed tomography angiography. High-risk attributes (HRA) were defined as high-risk physiological attribute (invasive FFR ≤0.8) and high-risk morphological attributes including: 1) local plaque burden (minimum lumen area <4 mm and plaque burden ≥70%); 2) adverse plaque characteristics ≥2; and 3) global plaque burden (total plaque volume ≥306.5 mm and percent atheroma volume ≥32.2%). The primary outcome was the composite of revascularization, myocardial infarction, or cardiac death at 5 years.

Results: The mean FFR was 0.88 ± 0.08, and PCI was performed in 239 vessels. The primary outcome occurred in 54 vessels (6.2%). All high-risk morphological attributes were associated with the increased risk of adverse outcomes after adjustment for FFR ≤0.8 and demonstrated direct prognostic effect not mediated by FFR ≤0.8. The 5-year event risk proportionally increased as the number of HRA increased (p for trend <0.001) with lower risk in the PCI group than the medical treatment group in vessels with 1 or 2 HRA (9.7% vs. 14.7%), but not in vessels with either 0 or ≥3 HRA. Of the vessels with pre-procedural FFR ≤0.8, ischemia relief by PCI (pre-PCI FFR ≤0.8 and post-PCI FFR >0.8) significantly reduced vessel-oriented composite outcome risk compared with medical treatment alone in vessels with 0 or 1 high-risk morphological attributes (hazard ratio: 0.33; 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.93; p = 0.035), but the risk reduction was attenuated in vessels with ≥2 high-risk morphological attributes.

Conclusions: High-risk morphological attributes offered additive prognostic value to coronary physiology and may optimize selection of treatment strategies by adding to FFR-based risk predictions (CCTA-FFR Registry for Development of Comprehensive Risk Prediction Model; NCT04037163).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.04.004DOI Listing
October 2021

Aspirin versus clopidogrel for chronic maintenance monotherapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (HOST-EXAM): an investigator-initiated, prospective, randomised, open-label, multicentre trial.

Lancet 2021 Jun 16;397(10293):2487-2496. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiology Centre, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Optimal antiplatelet monotherapy during the chronic maintenance period in patients who undergo coronary stenting is unknown. We aimed to compare head to head the efficacy and safety of aspirin and clopidogrel monotherapy in this population.

Methods: We did an investigator-initiated, prospective, randomised, open-label, multicentre trial at 37 study sites in South Korea. We enrolled patients aged at least 20 years who maintained dual antiplatelet therapy without clinical events for 6-18 months after percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents (DES). We excluded patients with any ischaemic and major bleeding complications. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive a monotherapy agent of clopidogrel 75 mg once daily or aspirin 100 mg once daily for 24 months. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, readmission due to acute coronary syndrome, and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) bleeding type 3 or greater, in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02044250.

Findings: Between March 26, 2014, and May 29, 2018, we enrolled 5530 patients. 5438 (98·3%) patients were randomly assigned to either the clopidogrel group (2710 [49·8%]) or to the aspirin group (2728 [50·2%]). Ascertainment of the primary endpoint was completed in 5338 (98·2%) patients. During 24-month follow-up, the primary outcome occurred in 152 (5·7%) patients in the clopidogrel group and 207 (7·7%) in the aspirin group (hazard ratio 0·73 [95% CI 0·59-0·90]; p=0·0035).

Interpretation: Clopidogrel monotherapy, compared with aspirin monotherapy during the chronic maintenance period after percutaneous coronary intervention with DES significantly reduced the risk of the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, readmission due to acute coronary syndrome, and BARC bleeding type 3 or greater. In patients requiring indefinite antiplatelet monotherapy after percutaneous coronary intervention, clopidogrel monotherapy was superior to aspirin monotherapy in preventing future adverse clinical events.

Funding: ChongKunDang, SamJin, HanMi, DaeWoong, and the South Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01063-1DOI Listing
June 2021

Characteristic findings of microvascular dysfunction on coronary computed tomography angiography in patients with intermediate coronary stenosis.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, 4-1-1 Otsuno, Tsuchiura City, Ibaraki, 300-0028, Japan.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the prevalence of coexistence of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in patients with intermediate epicardial stenosis and to explore coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-derived lesion-, vessel-, and cardiac fat-related characteristic findings associated with CMD.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional single-center study included a total of 177 patients with intermediate stenosis in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) who underwent CCTA and invasive physiological measurements. The 320-slice CCTA analysis included qualitative and quantitative assessments of plaque, vessel, epicardial fat volume (ECFV) and epicardial fat attenuation (ECFA), and pericoronary fat attenuation (FAI). CMD was defined by the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) ≥ 25.

