Publications by authors named "Bo-Hyun Moon"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of dietary aspirin on high-LET radiation-induced prostaglandin E2 levels and gastrointestinal tumorigenesis in Apc mice.

Life Sci Space Res (Amst) 2021 Nov 10;31:85-91. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

Inevitable exposure to high-LET ionizing radiation (IR) present in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) could enhance gastrointestinal (GI) cancer incidence among astronauts undertaking deep space exploration and GI-cancer mortality has been predicted to far exceed NASA's limit of < 3% REID (Radiation exposure-induced death) from cancer. Therefore, the development of countermeasure agents against high-LET radiation-induced GI cancer is needed to safeguard astronauts during and after an outer space mission. The cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2 (COX2/PGE2) mediated activation of pro-inflammatory and oncogenic signaling has been reported to play an important role in persistent inflammation and GI-tumorigenesis after high-LET radiation exposure. Therefore, aspirin, a well-known inhibitor of the COX/PGE2 pathway, was evaluated as a potential countermeasure against Si-induced PGE2 and tumorigenesis in Apc, a murine model of human GI-cancer. Animals were fed either standard or aspirin supplemented diet (75, 150, or 300 mg/day of human equivalent dose) starting at the age of 4 weeks and continued till the end of the study, while mice were exposed to Si-ions (300 MeV/n; 69 keV/μm) at the age of 8 weeks. Serum PGE2 level, GI tumor size (>2mm), number, and cluster (>5 adjoining tumors) were analyzed at 150 days post-exposure. Aspirin led to a significant reduction in PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner but did not reduce Si-induced GI tumorigenesis even at the highest (300 mg/day) dose. In summary, this study suggests that aspirin could reduce high-LET IR-induced pro-inflammatory PGE2 levels, however, lacks the ability to reduce high-LET IR-induced GI tumorigenesis in Apc mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lssr.2021.09.001DOI Listing
November 2021

Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction-A Metabolomic Preprocessing Approach for Ionizing Radiation Exposure Assessment.

J Proteome Res 2019 08 22;18(8):3020-3031. Epub 2019 May 22.

Center for Applied NanoBiosience and Medicine , University of Arizona , 475 North Fifth Street , Phoenix , Arizona 85004 , United States.

The modern application of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to the field of radiation assessment and biodosimetry has allowed for the development of prompt biomarker screenings for radiation exposure. Our previous work on radiation assessment, in easily accessible biofluids (such as urine, blood, saliva), has revealed unique metabolic perturbations in response to radiation quality, dose, and dose rate. Nevertheless, the employment of swift injury assessment in the case of a radiological disaster still remains a challenge as current sample processing can be time consuming and cause sample degradation. To address these concerns, we report a metabolomics workflow using a mass spectrometry-compatible fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) technique. FPSE employs a matrix coated with sol-gel poly(caprolactone--dimethylsiloxane--caprolactone) that binds both polar and nonpolar metabolites in whole blood, eliminating serum processing steps. We confirm that the FPSE preparation technique combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry can distinguish radiation exposure markers such as taurine, carnitine, arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, and oleic acid found 24 h after 8 Gy irradiation. We also note the effect of different membrane fibers on both metabolite extraction efficiency and the temporal stabilization of metabolites in whole blood at room temperature. These findings suggest that the FPSE approach could work in future technology to triage irradiated individuals accurately, via biomarker screening, by providing a novel method to stabilize biofluids between collection and sample analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.9b00142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437658PMC
August 2019

Global metabolomic responses in urine from atm deficient mice in response to LD gamma irradiation doses.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2018 08 10;59(7):576-585. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia.

Exposures to ionizing radiation (IR) may either be accidental or intentional, for medical purposes or even through terrorist actions. As certain populations emerge to be more radiosensitive than others, it is imperative to assess those individuals and treat them accordingly. To demonstrate the feasibility of rapid identification of such cases, we utilized the highly radiosensitive mouse model Atm in the C57BL/6 background, and evaluated the urinary responses in 8-10 week old male mice at early time points (4, 24, and 72 h) after exposure to their respective LD doses [4 Gy for Atm , and 8 Gy for wild type (WT)]. Urinary profiles from heterozygous animals exhibited remarkably similar responses to WT before and after radiation exposure. However, genotypic differences (WT or Atm ) were the primary driver to responses to radiation. Putative metabolites were validated through tandem mass spectrometry and included riboflavin, uric acid, d-ribose, d-glucose, pantothenic acid, taurine, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, 2-oxoadipic acid, glutaric acid, 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine, and hippuric acid. These metabolites mapped to several interconnected metabolic pathways which suggest that radiosensitive mouse models have underlying differences significantly impacting overall metabolism. This was further amplified by ionizing radiation at different time points. This study further emphasizes that genetically based radiosensitivity is reflected in the metabolic processes, and can be directly observed in urine. These differences in turn can potentially be used to identify individuals that may require altered medical treatment in an emergency radiological situation or modification of a regimen during a radiotherapy session. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:576-585, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.22202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6113093PMC
August 2018

Increased Transgenerational Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Offspring of Ionizing Radiation Exposed Parent APC Mice.

