Publications by authors named "Boaz Karmazyn"

104 Publications

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Vomiting in Infants.

J Am Coll Radiol 2020 Nov;17(11S):S505-S515

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Vomiting in infants under the age of 3 months is one of the most common reasons for parents to seek care from their doctor or present to an emergency room. The imaging workup that ensues is dependent on several factors: age at onset, days versus weeks after birth, quality of emesis, bilious or nonbilious vomiting, and the initial findings on plain radiograph, suspected proximal versus distal bowel obstruction. The purpose of these guidelines is to inform the clinician, based on current evidence, what is the next highest yield and most appropriate imaging study to pursue a diagnosis. The goal is rapid and accurate arrival at a plan for treatment, whether surgical or nonsurgical. The following modalities are discussed for each variant of the symptom: plain radiography, fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal series, fluoroscopic contrast enema, ultrasound of the abdomen, nuclear medicine gastroesophageal reflux scan. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2020.09.002DOI Listing
November 2020

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Antenatal Hydronephrosis-Infant.

J Am Coll Radiol 2020 Nov;17(11S):S367-S379

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Antenatal hydronephrosis is the most frequent urinary tract anomaly detected on prenatal ultrasonography. It occurs approximately twice as often in males as in females. Most antenatal hydronephrosis is transient with little long-term significance, and few children with antenatal hydronephrosis will have significant obstruction, develop symptoms or complications, and require surgery. Some children will be diagnosed with more serious conditions, such as posterior urethral valves. Early detection of obstructive uropathy is necessary to mitigate the potential morbidity from loss of renal function. Imaging is an integral part of screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of children with antenatal hydronephrosis. Optimal timing and appropriate use of imaging can reduce the incidence of late diagnoses and prevent renal scarring and other complications. In general, follow-up neonatal ultrasound is recommended for all cases of antenatal hydronephrosis, while further imaging, including voiding cystourethrography and nuclear scintigraphy, is recommended for moderate or severe cases, or when renal parenchymal or bladder wall abnormalities are suspected. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2020.09.017DOI Listing
November 2020

Initial experience with contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the first week after liver transplantation in children: a useful adjunct to Doppler ultrasound.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Feb 23;51(2):248-256. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Department of Transplant Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Doppler US is the primary screening for post-liver transplant vascular complications, but indeterminate findings require further imaging.

Objective: To evaluate whether contrast-enhanced US improves diagnostic assessment of vascular complications suspected by Doppler US.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed Doppler US and contrast-enhanced US studies obtained in the first week following liver transplant. Doppler US was performed twice daily for the first 5 postoperative days, and CEUS in the first postoperative day and when vascular complications were suspected. We correlated Doppler US and CEUS with surgical findings, and clinical and imaging follow-up. We evaluated Doppler US and CEUS quality in demonstrating the main hepatic artery (HA) at the porta hepatis as follows: Grade 0 = not seen, Grade 1 = only segments, Grade 2 = entire main HA, and Grade 3 = entire main HA to the intrahepatic branching. We used a Wilcoxon signed rank test to test the difference between Doppler US and CEUS methods.

Results: Twenty-nine children (15 girls, 14 boys) were identified, with median age 2.2 years (range 0.5-17.6 years). The most common transplant indication was biliary atresia (n=13). There was significantly (P<0.0001) improved main HA visualization with CEUS. In five children, CEUS was performed to evaluate suspected vascular complications; CEUS confirmed normal vascularity in two. CEUS demonstrated portal vein thrombosis (n=2) and main HA thrombosis (n=1), confirmed at surgery. In one child the main HA thrombosis was missed; marked HA narrowing was seen retrospectively on CEUS.

Conclusion: Immediately following liver transplantation, CEUS improves main HA visualization and diagnostic assessment of vascular complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04811-0DOI Listing
February 2021

An apparent new syndrome of extreme short stature, microcephaly, dysmorphic faces, intellectual disability, and a bone dysplasia of unknown etiology.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 07 19;182(7):1562-1571. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

We report on a 26-year-old male with extreme short stature, microcephaly, macroglossia, other dysmorphic features, severe intellectual disability, and a bone dysplasia. The patient had an extensive genetic and biochemical evaluation that was all normal or noninformative. Recently, the proband died following a period of not eating. He likely had a previously undescribed syndrome of unknown etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61619DOI Listing
July 2020

Accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of classic metaphyseal lesions using radiographs as the gold standard.

Pediatr Radiol 2020 07 18;50(8):1123-1130. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Diagnosis of classic metaphyseal lesions (CMLs) in children suspected for child abuse can be challenging. Ultrasound (US) can potentially help diagnose CMLs. However, its accuracy is unknown.

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of US in the diagnosis of CMLs using skeletal survey reports as the gold standard.