Results: In the entire cohort, median fractional flow reserve (FFR) and median IMR values were 0.77 (0.69-0.84) and 19.0 (13.7-27.7), respectively. The prevalence of CMD was 32.8 % (58/177) in the total cohort. The coexistence of CMD and functionally significant stenosis was 34.3 % (37/108), whereas CMD in nonsignificant intermediate stenosis was 30.4 % (21/69). CMD was significantly associated with greater lumen volume (p = 0.031), greater fibrofatty and necrotic component (FFNC) volume (p = 0.030), and greater ECFV (p = 0.030), but not with FAI (p = 0.832) and ECFA (p = 0.445). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, vessel volume, vessel lumen volume, lesion remodeling index, ECFV, and lesion FFNC volume were independent predictors of CMD.

Conclusions: The prevalence of CMD was about one-third in patients with intermediate stenosis in LAD regardless of the presence or absence of functional stenosis significance. The integrated CCTA assessment may help in the identification of CMD.

Key Points: • The coexistence of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) and functionally significant stenosis was 34.3 %, whereas CMD in nonsignificant intermediate stenosis was 30.4 %. • Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-derived CMD characteristics were vessel volume, vessel lumen volume, remodeling index, epicardial fat volume, and fibrofatty necrotic core volume. • Integrated CCTA assessment may help identify the coexistence of CMD and epicardial stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07909-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Immediate Compared With Delayed Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Patients With ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Presenting ≥12 Hours After Symptom Onset Is Not Associated With Improved Clinical Outcome.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 05 18;14(5):e009863. Epub 2021 May 18.

Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea (Y.-J.K., J.K., H.-M.Y., K.W.P., H.-J.K., B.-K.K., J.-K.H., H.-S.K.).

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.009863DOI Listing
May 2021

Non-randomized comparison between revascularization and deferral for intermediate coronary stenosis with abnormal fractional flow reserve and preserved coronary flow reserve.

Sci Rep 2021 04 28;11(1):9126. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehang-ro, Chongno-gu, Seoul, 110-744, Korea.

Limited data are available regarding comparative prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus deferral of revascularization in patients with intermediate stenosis with abnormal fractional flow reserve (FFR) but preserved coronary flow reserve (CFR). From the International Collaboration of Comprehensive Physiologic Assessment Registry (NCT03690713), a total of 330 patients (338 vessels) who had coronary stenosis with FFR ≤ 0.80 but CFR > 2.0 were selected for the current analysis. Patient-level clinical outcome was assessed by major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 5 years, a composite of all-cause death, target-vessel myocardial infarction (MI), or target-vessel revascularization. Among the study population, 231 patients (233 vessels) underwent PCI and 99 patients (105 vessels) were deferred. During 5 years of follow-up, cumulative incidence of MACE was 13.0% (31 patients) without significant difference between PCI and deferred groups (12.7% vs. 14.0%, adjusted HR 1.301, 95% CI 0.611-2.769, P = 0.495). Multiple sensitivity analyses by propensity score matching and inverse probability weighting also showed no significant difference in patient-level MACE and vessel-specific MI or revascularization. In this hypothesis-generating study, there was no significant difference in clinical outcomes between PCI and deferred groups among patients with intermediate stenosis with FFR ≤ 0.80 but CFR > 2.0. Further study is needed to confirm this finding.Clinical Trial Registration: International Collaboration of Comprehensive Physiologic Assessment Registry (NCT03690713; registration date: 10/01/2018).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88732-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080642PMC
April 2021

Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction 1 Year After Acute Myocardial Infarction Identifies the Benefits of the Long-Term Use of β-Blockers: Analysis of Data From the KAMIR-NIH Registry.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 04 20;14(4):e010159. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Republic of Korea (C.S.P., H.-M.Y., Y.-J.K., J.K., J.-K.H., K.W.P., H.-J.K., B.-K.K., H.-S.K.).

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.010159DOI Listing
April 2021

The validation of the dual antiplatelet therapy score in East Asians receiving percutaneous coronary intervention with exclusively second generation drug-eluting stents.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Sep 5;98(3):E332-E341. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Cardiovascular Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Objectives: We investigated whether the dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) score (DS) predicts clinical outcome in an East-Asian population that received exclusively second generation drug-eluting stent (DES).

Backgrounds: It is uncertain whether the DS could adequately risk stratify patients exclusively receiving second generation DES.