J Cancer 2017 1;8(10):1769-1773. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC USA.

The purpose of the study was to assess transgenerational intestinal tumorigenic effects of low dose ionizing radiation employing a well-characterized mouse model of human colorectal cancer. Mice (6 to 8 weeks old APC mice; n=20 per study group) were exposed to whole-body 25 cGy x-rays and mated 2 days post-irradiation. Intestinal tumorigenesis in male and female F1 mice from No Parents Irradiated (NPI), Both Parents Irradiated (BPI), and Male Parent Irradiated (MPI) groups were compared 210 days after birth. Male and female Direct Parent Irradiated (DPI) groups were additional controls for male and female F1 groups respectively. Data showed higher intestinal tumor frequency (± standard error of the mean) in male and female F1 from BPI (male: 7.81 ± 0.91; female: 5.45 ± 0.36) as well as from MPI (male: 6.30 ± 0.33; female: 4.45 ± 0.33) mice relative to F1 from NPI mice (male: 4.2 ± 0.48; female: 3.35 ± 0.37). Compared to male and female DPI (male: 5.55 ± 0.40; female: 3.60 ± 0.22), tumor frequency in F1 mice of BPI and MPI, though higher, was not statistically significant except for DPI vs. BPI in male mice. Additionally, both BPI and MPI showed increased frequency of larger tumors relative to NPI. In summary, our observations demonstrated that the APC mice due to its low spontaneous tumor frequency could serve as an effective model to study risk of transgenerational carcinogenesis in gastrointestinal tissues after exposure to clinically relevant low doses of ionizing radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.17803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5556639PMC
July 2017

Low and high dose rate heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis in APC mice.

Life Sci Space Res (Amst) 2017 May 29;13:45-50. Epub 2017 Apr 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Research Building, Room E518, 3970 Reservoir Rd., NW Washington, DC 20057, USA. Electronic address:

Ionizing radiation (IR) is a recognized risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and astronauts undertaking long duration space missions are expected to receive IR doses in excess of permissible limits with implications for colorectal carcinogenesis. Exposure to IR in outer space occurs at low doses and dose rates, and energetic heavy ions due to their high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics remain a major concern for CRC risk in astronauts. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model (APC) of human colorectal cancer was significantly higher after exposure to high dose rate energetic heavy ions relative to low-LET γ radiation. The purpose of the current study was to compare intestinal tumorigenesis in APC mice after exposure to energetic heavy ions at high (50cGy/min) and relatively low (0.33cGy/min) dose rate. Male and female mice (6-8 weeks old) were exposed to either 10 or 50cGy of Si (energy: 300MeV/n; LET: 70keV/μm) or Fe (energy: 1000MeV/n; LET: 148keV/μm) ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Mice (n=20 mice/group) were euthanized and intestinal and colon tumor frequency and size were counted 150days after radiation exposure. Intestinal tumorigenesis in male mice exposed to Fe was similar for high and low dose rate exposures. Although male mice showed a decreasing trend at low dose rate relative to high dose rate exposures, the differences in tumor frequency between the two types of exposures were not statistically significant after Si radiation. In female mice, intestinal tumor frequency was similar for both radiation type and dose rates tested. In both male and female mice intestinal tumor size was not different after high and low dose rate radiation exposures. Colon tumor frequency in male and female mice after high and low dose rate energetic heavy ions was also not significantly different. In conclusion, intestinal and colonic tumor frequency and size was similar irrespective of energetic heavy ion radiation dose rate suggesting that carcinogenic potential of energetic heavy ions is independent of dose rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lssr.2017.04.003DOI Listing
May 2017

A Disease-Associated Microbial and Metabolomics State in Relatives of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Nov 2;2(6):750-766. Epub 2016 Jul 2.

Susan and Leonard Feinstein Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York.

Background & Aims: Microbes may increase susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by producing bioactive metabolites that affect immune activity and epithelial function. We undertook a family based study to identify microbial and metabolic features of IBD that may represent a predisease risk state when found in healthy first-degree relatives.