Materials And Methods: US of the metaphysis was performed in three patient groups age <1 year. Informed consent was obtained for patients scheduled for renal US (Group 1) and for patients scheduled for skeletal surveys for possible child abuse (Group 2). Targeted US was also performed in selected patients to evaluate for possible CML suspected on radiographs (Group 3). In Groups 1 and 2, US was performed of both distal femurs, and of either the right or left proximal and distal tibia. Two radiologists (Rad1 and Rad2) independently reviewed the US studies, blinded to history and other imaging. US sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the following gold standards: CML definitely seen on skeletal survey (positive), CML definitely not seen on skeletal survey or part of renal US group (negative). Cases where the skeletal survey was indeterminate for CML were excluded. Kappa statistics were used to evaluate interobserver variability.

Results: Two hundred forty-one metaphyseal sites were evaluated by US in 63 children (mean age: 5 months; 33 males); 34 had skeletal surveys and 29 had renal US. Kappa for the presence of CML was 0.70 with 95.7% agreement. US sensitivity was 55.0% and 63.2% and the specificity was 97.7% and 96.7% for Rad1 and Rad2, respectively.

Conclusion: US has low sensitivity and high specificity in CML diagnosis. Thus, negative US does not exclude CML, but when the radiographs are equivocal, positive US can help substantiate the diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04671-8DOI Listing
July 2020

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Cerebrovascular Disease-Child.

J Am Coll Radiol 2020 May;17(5S):S36-S54

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Stroke is an uncommon but an important and under-recognized cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Strokes may be due to either brain ischemia or intracranial hemorrhage. Common symptoms of pediatric acute stroke include headache, vomiting, focal weakness, numbness, visual disturbance, seizures, and altered consciousness. Most children presenting with an acute neurologic deficit do not have an acute stroke, but have symptoms due to stroke mimics which include complicated migraine, seizures with postictal paralysis, and Bell palsy. Because of frequency of stroke mimics, in children and the common lack of specificity in symptoms, the diagnosis of a true stroke may be delayed. There are a relatively large number of potential causes of stroke mimic and true stroke. Consequently, imaging plays a critical role in the assessment of children with possible stroke and especially in children who present with acute onset of stroke symptoms. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2020.01.036DOI Listing
May 2020

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Pneumonia in the Immunocompetent Child.

J Am Coll Radiol 2020 May;17(5S):S215-S225

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Pneumonia is one of the most common acute infections and the single greatest infectious cause of death in children worldwide. In uncomplicated, community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent patients, the diagnosis is clinical and imaging has no role. The first role of imaging is to identify complications associated with pneumonia such as pleural effusion, pulmonary abscess, and bronchopleural fistula. Radiographs are recommended for screening for these complications and ultrasound and CT are recommended for confirmation. The second role of imaging is to identify underlying anatomic conditions that may predispose patients to recurrent pneumonia. CT with intravenously administered contrast is recommended for this evaluation. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2020.01.033DOI Listing
May 2020

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Head Trauma-Child.

J Am Coll Radiol 2020 May;17(5S):S125-S137

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Head trauma is a frequent indication for cranial imaging in children. The majority of accidental pediatric head trauma is minor and sustained without intracranial injury. Well-validated pediatric-specific clinical decision guidelines should be used to identify very low-risk children who can safely forgo imaging. In those who require acute imaging, CT is considered the first-line imaging modality for suspected intracranial injury because of the short duration of the examination and its high sensitivity for acute hemorrhage. MRI can accurately detect traumatic complications, but often necessitates sedation in children, owing to the examination length and motion sensitivity, which limits rapid assessment. There is a paucity of literature regarding vascular injuries in pediatric blunt head trauma and imaging is typically guided by clinical suspicion. Advanced imaging techniques have the potential to identify changes that are not seen by standard imaging, but data are currently insufficient to support routine clinical use. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2020.01.026DOI Listing
May 2020

Retroperitoneal and Pelvic Lymph Nodes in Children: What Is Normal?

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2020 06 31;214(6):1384-1388. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate size criteria for retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes in healthy children. We identified all trauma patients younger than 18 years old without underlying disease and with CT scans without abnormalities in the abdomen and pelvis during 2014-2015. Two pediatric radiologists reviewed the studies independently and recorded the number of retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes with a long diameter 5 mm or greater and the size (two perpendicular diameters) of the largest lymph node in five anatomic locations. Discrepant results were reviewed in consensus. The relationship of short diameter to age and interobserver variability was evaluated. A total of 166 patients (86 boys) with a mean age of 7.2 years old (range, 0.1-18.0 years old) were identified. More than 95% of lymph nodes in the retroperitoneum and pelvis had a short diameter measuring at most 7 and 8 mm, respectively, by consensus. The size of the largest short diameter of lymph nodes did not vary with age. More than four lymph nodes were identified in any anatomic location in only three patients, by only one of the radiologists. Agreement for lymph nodes with largest diameter of 5 mm or greater between radiologists ranged from 70.5% to 97.6% for the five anatomic locations with poor interobserver agreement (κ, 0.2-0.3). The size and number of retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes in children are less than in adults. A short diameter threshold of 7 mm (retroperitoneal) and 8 mm (pelvic) and more than four lymph nodes with long diameter of 5 mm or greater in one location may define disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.22316DOI Listing
June 2020

Heterogeneous Liver on Research Ultrasound Identifies Children with Cystic Fibrosis at High Risk of Advanced Liver Disease: Interim Results of a Prospective Observational Case-Controlled Study.

