Publications by authors named "Bogdan G Gugiu"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mass spectrometric analyses of phosphatidylcholines in alkali-exposed corneal tissue.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012 Oct 23;53(11):7122-30. Epub 2012 Oct 23.

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

Purpose: The aims were to determine whether exposure to sodium hydroxide results in predictable changes in phosphatidylcholine (PC) in corneal tissue and if PC profile changes correlate to exposure duration. PCs are major components of the cell membrane lipid bilayer and are often involved in biological processes such as signaling.

Methods: Enucleated porcine (n = 140) and cadaver human eyes (n = 20) were exposed to water (control) and 11 M NaOH. The corneas were excised and lipids were extracted using the Bligh and Dyer method with suitable modifications. Class-specific lipid identification was carried out using a ratiometric lipid standard on a TSQ Quantum Access Max mass spectrometer. Protein amounts were determined using Bradford assays.

Results: Control and alkali-treated corneas showed reproducible PC spectra for both porcine and human corneas. Over 200 PCs were identified for human and porcine control and each experimental time point. Several PC species (m/z values) consequent upon alkali exposure could not be ascribed to a recorded PC species. Control and treated groups showed 41 and 29 common species among them for porcine and human corneas, respectively. The unique PC species peaked at 12 minutes and at 30 minutes for human and porcine corneas followed by a decline consistent with an interplay of alkali penetration and hydrolyses at various time points.

Conclusions: Alkali exposure dramatically changes the PC profile of cornea. Our data are consistent with penetration and hydrolysis as stochastic contributors to changes in PCs due to exposure to alkali for a finite duration and amount.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.12-10448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3487488PMC
October 2012

A 13-Oxo-9,10-epoxytridecenoate phospholipid analogue of the genotoxic 4,5-epoxy-2E-decenal: detection in vivo, chemical synthesis, and adduction with DNA.

Chem Res Toxicol 2010 Mar;23(3):516-27

Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, 2074 Adelbert Road, Millis 212, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.

Often guided by analogy with nonphospholipid products from oxidative cleavage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, we previously identified a variety of biologically active oxidatively truncated phospholipids. Previously, 4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal (4,5-EDE) was found to be produced by oxidative cleavage of 13-(S)-hydroperoxy-9,11-(Z,E)-octadeca-dienoic acid (13-HPODE). 4,5-EDE reacts with deoxy-adenosine (dAdo) and deoxy-guanosine (dGuo) to form mutagenic etheno derivatives. We hypothesized that a functionally similar and potentially mutagenic compound, that is, 13-oxo-9,10-epoxytridecenoic acid (OETA), would be generated from 9-HPODE through an analogous fragmentation. We expected that an ester of 2-lysophosphatidylcoline (PC), OETA-PC, would be produced by oxidative cleavage of 9-HPODE-PC in biological membranes. An efficient, unambiguous total synthesis of trans-OETA-PC was first executed to provide a standard that could facilitate the identification of this phospholipid epoxyalkenal that was shown to be produced during oxidation of the linoleic acid ester of 2-lysoPC. Finally, trans-OETA-PC was detected in a lipid extract from rat retina. The identity of the naturally occurring oxidatively truncated phospholipid was further confirmed by derivatization with methoxylamine that produced characteristic mono and bis adducts. The average amount of trans-OETA-PC in rat retina, 0.33 pmol, is relatively low as compared to other oxidatively truncated PCs, for example, the 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid PC ester (2.5 pmol) or the 4-keto-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid PC ester (1.7 pmol), derived from the docosahexaenoic acid ester of 2-lysoPC. This, most likely, is because docosahexaenoate PCs are particularly abundant in the retina as compared to the linoleate PC ester precursor of OETA-PC. As predicted by analogy with 4,5-EDE, OETA-PC reacts with dAdo and dGuo, as well as with DNA, to form mutagenic etheno adducts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx9002484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848942PMC
March 2010

The lipid whisker model of the structure of oxidized cell membranes.

J Biol Chem 2008 Jan 28;283(4):2385-96. Epub 2007 Nov 28.

Department of Cell Biology, Cleveland Clinic, Ohio 44195, USA.

An essential feature of the innate immune system is maintaining cellular homeostasis by identifying and removing senescent and apoptotic cells and modified lipoproteins. Identification is achieved through the recognition of molecular patterns, including structurally distinct oxidized phospholipids, on target cells by macrophage receptors. Both the structural nature of the molecular patterns recognized and their orientation within membranes has remained elusive. We recently described the membrane conformation of an endogenous oxidized phospholipid ligand for macrophage scavenger receptor CD36, where the truncated oxidized sn-2 fatty acid moiety protrudes into the aqueous phase, rendering it accessible for recognition. Herein we examine the generality of this conformational motif for peroxidized glycerophospholipids within membranes. Our data reveal that the addition of a polar oxygen atom on numerous peroxidized fatty acids reorients the acyl chain, whereby it no longer remains buried within the membrane interior but rather protrudes into the aqueous compartment. Moreover, we show that neither a conformational change in the head group relative to the membrane surface nor the presence of a polar head group is essential for CD36 recognition of free oxidized phospholipid ligands within membranes. Rather, our results suggest the following global phenomenon. As cellular membranes undergo lipid peroxidation, such as during senescence or apoptosis, previously hydrophobic portions of fatty acids will move from the interior of the lipid bilayer to the aqueous exterior. This enables physical contact between pattern recognition receptor and molecular pattern ligand. Cell membranes thus "grow whiskers" as phospholipids undergo peroxidation, and many of their oxidized fatty acids protrude at the surface.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M707348200DOI Listing
January 2008

A role for neutral sphingomyelinase activation in the inhibition of LPS action by phospholipid oxidation products.

