Publications by authors named "Bochao Danae Lin"

8 Publications

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Phenome-wide and genome-wide analyses of quality of life in schizophrenia.

BJPsych Open 2020 Dec 9;7(1):e13. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Translational Neuroscience, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; and Outpatient Second Opinion Clinic, GGNet, Warnsveld, The Netherlands.

Background: Schizophrenia negatively affects quality of life (QoL). A handful of variables from small studies have been reported to influence QoL in patients with schizophrenia, but a study comprehensively dissecting the genetic and non-genetic contributing factors to QoL in these patients is currently lacking.

Aims: We adopted a hypothesis-generating approach to assess the phenotypic and genotypic determinants of QoL in schizophrenia.

Method: The study population comprised 1119 patients with a psychotic disorder, 1979 relatives and 586 healthy controls. Using linear regression, we tested >100 independent demographic, cognitive and clinical phenotypes for their association with QoL in patients. We then performed genome-wide association analyses of QoL and examined the association between polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and subjective well-being and QoL.

Results: We found nine phenotypes to be significantly and independently associated with QoL in patients, the most significant ones being negative (β = -1.17; s.e. 0.05; P = 1 × 10-83; r2 = 38%), depressive (β = -1.07; s.e. 0.05; P = 2 × 10-79; r2 = 36%) and emotional distress (β = -0.09; s.e. 0.01; P = 4 × 10-59, r2 = 25%) symptoms. Schizophrenia and subjective well-being polygenic risk scores, using various P-value thresholds, were significantly and consistently associated with QoL (lowest association P-value = 6.8 × 10-6). Several sensitivity analyses confirmed the results.

Conclusions: Various clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia, as well as schizophrenia and subjective well-being polygenic risk scores, are associated with QoL in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives. These may be targeted by clinicians to more easily identify vulnerable patients with schizophrenia for further social and clinical interventions to improve their QoL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791571PMC
December 2020

The role of rare compound heterozygous events in autism spectrum disorder.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 06 22;10(1):204. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The identification of genetic variants underlying autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may contribute to a better understanding of their underlying biology. To examine the possible role of a specific type of compound heterozygosity in ASD, namely, the occurrence of a deletion together with a functional nucleotide variant on the remaining allele, we sequenced 550 genes in 149 individuals with ASD and their deletion-transmitting parents. This approach allowed us to identify additional sequence variants occurring in the remaining allele of the deletion. Our main goal was to compare the rate of sequence variants in remaining alleles of deleted regions between probands and the deletion-transmitting parents. We also examined the predicted functional effect of the identified variants using Combined Annotation-Dependent Depletion (CADD) scores. The single nucleotide variant-deletion co-occurrence was observed in 13.4% of probands, compared with 8.1% of parents. The cumulative burden of sequence variants (n = 68) in pooled proband sequences was higher than the burden in pooled sequences from the deletion-transmitting parents (n = 41, X = 6.69, p = 0.0097). After filtering for those variants predicted to be most deleterious, we observed 21 of such variants in probands versus 8 in their deletion-transmitting parents (X = 5.82, p = 0.016). Finally, cumulative CADD scores conferred by these variants were significantly higher in probands than in deletion-transmitting parents (burden test, β = 0.13; p = 1.0 × 10). Our findings suggest that the compound heterozygosity described in the current study may be one of several mechanisms explaining variable penetrance of CNVs with known pathogenicity for ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-00866-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308334PMC
June 2020

Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies.

Addict Biol 2021 01 16;26(1):e12880. Epub 2020 Feb 16.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r ], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from ~2400 to ~537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429266PMC
January 2021

Genome-wide association study identifies eight risk loci and implicates metabo-psychiatric origins for anorexia nervosa.

Nat Genet 2019 08 15;51(8):1207-1214. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness, affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men, with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%. Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders, and outcomes are unacceptably poor. Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI) and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0439-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779477PMC
August 2019

Mendelian Randomization Concerns.

JAMA Psychiatry 2018 04;75(4):407

Human Neurogenetics Unit, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Translational Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.0035DOI Listing
April 2018

2SNP heritability and effects of genetic variants for neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio.

J Hum Genet 2017 Nov 3;62(11):979-988. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are important biomarkers for disease development and progression. To gain insight into the genetic causes of variance in NLR and PLR in the general population, we conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses and estimated SNP heritability in a sample of 5901 related healthy Dutch individuals. GWA analyses identified a new genome-wide significant locus on the HBS1L-MYB intergenic region for PLR, which replicated in a sample of 2538 British twins. For platelet count, we replicated three known genome-wide significant loci in our cohort (at CCDC71L-PIK3CG, BAK1 and ARHGEF3). For neutrophil count, we replicated the PSMD3 locus. For the identified top SNPs, we found significant cis and trans expression quantitative trait loci effects for several loci involved in hematological and immunological pathways. Linkage Disequilibrium score (LD) regression analyses for PLR and NLR confirmed that both traits are heritable, with a polygenetic SNP heritability for PLR of 14.1%, and for NLR of 2.4%. Genetic correlations were present between ratios and the constituent counts, with the genetic correlation (r=0.45) of PLR with platelet count reaching statistical significance. In conclusion, we established that two important biomarkers have a significant heritable SNP component, and identified the first genome-wide locus for PLR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2017.76DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669488PMC
November 2017

Heritability and Genome-Wide Association Studies for Hair Color in a Dutch Twin Family Based Sample.

Genes (Basel) 2015 Jul 13;6(3):559-76. Epub 2015 Jul 13.

Department of Biological Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam 1081 BT, The Netherlands.

Hair color is one of the most visible and heritable traits in humans. Here, we estimated heritability by structural equation modeling (N = 20,142), and performed a genome wide association (GWA) analysis (N = 7091) and a GCTA study (N = 3340) on hair color within a large cohort of twins, their parents and siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Self-reported hair color was analyzed as five binary phenotypes, namely "blond versus non-blond", "red versus non-red", "brown versus non-brown", "black versus non-black", and "light versus dark". The broad-sense heritability of hair color was estimated between 73% and 99% and the genetic component included non-additive genetic variance. Assortative mating for hair color was significant, except for red and black hair color. From GCTA analyses, at most 24.6% of the additive genetic variance in hair color was explained by 1000G well-imputed SNPs. Genome-wide association analysis for each hair color showed that SNPs in the MC1R region were significantly associated with red, brown and black hair, and also with light versus dark hair color. Five other known genes (HERC2, TPCN2, SLC24A4, IRF4, and KITLG) gave genome-wide significant hits for blond, brown and light versus dark hair color. We did not find and replicate any new loci for hair color.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes6030559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4584317PMC
July 2015