J Pediatr 2020 04 12;219:62-69.e4. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Digestive Health Institute, Children's Hospital Colorado and Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess if a heterogeneous pattern on research liver ultrasound examination can identify children at risk for advanced cystic fibrosis (CF) liver disease.

Study Design: Planned 4-year interim analysis of a 9-year multicenter, case-controlled cohort study (Prospective Study of Ultrasound to Predict Hepatic Cirrhosis in CF). Children with pancreatic insufficient CF aged 3-12 years without known cirrhosis, Burkholderia species infection, or short bowel syndrome underwent a screening research ultrasound examination. Participants with a heterogeneous liver ultrasound pattern were matched (by age, Pseudomonas infection status, and center) 1:2 with participants with a normal pattern. Clinical status and laboratory data were obtained annually and research ultrasound examinations biannually. The primary end point was the development of a nodular research ultrasound pattern, a surrogate for advanced CF liver disease.

Results: There were 722 participants who underwent screening research ultrasound examination, of which 65 were heterogeneous liver ultrasound pattern and 592 normal liver ultrasound pattern. The final cohort included 55 participants with a heterogeneous liver ultrasound pattern and 116 participants with a normal liver ultrasound pattern. All participants with at least 1 follow-up research ultrasound were included. There were no differences in age or sex between groups at entry. Alanine aminotransferase (42 ± 22 U/L vs 32 ± 19 U/L; P = .0033), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (36 ± 34 U/L vs 15 ± 8 U/L; P < .001), and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (0.7 ± 0.5 vs 0.4 ± 0.2; P < .0001) were higher in participants with a heterogeneous liver ultrasound pattern compared with participants with a normal liver ultrasound pattern. Participants with a heterogeneous liver ultrasound pattern had a 9.1-fold increased incidence (95% CI, 2.7-30.8; P = .0004) of nodular pattern vs a normal liver ultrasound pattern (23% in heterogeneous liver ultrasound pattern vs 2.6% in normal liver ultrasound pattern).

Conclusions: Research liver ultrasound examinations can identify children with CF at increased risk for developing advanced CF liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.12.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7096278PMC
April 2020

Establishing signs for acute and healing phases of distal tibial classic metaphyseal lesions.

Pediatr Radiol 2020 05 22;50(5):715-725. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Section of Child Protection Programs, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Stages of healing for classic metaphyseal lesions (CMLs) are not well established. Follow-up skeletal surveys provide an opportunity to evaluate signs of healing CMLs.

Objective: To evaluate the sequence of CML healing phases by comparing initial and follow-up skeletal surveys in children with distal tibial CMLs on the initial survey. Findings could assist in child abuse investigations.

Materials And Methods: We identified all distal tibia CMLs with initial and follow-up skeletal surveys performed January 2009 through December 2018 at our institution. Two pediatric radiologists reviewed the surveys using Likert score from 1 (no CML) to 5 (definite CML). Only cases with score of 4 or 5 by both radiologists were selected for the study. The initial and 2-week follow-up skeletal surveys were reviewed in consensus for presence of the following signs: corner fracture, thin bucket handle fracture, thick bucket handle fracture, bucket handle fracture with endochondral bone filling the gap, subphyseal lucency, deformed corner, and subperiosteal new bone formation. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate for significant difference in thickness among thin bucket handle fracture, thick bucket handle fracture, and bucket handle fracture with endochondral bone filling the gap.

Results: We included 26 children (12 girls) with age range 1-9.9 months who had a combined 34 distal tibia CMLs. Thin bucket handle fracture (n=13, 38.2%) was only seen on initial survey. On follow-up, six children had thick bucket handle fracture and four had bucket handle fracture with endochondral bone filling the gap. Fourteen thick bucket handle fractures (n=9) or bucket handle fractures with endochondral bone filling the gap (n=5) were noted on initial surveys; on follow-up, three (21.4%) had deformed corner, one (7.1%) had corner fracture, one (7.1%) had subphyseal lucency, and five (35.7%) were normal. None demonstrated thin bucket handle fracture on follow-up. Two of the nine (22.2%) thick bucket handle fractures became thicker, and 3/9 (33.3%) became bucket handle fractures with endochondral bone filling the gap. The metaphysis normalized in 8/34 (23.5%) CMLs on follow-up surveys. The thickness of thin bucket handle fracture was less than 1 mm (mean±standard deviation [SD] = 0.6±0.2 mm), which was significantly thinner (P<0.0001) compared with thick bucket handle fracture (1.7±0.5 mm) and bucket handle fracture with endochondral bone filling the gap (1.9±0.6 mm).