Methods: Twenty-one families with pediatric IBD were recruited, comprising 26 Crohn's disease patients in clinical remission, 10 ulcerative colitis patients in clinical remission, and 54 healthy siblings/parents. Fecal samples were collected for 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics, and calprotectin measurement. Individuals were grouped into microbial and metabolomics states using Dirichlet multinomial models. Multivariate models were used to identify microbes and metabolites associated with these states.

Results: Individuals were classified into 2 microbial community types. One was associated with IBD but irrespective of disease status, had lower microbial diversity, and characteristic shifts in microbial composition including increased Enterobacteriaceae, consistent with dysbiosis. This microbial community type was associated similarly with IBD and reduced microbial diversity in an independent pediatric cohort. Individuals also clustered bioinformatically into 2 subsets with shared fecal metabolomics signatures. One metabotype was associated with IBD and was characterized by increased bile acids, taurine, and tryptophan. The IBD-associated microbial and metabolomics states were highly correlated, suggesting that they represented an integrated ecosystem. Healthy relatives with the IBD-associated microbial community type had an increased incidence of elevated fecal calprotectin.

Conclusions: Healthy first-degree relatives can have dysbiosis associated with an altered intestinal metabolome that may signify a predisease microbial susceptibility state or subclinical inflammation. Longitudinal prospective studies are required to determine whether these individuals have a clinically significant increased risk for developing IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2016.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5247316PMC
November 2016

An Integrated Multi-Omic Approach to Assess Radiation Injury on the Host-Microbiome Axis.

Radiat Res 2016 09 11;186(3):219-34. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

a   Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology and.

Medical responders to radiological and nuclear disasters currently lack sufficient high-throughput and minimally invasive biodosimetry tools to assess exposure and injury in the affected populations. For this reason, we have focused on developing robust radiation exposure biomarkers in easily accessible biofluids such as urine, serum and feces. While we have previously reported on urine and serum biomarkers, here we assessed perturbations in the fecal metabolome resulting from exposure to external X radiation in vivo. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is of particular importance in radiation biodosimetry due to its constant cell renewal and sensitivity to radiation-induced injury. While the clinical GI symptoms such as pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are manifested after radiation exposure, no reliable bioindicator has been identified for radiation-induced gastrointestinal injuries. To this end, we focused on determining a fecal metabolomic signature in X-ray irradiated mice. There is overwhelming evidence that the gut microbiota play an essential role in gut homeostasis and overall health. Because the fecal metabolome is tightly correlated with the composition and diversity of the microorganism in the gut, we also performed fecal 16S rRNA sequencing analysis to determine the changes in the microbial composition postirradiation. We used in-house bioinformatics tools to integrate the 16S rRNA sequencing and metabolomic data, and to elucidate the gut integrated ecosystem and its deviations from a stable host-microbiome state that result from irradiation. The 16S rRNA sequencing results indicated that radiation caused remarkable alterations of the microbiome in feces at the family level. Increased abundance of common members of Lactobacillaceae and Staphylococcaceae families, and decreased abundances of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae and Clostridiaceae families were found after 5 and 12 Gy irradiation. The metabolomic data revealed statistically significant changes in the microbial-derived products such as pipecolic acid, glutaconic acid, urobilinogen and homogentisic acid. In addition, significant changes were detected in bile acids such as taurocholic acid and 12-ketodeoxycholic acid. These changes may be associated with the observed shifts in the abundance of intestinal microbes, such as R. gnavus , which can transform bile acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR14306.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5304359PMC
September 2016

Relative Biological Effectiveness of Energetic Heavy Ions for Intestinal Tumorigenesis Shows Male Preponderance and Radiation Type and Energy Dependence in APC(1638N/+) Mice.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2016 May 31;95(1):131-138. Epub 2015 Oct 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia. Electronic address:

Purpose: There are uncertainties associated with the prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk from highly energetic heavy ion (HZE) radiation. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis induced after exposure to high linear energy transfer (high-LET) HZE radiation spanning a range of doses and LET in a CRC mouse model and compared the results with the effects of low-LET γ radiation.

Methods And Materials: Male and female APC(1638N/+) mice (n=20 mice per group) were whole-body exposed to sham-radiation, γ rays, (12)C, (28)Si, or (56)Fe radiation. For the >1 Gy HZE dose, we used γ-ray equitoxic doses calculated using relative biological effectiveness (RBE) determined previously. The mice were euthanized 150 days after irradiation, and intestinal and colon tumor frequency was scored.