J Lipid Res 2006 Sep 14;47(9):1967-74. Epub 2006 Jun 14.

Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Previous studies from our laboratory and others presented evidence that oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (OxPAPC) and oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine can inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in endothelial cells. Using synthetic derivatives of phosphatidylethanolamine, we now demonstrate that phospholipid oxidation products containing alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic acids are the most active inhibitors we examined. 5-Keto-6-octendioic acid ester of 2-phosphatidylcholine (KOdiA-PC) was 500-fold more inhibitory than OxPAPC, being active in the nanomolar range. Our studies in human aortic endothelial cells identify one important mechanism of the inhibitory response as involving the activation of neutral sphingomyelinase. There is evidence that Toll-like receptor-4 and other members of the LPS receptor complex must be colocalized to the caveolar/lipid raft region of the cell, where sphingomyelin is enriched, for effective LPS signaling. Previous work from our laboratory suggested that OxPAPC could disrupt this caveolar fraction. These studies present evidence that OxPAPC activates sphingomyelinase, increasing the levels of 16:0, 22:0, and 24:0 ceramide and that the neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor GW4869 reduces the inhibitory effect of OxPAPC and KOdiA-PC. We also show that cell-permeant C6 ceramide, like OxPAPC, causes the inhibition of LPS-induced IL-8 synthesis and alters caveolin distribution similar to OxPAPC. Together, these data identify a new pathway by which oxidized phospholipids inhibit LPS action involving the activation of neutral sphingomyelinase, resulting in a change in caveolin distribution. Furthermore, we identify specific oxidized phospholipids responsible for this inhibition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M600060-JLR200DOI Listing
September 2006

Identification of oxidatively truncated ethanolamine phospholipids in retina and their generation from polyunsaturated phosphatidylethanolamines.

Chem Res Toxicol 2006 Feb;19(2):262-71

Cole Eye Institute and Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44106, USA.

Oxidized (ox) phospholipids are receiving growing recognition as important messengers in oxidative stress signaling pathways and as endogenous electrophilic toxins that interfere with protein function through covalent modifications. Phosphatidylcholine lipids predominate in low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Our previous studies of oxLDL identified a family of biologically active oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines that are also present in atherosclerotic plaques. In contrast, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids are extraordinarily abundant in retina. Because photoreceptors contain the most highly unsaturated fatty acids found in vertebrate tissues, these membranes are expected to be especially susceptible to oxidative damage. Here, we report that oxidatively truncated ethanolamine phospholipids (oxPEs) are present in retina. As expected, the most abundant oxPEs, succinyl (2.2 +/- 0.8 pmol/retina) and omega-oxobutyryl (1.5 +/- 1.0 pmol/retina) esters of 2-lysophosphatidylethanolamine, are derived from the docosahexaenoyl ester, the most abundant polyunsaturated PE in retina. However, a large amount of the omega-oxononanoyl ester (1.3 +/- 0.6 pmol/retina), derived from linoleyl-PE, is also present even though linoleate is an order of magnitude less abundant than docosahexenoate in retina. There is a notable trend for the presence in retina of greater amounts, relative to the levels of their precursors, of longer chain homologous aldehydes and alkanedioate monoesters. We considered the possibility that this trend results from differences in the proclivities of various polyunsaturated fatty acyl (PUFA)-PEs to generate these homologous products. Therefore, we examined oxidative cleavage of various PUFA-PEs in small unilamellar vesicles. Alkanedioate monoesters are the major stable end products. Particularly notable is the fact that omega-oxononanoyl-PE levels either do not decline or decline less than those of the analogous aldehydes omega-oxobutyryl-PE or omega-oxovaleryl-PE during autoxidation for 33 h. The resistance of omega-oxononanoyl-PE, as compared with omega-oxobutyryl-PE and omega-oxovaleryl-PE, to further oxidation may contribute to the greater amount of this oxPE relative to its precursor, linoleyl-PE, in retina.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx050247fDOI Listing
February 2006

Total syntheses of bioactive oxidized ethanolamine phospholipids.

Org Lett 2003 Aug;5(16):2797-9

Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7078, USA.

[reaction: see text] Truncated ethanolamine phospholipids containing aldehyde functionality, e.g. OVPE, and the corresponding acids, are generated by oxidative cleavage of polyunsaturated phospholipids. To confirm their identities and facilitate studies of the chemistry and biological actions of these analogues of biologically active phosphatidylcholines, e.g. OVPC, total syntheses were developed. An efficient general strategy was used that features selective N-protection of 2-lysophosphatidylethanolamine, and generation of the target compounds by mild deprotection of stable precursors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ol034729zDOI Listing
August 2003