Conclusion: The lack of thin bucket handle fractures on any follow-up skeletal surveys suggests this sign represents an acute phase of injury. The next phases of healing appear to be thick bucket handle fracture followed by bucket handle fracture with endochondral bone filling the gap. It is important to note that normalization of the metaphysis at 2-week follow-up does not exclude CML because this was seen in about one-fifth of cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04615-2DOI Listing
May 2020

Osteomyelitis of the ribs in children: a rare and potentially challenging diagnosis.

Pediatr Radiol 2020 01 24;50(1):68-74. Epub 2019 Aug 24.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Riley Hospital for Children at IU Health,, Indiana University School of Medicine,, 705 Riley Hospital Drive, Room 1053,, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

Background: Rib osteomyelitis is rare in children and can mimic other pathologies. Imaging has a major role in the diagnosing rib osteomyelitis.

Objective: To evaluate clinical presentation and imaging findings in children with rib osteomyelitis.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective (2009-2018) study on children with rib osteomyelitis verified by either positive culture or pathology. We excluded children with multifocal osteomyelitis or empyema necessitans. We reviewed medical charts for clinical, laboratory and pathology data, and treatment. All imaging modalities for rib abnormalities were evaluated for presence and location of osteomyelitis and abscess. We calculated descriptive statistics to compare patient demographics, clinical presentation and imaging findings.

Results: The study group included 10 children (6 boys, 4 girls), with an average age of 7.3 years (range, 3 months to 15.9 years). The most common clinical presentations were fever (n=8) and pain (n=5). Eight children had elevated inflammatory indices (leukocytosis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP]). Localized chest wall swelling was found initially in six children and later in two more children. Rib osteomyelitis was suspected on presentation in only two children. All children had chest radiographs. Rib lytic changes were found on only one chest radiograph, in two of the four ultrasound studies, and in four of eight CTs. Bone marrow signal abnormalities were seen in all eight MRIs. In nine children the osteomyelitis involved the costochondral junction. Six children had an associated abscess. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in eight children. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed based on pathology in one child with negative cultures.

Conclusion: While rib osteomyelitis is rare, imaging findings of lytic changes at the costochondral junction combined with a history of fever, elevated inflammatory markers or localized soft-tissue swelling in the chest should raise suspicion for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-019-04505-2DOI Listing
January 2020

Frontal Occipital and Frontal Temporal Horn Ratios: Comparison and Validation of Head Ultrasound-Derived Indexes With MRI and Ventricular Volumes in Infantile Ventriculomegaly.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 10 16;213(4):925-931. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, 705 Riley Hospital Dr, Indianapolis, IN 46202.

The purpose of our study was to assess whether linear ventricular dimensions-specifically, the frontal occipital horn ratio (FOHR) and frontal temporal horn ratio (FTHR) obtained from ultrasound (US)-are reliable measures of ventriculomegaly in infants. Our hypothesis was that these US measures would show good correlation with linear ventricular indexes and ventricular volumes obtained from MRI. We retrospectively identified 90 infants (age ≤ 6 months corrected gestational age) with ventriculomegaly from 2014 to 2017 who had a total of 100 sets of US and MRI studies performed in a 3-day period. FOHR and FTHR were independently measured on US and MRI by two pediatric radiologists and two pediatric neuroradiologists, respectively. Ventricular and brain volumes were segmented from the MR images, and the ventricle-to-intracranial volume ratio was calculated. MRI served as the reference standard. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analyses were generated to evaluate interobserver and US-MRI concordance. We assessed correlation of the FOHR and FTHR with the ventricle-to-intracranial volume ratio. Bland-Altman plots of the FOHR and FTHR between US and MRI showed excellent concordance with a bias of 0.05 (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.14) and 0.03 (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.13), respectively. There was good-to-excellent interobserver concordance for FOHR and FTHR on head US or MRI ( = 0.86-0.96). There was good correlation between ventricle-to-intracranial volume ratios and US- and MRI-derived FOHRs and FTHRs ( = 0.79-0.87). FOHR and FTHR obtained from US in infants with ventriculomegaly have excellent interobserver concordance, are concordant with MRI-derived linear ratios, and correlate with MRI-derived ventricular volumes. Therefore, US-derived FOHR and FTHR are reliable indexes for clinical follow-up of infantile ventriculomegaly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.21261DOI Listing
October 2019

The length of the intussusception increases with distal propagation of the ileocolic intussusception.