Methods: From the Grand-DES registry, we evaluated patients who were treated with DAPT for at least 12 months and were event-free at 12 months after DES implantation. Patients were classified into two categories: high DS (≧2) (n = 3,157); and low DS (<2) (n = 5,226). The primary ischemic outcome was a composite of stent thrombosis and all myocardial infarction (MI), and the primary bleeding outcome was TIMI major or minor bleeding. A propensity score (PS)-matched analysis was done to correct for baseline differences between extended DAPT group and the conventional group.

Results: Among 8,383 subjects, the primary ischemic outcome occurred in 48 patients (0.6%) and the primary bleeding outcome in 49 patients (0.6%). High DS was associated with a higher incidence of ischemic events (ischemic outcome: 0.8% vs. 0.4%, for high vs. low DS, Log-rank p = .039), but not with any differences in bleeding events (Log-rank p = .734). In the PS-matched analysis, extended group was associated with lower risk of composite endpoint of MI, stent thrombosis, or cardiac death in only the high DS group (1.8% vs. 3.7%, Log-rank p = .004; hazard ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.76; p = .003 after adjustment).

Conclusions: The DS was an adequate risk stratifier for future ischemic events in East Asians receiving exclusively second generation DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29682DOI Listing
September 2021

Prognostic value of pericoronary inflammation and unsupervised machine-learning-defined phenotypic clustering of CT angiographic findings.

Int J Cardiol 2021 06 17;333:226-232. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Ibaraki, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Pericoronary adipose tissue attenuation expressed by fat attenuation index (FAI) on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) reflects pericoronary inflammation and is associated with cardiac mortality.

Objective: The aim of this study was to define the sub-phenotypes of coronary CCTA-defined plaque and whole vessel quantification by unsupervised machine learning (ML) and its prognostic impact when combined with pericoronary inflammation.

Methods: A total of 220 left anterior descending arteries (LAD) with intermediate stenosis who underwent fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement and CCTA were studied. After removal of outcome and FAI data, the phenotype heterogeneity of CCTA-defined plaque and whole vessel quantification was investigated by unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis based on Ward's method. Detailed features of CCTA findings were assessed according to the clusters (CS1 and CS2). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE)-free survivals were assessed according to the stratifications by FAI and the clusters.

Results: Compared with CS2 (n = 119), CS1 (n = 101) were characterized by greater vessel size, increased plaque volume, and high-risk plaque features. FAI was significantly higher in CS1. ROC analyses revealed that best cut-off value of FAI to predict MACE was -73.1. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that lesions with FAI ≥ -73.1 had a significantly higher risk of MACE. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that age, FAI ≥ -73.1, and the clusters were independent predictors of MACE.

Conclusion: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed two distinct CCTA-defined subgroups and discriminated by high-risk plaque features and increased FAI. The risk of MACE differs significantly according to the increased FAI and ML-defined clusters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.03.019DOI Listing
June 2021

Wall shear stress estimated by 3D-QCA can predict cardiovascular events in lesions with borderline negative fractional flow reserve.

Atherosclerosis 2021 04 24;322:24-30. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Cardiology, Barts Heart Centre, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK; Centre for Cardiovascular Medicine and Devices, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: There is some evidence of the implications of wall shear stress (WSS) derived from three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) models in predicting adverse cardiovascular events. This study investigates the efficacy of 3D-QCA-derived WSS in detecting lesions with a borderline negative fractional flow reserve (FFR: 0.81-0.85) that progressed and caused events.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we identified 548 patients who had at least one lesion with an FFR 0.81-0.85 and complete follow-up data; 293 lesions (286 patients) with suitable angiographic characteristics were reconstructed using a dedicated 3D-QCA software and included in the analysis. In the reconstructed models blood flow simulation was performed and the value of 3D-QCA variables and WSS distribution in predicting events was examined. The primary endpoint of the study was the composite of cardiac death, target lesion related myocardial infarction or clinically indicated target lesion revascularization.

Results: During a median follow-up of 49.4 months, 37 events were reported. Culprit lesions had a greater area stenosis [(AS), 66.1% (59.5-72.3) vs 54.8% (46.5-63.2), p<0.001], smaller minimum lumen area [(MLA), 1.66 mm (1.45-2.30) vs 2.10 mm (1.69-2.70), p=0.011] and higher maximum WSS [9.0 Pa (5.10-12.46) vs 5.0 Pa (3.37-7.54), p < 0.001] than those that remained quiescent. In multivariable analysis, AS [hazard ratio (HR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.10, p=0.001] and maximum WSS (HR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.14, p=0.012) were the only independent predictors of the primary endpoint. Lesions with an increased AS (≥58.6%) that were exposed to high WSS (≥7.69Pa) were more likely to progress and cause events (27.8%) than those with a low AS exposed to high WSS (7.4%) or those exposed to low WSS that had increased (12.8%) or low AS (2.7%, p<0.001).