Pediatr Radiol 2019 06 1;49(7):976-977. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-019-04390-9DOI Listing
June 2019

Ultrasound evaluation of right diaphragmatic eventration and hernia.

Pediatr Radiol 2019 07 28;49(8):1010-1017. Epub 2019 May 28.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: A hernia is due to a defect in the diaphragm. An eventration is due to a thinned diaphragm with no central muscle. Distinguishing right diaphragmatic hernia from eventration on chest radiographs can be challenging if no bowel loops are herniated above the diaphragm. Experience is limited with postnatal ultrasound (US) evaluation of diaphragmatic hernia or eventration.

Objective: To evaluate for specific US signs in the diagnosis of right diaphragmatic hernia and eventration.

Materials And Methods: We identified all patients (January 2007-December 2017) with right diaphragm US and surgery for eventration or hernia. We reviewed medical charts, and US images/reports for clinical presentation and diaphragm abnormalities. Surgical diagnosis was considered the reference standard.

Results: Seventeen children (mean age: 5 months) had US examination before surgery for hernia (n=9) or eventration (n=8). The most common presentation was respiratory distress. In the US reports, hernia was correctly diagnosed in all patients and three patients with eventration were misdiagnosed as hernia, yielding 100% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity. In a retrospective evaluation of the US studies, a combination of folding of a free muscle edge with a narrow angle waist had 100% specificity for hernia and was seen in 7/9 children with hernia. Combination of a broad angle waist and hypoechoic strip of diaphragmatic muscle covering the waist had 100% specificity for eventration and was demonstrated in 4/8 children with eventration. Five of 17 patients (31.6%) had no specific sign that differentiated hernia from eventration.

Conclusion: On US, folding of the free edge of the diaphragm and a narrow angle waist are specific for hernia; a broad angle waist with muscle covering the elevated area is specific for eventration. Definitive differentiation between eventration and hernia may not be possible in about a third of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-019-04417-1DOI Listing
July 2019

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip-Child.

J Am Coll Radiol 2019 May;16(5S):S94-S103

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is the most common hip pathology in infants. Although its exact pathophysiology remains incompletely understood, its long-term prognosis depends not only on the severity of the dysphasia, but also on the timely implementation of appropriate treatment. Unrecognized and untreated hip subluxations and dislocations inevitably lead to early joint degeneration while overtreatment can produce iatrogenic complications, including avascular necrosis of the femoral head. In the past two decades, imaging has become an integral part of the clinical screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of children with DDH. Optimal timing for imaging and appropriate use of imaging can reduce the incidence of late diagnoses and prevent iatrogenic complications. In general, ultrasound of the hips is recommended in infants under the age of 4 months while pelvic radiography is recommended in older infants due to the fact that the femoral head ossific nucleus typically is not formed until 4 to 6 months of age. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2019.02.014DOI Listing
May 2019

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Suspected Spine Trauma-Child.

J Am Coll Radiol 2019 May;16(5S):S286-S299

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Choosing the appropriate imaging in children with accidental traumatic spine injuries can be challenging because the recommendations based on scientific evidence at this time differ from those applied in adults. This differentiation is due in part to differences in anatomy and physiology of the developing spine. This publication uses scientific evidence and a panel of pediatric experts to summarize best current imaging practices for children with accidental spine trauma. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2019.02.003DOI Listing
May 2019

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Suspected Appendicitis-Child.

J Am Coll Radiol 2019 May;16(5S):S252-S263

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Acute appendicitis represents the most common abdominal surgical urgency/emergency in children. Imaging remains a central tool in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and has been shown to facilitate management and decrease the rate of negative appendectomies. The initial consideration for imaging in a child with suspected acute appendicitis is based on clinical assessment, which can be facilitated with published scoring systems. The level of clinical risk (low, intermediate, high) and the clinical scenario (suspicion for complication) define the need for imaging and the optimal imaging modality. In some situations, no imaging is required, while in others ultrasound, CT, or MRI may be appropriate. This review frames the presentation of suspected acute appendicitis in terms of the clinical risk and also discusses the unique situations of the equivocal or nondiagnostic initial ultrasound examination and suspected appendicitis with suspicion for complication (eg, bowel obstruction). The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2019.02.022DOI Listing
May 2019

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Scoliosis-Child.

J Am Coll Radiol 2019 May;16(5S):S244-S251

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Scoliosis is frequently encountered in childhood, with prevalence of 2%. The majority is idiopathic, without vertebral segmentation anomaly, dysraphism, neuromuscular abnormality, skeletal dysplasia, tumor, or infection. As a complement to clinical assessment, radiography is the primary imaging modality used to classify scoliosis and subsequently monitor its progression and response to treatment. MRI is utilized selectively to assess for neural axis abnormalities in those at higher risk, including those with congenital scoliosis, early onset idiopathic scoliosis, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with certain risk factors. CT, although not routinely employed in the initial evaluation of scoliosis, may have a select role in characterizing the bone anomalies of congenital scoliosis and in perioperative planning. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2019.02.018DOI Listing
May 2019

Clinical decision support: the role of ACR Appropriateness Criteria.

Pediatr Radiol 2019 04 29;49(4):479-485. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Clinical decision support is a way to decrease inappropriate imaging exams and promote judicious use of imaging resources. The adoption of clinical decision support will be incentivized by requiring the use of approved mechanisms to qualify for Medicare reimbursement starting in January 2020. Insurance providers base their reimbursement policies on Medicare, so clinical decision support could soon become relevant to pediatric imaging. We present the process behind the American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria (a set of appropriate use criteria developed by the ACR) that will form the basis for software that can be used to fulfill the criteria for clinical decision support. For most organizations, this software is expected to be the easiest way to implement clinical decision support. Clinical decision support will affect how providers order imaging exams. This article should help readers understand how clinical decision support is expected to change the practice of the ordering providers, how the ACR Appropriateness Criteria are related to clinical decision support and how the ACR Appropriateness Criteria are developed. This will help the interpreting radiologist better communicate with the referring clinician, including informing the latter about how the clinical decision support software is making decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-018-4298-2DOI Listing
April 2019

Ultrasound findings in classic metaphyseal lesions: emphasis on the metaphyseal bone collar and zone of provisional calcification.

Pediatr Radiol 2019 06 28;49(7):913-921. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, 705 Riley Hospital Drive, Room 1053, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

Background: The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is highly specific for non-accidental trauma in infants. While the radiographic findings are well documented, there is little literature on the ultrasound (US) appearance.

Objective: To evaluate US findings in CMLs identified on radiographs.

Material And Methods: This institutional review board-approved, retrospective evaluation of targeted US of CMLs was performed in selected groups of children from 2014 to 2017. Only CMLs confidently identified on radiography by a consensus of two radiologists were included. US images were obtained with a linear transducer, including longitudinal images at lateral, anterior, medial and posterior aspects. Two pediatric radiologists evaluated the US appearance, specifically the metaphyseal bone collar for thickness, deformity and fracture, as well as the sonographic zone of provisional calcification for irregularity and appearance of multiple lines. Radiography was the reference standard.

Results: Twenty-two patients (13 female; mean age: 4.2 months) were identified, with 39 CMLs in the tibia (n=22), femur (n=11), humerus (n=3), radius (n=2) and fibula (n=1). Thirty-three of the 39 CMLs (85%) were identified on US, while 6 (15%) were not seen (false negatives). Thirty of the 39 (77%) had metaphyseal bone collar thickening, 29 (74%) had collar deformity and 12 (31%) had visible fracture of the collar. At the sonographic zone of provisional calcification, 16/39 (41%) had irregularity and 5 (13%) had multiple lines visible.

Conclusion: Identifying metaphyseal bone collar and zone of provisional calcification abnormalities is key to recognizing CMLs on US. While additional studies are necessary to evaluate the accuracy of US in the diagnosis of CMLs, our findings suggest US may have a potential role in either confirming or evaluating radiographically equivocal/occult CMLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-019-04373-wDOI Listing
June 2019

Compliance With Skeletal Surveys for Child Abuse in General Hospitals: A Statewide Quality Improvement Process.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Mar 12:1-6. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

1 Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, 705 Riley Hospital Dr, Rm 1053, Indianapolis, IN 46202.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to perform a statewide quality improvement process to improve compliance with the American College of Radiology (ACR) guidelines in performing skeletal surveys for suspected child abuse.

Subjects And Methods: We prospectively identified all outside hospital skeletal surveys for suspected child abuse in children younger than 3 years referred to our tertiary children's hospital in 2016-2017. We included a 3-month baseline and 21-month intervention period. The quality improvement process was based on sending educational material to all ACR member radiologists in the state and making telephone calls to radiology technologist team leaders whenever the surveys were not compliant, followed by e-mails with guidance on performing skeletal surveys. We documented the views obtained and compared them with the ACR guidelines. The percentage of compliance with each individual view was assessed with the chi-square test. The total number of compliant views per survey was evaluated with ANOVA.

Results: Two hundred twenty-seven patients (105 female) with a mean age of 0.8 year (SD, 0.67 year; range, 0.01-3 years) were evaluated. These 227 surveys (baseline, n = 27; postintervention, n = 200) were performed at 69 different outside hospitals. Compliance significantly (p = 0.006) improved from 25.9% (7/27) during baseline to 54.0% (108/200) after intervention. There was a nonsignificant trend of improved compliance between the first (51.9%; 41/79) and last 7-month (62.3%; 33/53) periods of intervention. Among individual views, only rib oblique views showed significantly (p = 0.02) improved compliance after the intervention, from 51.9% (14/27) to 73.5% (147/200).