Conclusions: This study for the first time highlights the potential value of 3D-QCA-derived WSS in detecting, among lesions with a borderline negative FFR, those that cause cardiovascular events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.02.018DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical Implications of Physiologic Assessment After Stenting: Practical Tool Beyond Simple Digits.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 03 9;14(3):e010592. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Korea (B.-K.K.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.121.010592DOI Listing
March 2021

Rationale and design of the precise percutaneous coronary intervention plan (P3) study: Prospective evaluation of a virtual computed tomography-based percutaneous intervention planner.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Apr 3;44(4):446-454. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Cardiovascular Center Aalst, OLV Clinic, Aalst, Belgium.

Introduction: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been identified as a surrogate marker for vessel related adverse events. FFR can be derived from standard coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Moreover, the FFR derived from coronary CTA (FFR ) Planner is a tool that simulates PCI providing modeled FFR values after stenosis opening.

Aim: To validate the accuracy of the FFR Planner in predicting FFR after PCI with invasive FFR as a reference standard.

Methods: Prospective, international and multicenter study of patients with chronic coronary syndromes undergoing PCI. Patients will undergo coronary CTA with FFR prior to PCI. Combined morphological and functional evaluations with motorized FFR hyperemic pullbacks, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) will be performed before and after PCI. The FFR Planner will be applied by an independent core laboratory blinded to invasive data, replicating the invasive procedure. The primary objective is to assess the agreement between the predicted FFR post-PCI derived from the Planner and invasive FFR. A total of 127 patients will be included in the study.

Results: Patient enrollment started in February 2019. Until December 2020, 100 patients have been included. Mean age was 64.1 ± 9.03, 76% were males and 24% diabetics. The target vessels for PCI were LAD 83%, LCX 6%, and RCA 11%. The final results are expected in 2021.

Conclusion: This study will determine the accuracy and precision of the FFR Planner to predict post-PCI FFR in patients with chronic coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous revascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027584PMC
April 2021

Physiologic Assessment after Coronary Stent Implantation.

Korean Circ J 2021 Mar;51(3):189-201

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

The presence of myocardial ischemia is a prerequisite for the benefit of coronary revascularization. In the cardiac catheterization laboratory, fractional flow reserve and non-hyperemic pressure ratios are used to define the ischemia-causing coronary stenosis, and several randomized studies showed the benefit of physiology-guided coronary revascularization. However, physiology-guided revascularization does not necessarily guarantee the relief of ischemia. Recent studies reported that residual ischemia might exist in up to 15-20% of cases after angiographically successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, post-PCI physiologic assessment is necessary for judging the appropriateness of PCI, detecting the lesions that may benefit from additional PCI, and risk stratification after PCI. This review will focus on the current evidence for post-PCI physiologic assessment, how to interpret these findings, and the future perspectives of physiologic assessment after PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925968PMC
March 2021

Sex-related impact on clinical outcomes of patients treated with drug-eluting stents according to clinical presentation: Patient-level pooled analysis from the GRAND-DES registry.

Cardiol J 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The contribution of sex and initial clinical presentation to the long-term outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is still debated.

Methods: Individual patient data from 5 Korean-multicenter drug-eluting stent (DES) registries (The GRAND-DES) were pooled. A total of 17,286 patients completed 3-year follow-up (5216 women and 12,070 men). The median follow-up duration was 1125 days (interquartile range 1097-1140 days), and the primary endpoint was cardiac death at 3 years.

Results: The clinical indication for PCI was stable angina pectoris (SAP) in 36.8%, unstable angina pectoris (UAP) or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in 47.4%, and STEMI in 15.8%. In all groups, women were older and had a higher proportion of hypertension and diabetes mellitus compared with men. Women presenting with STEMI were older than women with SAP, with the opposite seen in men. There was no sex difference in cardiac death for SAP or UAP/NSTEMI. In STEMI patients, the incidence of cardiac death (7.9% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.001), all-cause mortality (11.1% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.001), and minor bleeding (2.2% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.043) was significantly higher in women. After multivariable adjustment, cardiac death was lower in women for UAP/NSTEMI (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.89, p = 0.005), while it was similar for STEMI (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.65-1.44, p = 0.884).

Conclusions: There was no sex difference in cardiac death after PCI with DES for SAP and UAP/NSTEMI patients. In STEMI patients, women had worse outcomes compared with men; however, after the adjustment of confounders, female sex was not an independent predictor of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2021.0008DOI Listing
February 2021
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