Conclusion: The compliance rate with ACR guidelines for skeletal surveys in suspected child abuse at outside general hospitals significantly increased after implementation of a quality improvement process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20701DOI Listing
March 2019

Classic metaphyseal lesion acquired during physical therapy.

Clin Imaging 2019 Mar - Apr;54:100-102. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

A classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is highly specific for nonaccidental trauma. Missing CMLs can be devastating to the child as the child can continue to be exposed to inflicted trauma. Yet, there are rare case reports on CMLs that occur due to birth trauma, IV line placement, and treatment for clubfoot. We present a case of a CML in the tibia that occurred in the hospital secondary to physical therapy, that also caused a femoral shaft fracture, in a term child with hypertonic lower extremities secondary to myelomeningocele. Radiologists, as well as child abuse pediatricians, should be aware of the rare exception when CML is secondary to non-abusive injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2018.11.007DOI Listing
May 2019

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Sinusitis-Child.

J Am Coll Radiol 2018 Nov;15(11S):S403-S412

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Sinusitis is common in children that usually resolves spontaneously. Imaging is not part of the standard of care for initial diagnosis, however may be necessary in cases with persistent or chronic sinusitis to guide surgical intervention, or to rule out intracranial and vascular complications of sinusitis. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the leading imaging modalities. In this article, appropriateness in use of imaging modalities are discussed under common/clinically relevant scenarios. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2018.09.029DOI Listing
November 2018

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Acutely Limping Child Up To Age 5.

J Am Coll Radiol 2018 Nov;15(11S):S252-S262

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Imaging plays in important role in the evaluation of the acutely limping child. The decision-making process about initial imaging must consider the level of suspicion for infection and whether symptoms can be localized. The appropriateness of specific imaging examinations in the acutely limping child to age 5 years is discussed with attention in each clinical scenario to the role of radiography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Common causes of limping such as toddler's fracture, septic arthritis, transient synovitis, and osteomyelitis are discussed. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2018.09.030DOI Listing
November 2018

The added value of a second read by pediatric radiologists for outside skeletal surveys.

Pediatr Radiol 2019 02 26;49(2):203-209. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Riley Hospital for Children, Section of Child Protection Programs, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Fractures are the second most common finding in non-accidental trauma after cutaneous signs. Interpreting skeletal surveys could be challenging as some fractures are subtle and due to anatomical variations that can mimic injuries.

Objective: To determine the effect of a second read by a pediatric radiologist of skeletal surveys for suspected non-accidental trauma initially read at referring hospitals by general radiologists.

Materials And Methods: In 2016 and 2017, we identified all patients referred to our children's hospital with previous surveys performed and read at a community hospital by an outside radiologist. We excluded patients older than 3 years and studies performed at a children's hospital. The surveys were reviewed by a pediatric radiologist with the printed outside report available. Surveys with disagreement between outside read and pediatric radiologist read were reviewed by a second pediatric radiologist. A disagreement in the second read included only definite discrepant findings agreed upon by both pediatric radiologists. The Fisher exact test was performed to compare the ratio of discrepancies between readers in normal and abnormal surveys.

Results: Two hundred twenty-five surveys were performed (120 male) at 62 referring hospitals, with a mean patient age of 10.5 months (range: 5 days-3 years). The outside read identified fractures in 104/225 (46.2%) surveys. Thirty-seven of the 225 (16.4%) contained discrepancies in interpretation (n=111). Most of these disagreements (29/37, 78.4%) resulted in a significant change in the report. There was a significant (P<0.0001) difference between disagreement rate in outside read negative (4/111, 3.2%) and positive surveys (34/104, 31.7%). The second read identified additional fractures in 22/225 (9.8%) of the surveys and disagreed with first-read fractures in 17/256 (7.6%). Four of 19 (21.1%) classic metaphyseal lesions diagnosed by the outside read were normal variants; 18 classic metaphyseal lesions were missed by the outside read.

Conclusions: This study supports second reads by pediatric radiologists of skeletal surveys for non-accidental trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-018-4276-8DOI Listing
February 2019

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Hematuria-Child.

J Am Coll Radiol 2018 May;15(5S):S91-S103

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine, either visible to the eye (macroscopic hematuria) or as viewed under the microscope (microscopic hematuria). The clinical evaluation of children and adolescents with any form of hematuria begins with a meticulous history and thorough evaluation of the urine. The need for imaging evaluation depends on the clinical scenario in which hematuria presents, including the suspected etiology. Ultrasound and CT are the most common imaging methods used to assess hematuria in children, although other imaging modalities may be appropriate in certain instances. This review focuses on the following clinical variations of childhood hematuria: isolated hematuria (nonpainful, nontraumatic, and microscopic versus macroscopic), painful hematuria (ie, suspected nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis), and renal trauma with hematuria (microscopic versus macroscopic). The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2018.03.022DOI Listing
May 2018

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Headache-Child.

J Am Coll Radiol 2018 May;15(5S):S78-S90

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Headaches in children are not uncommon and have various causes. Proper neuroimaging of these children is very specific to the headache type. Care must be taken to choose and perform the most appropriate initial imaging examination in order to maximize the ability to properly determine the cause with minimum risk to the child. This evidence-based report discusses the different headache types in children and provides appropriate guidelines for imaging these children. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2018.03.017DOI Listing
May 2018

Characteristics of testicular tumors in prepubertal children (age 5-12 years).

J Pediatr Urol 2018 06 13;14(3):259.e1-259.e6. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Introduction: Testicular tumors in children have two peaks with different types of tumors; in the first 4 years of life a third to half are benign with increased risk of malignancy during puberty. The pathology of testicular tumors between these peaks, at the age of 5-12 years, is not known. We hypothesized that because of the low level of testosterone at this time, the incidence of malignant tumors is very low.

Objective: To compare malignancy risk of primary testicular tumors in children in the prepubertal period (5-12 years) compared with younger (0-4 years) and pubertal (13-18 years) children.

Study Design: We retrospectively (2002-2016) identified patients <18 years with surgery for primary testicular tumor. Patients with testicular tumor risk were excluded. Ultrasound studies were reviewed for contralateral testis volume, tumor morphology, and tumor maximal diameter, for three age groups: 0-4, 5-12, and 13-18 years. The Freeman-Halton extension of the Fisher exact probability test was adopted for categorical outcomes, and one-way ANOVA for continuous outcomes.

Results: Fifty-two patients (mean age 11.0 years, range 6 days-18 years) were identified. Malignant tumor prevalence significantly differed (p < 0.01) among age groups (Fig).: 0-4 (72.7%, 8/11), 5-12 (0%, 0/16), and 13-18 years (44.0%, 11/25). The most common tumor types in 5-12 years were epidermoid cyst (31.3%, 5/16) and tumor mimics (37.5%, 6/16). Prevalence of cystic tumors in 5-12 year olds was not significantly different compared with other age groups. Contralateral testicular volume >4 mL (pubertal surge) significantly (p < 0.01) differed among groups: 0-4 years (0/11), 5-12 years (3/16), and 13-18 years (19/20). In children aged 13-18 years the mean tumor maximal diameter (29.8 ± 4.4 mm) was significantly larger (p < 0.01) compared with children 5-12 years (9.3 ± 5.5 mm) and all malignant tumors had contralateral testicular volume >4 mL.

Discussion: We found that preadolescent children between the ages of 5 and 12 years have distinctive characteristics compared with the other age groups. Most importantly, no malignant testicular tumors were found in this age group. About a third of the children presented with an incidental testicular mass. The testicular tumors were significantly smaller (9.3 ± 6.7 mm) compared with those in children aged 13-18 years (29.8 ± 4.4 mm). There were limitations because of the retrospective nature of the study.

Conclusion: We found no malignant testicular tumors in children aged 5-12 years with no risk factors and prior to pubertal surge. Our study suggests use of more conservative treatment in this group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2018.01.013DOI Listing
June 2018

Fishtail deformity of the distal humerus: association with osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum.

Pediatr Radiol 2018 03 16;48(3):359-365. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, 702 Barnhill Drive, Rm. 1053, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

Background: Fishtail deformity is a rare deformity of the humerus exhibiting concavity of the lateral trochlea, resulting in ulnotrochlear joint derangement. We wanted to share our experience that osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum is a common associated complication.

Objective: To summarize imaging of fishtail deformity in children centered on complications of the radiocapitellar joint.

Materials And Methods: From the radiology information system, we identified all patients <18 years with the diagnosis of fishtail deformity. We included only patients with V-shaped deformity of the distal humerus due to concavity at the lateral trochlea (fishtail deformity). Each patient's initial injury, most recent radiograph and available MRI were evaluated for radiocapitellar joint derangement.

Results: Seven patients (4 males) with a mean age of 12.9 years (range: 9.7 to 14.4 years) were identified. Radiocapitellar joint abnormalities were identified in six patients including osteoarthritis (n=5), flattened and sclerotic capitellum (n=4), osteochondritis dissecans (2 associated with loose body, n=4) and radial head subluxation (n=2). In 4 patients, MRI detected changes of osteoarthritis (n=4), osteochondritis dissecans (n=2) and loose body (n=1) not identified on radiography. Two patients with osteochondritis dissecans underwent surgery and one patient has planned surgery.

Conclusion: Radiocapitellar joint abnormalities (particularly, capitellar osteochondritis dissecans) are common in patients with fishtail deformities. MRI should be performed in these patients since some abnormalities, possibly requiring surgery, are not detected on elbow radiographs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-017-4029-0DOI Listing
March 2018