Results: The highest number of tumors was observed after (28)Si, followed by (56)Fe and (12)C radiation, and tumorigenesis showed a male preponderance, especially after (28)Si. Analysis showed greater tumorigenesis per unit of radiation (per cGy) at lower doses, suggesting either radiation-induced elimination of target cells or tumorigenesis reaching a saturation point at higher doses. Calculation of RBE for intestinal and colon tumorigenesis showed the highest value with (28)Si, and lower doses showed greater RBE relative to higher doses.

Conclusions: We have demonstrated that the RBE of heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colon tumorigenesis is related to ion energy, LET, gender, and peak RBE is observed at an LET of 69 keV/μm. Our study has implications for understanding risk to astronauts undertaking long duration space missions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.10.057DOI Listing
May 2016

Metabolomic profiling of urine samples from mice exposed to protons reveals radiation quality and dose specific differences.

Radiat Res 2015 Apr 13;183(4):382-90. Epub 2015 Mar 13.

a  Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology;

As space travel is expanding to include private tourism and travel beyond low-Earth orbit, so is the risk of exposure to space radiation. Galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events have the potential to expose space travelers to significant doses of radiation that can lead to increased cancer risk and other adverse health consequences. Metabolomics has the potential to assess an individual's risk by exploring the metabolic perturbations in a biofluid or tissue. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.5 and 2 Gy of 1 GeV/nucleon of protons and the levels of metabolites were evaluated in urine at 4 h after radiation exposure through liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Significant differences were identified in metabolites that map to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and fatty acid metabolism, suggesting that energy metabolism is severely impacted after exposure to protons. Additionally, various pathways of amino acid metabolism (tryptophan, tyrosine, arginine and proline and phenylalanine) were affected with potential implications for DNA damage repair and cognitive impairment. Finally, presence of products of purine and pyrimidine metabolism points to direct DNA damage or increased apoptosis. Comparison of these metabolomic data to previously published data from our laboratory with gamma radiation strongly suggests a more pronounced effect on metabolism with protons. This is the first metabolomics study with space radiation in an easily accessible biofluid such as urine that further investigates and exemplifies the biological differences at early time points after exposure to different radiation qualities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR3967.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4524563PMC
April 2015

Wip1 abrogation decreases intestinal tumor frequency in APC(Min/+) mice irrespective of radiation quality.

Radiat Res 2014 Sep 12;182(3):345-9. Epub 2014 Aug 12.

a  Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057.

Low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) γ-ray exposure is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to their high-LET nature, energetic iron ions found in space are expected to pose greater CRC risks to astronauts undertaking long-duration space missions beyond low Earth orbit. Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) is important for cellular DNA damage response and its abrogation has been shown to inhibit spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice, a well-studied mouse model of human CRC. However, the relationship of Wip1 to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis, especially by energetic iron ions, has not been investigated in APC(Min/+) mice. We have previously reported that there is a greater intestinal tumorigenic potential of iron-ion radiation relative to (137)Cs γ rays, so the purpose of the current study was to investigate whether Wip1 abrogation could influence high-LET dependent intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice. Intestinal tumor frequency and grade were assessed in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) mice and results were compared to those in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice after exposure to a mean absorbed dose of 2 Gy from (137)Cs γ rays or 1.6 Gy from 1 GeV/n iron ions. Cellular differentiation and proliferation were also assessed in the intestinal tumors of sham-irradiated and irradiated mice. Decreased tumor frequency and lower tumor grade were observed in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice. Notably, a similar decrease (∼6-fold in both groups) in tumor number was observed in sham-irradiated and γ-irradiated APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice. However, tumorigenesis in the energetic iron-ion exposed group was reduced ∼8-fold in APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice. A significantly lower proliferation/differentiation index in tumors of iron-ion exposed APC(Min/+)/Wip1(-/-) relative to APC(Min/+)/Wip1(+/+) mice suggests that reduced proliferation and enhanced differentiation as a result of Wip1 abrogation maybe involved. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that the absence of Wip1 blocked radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis irrespective of radiation quality and has implications for developing preventive strategies against the tumorigenic potential of radiation exposure on earth and in outer space.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR13770.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5317043PMC
September 2014

Modulation of fatty acid and bile acid metabolism by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α protects against alcoholic liver disease.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014 Jun 28;38(6):1520-31. Epub 2014 Apr 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia.

Background: Chronic alcohol intake affects liver function and causes hepatic pathological changes. It has been shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-null mice developed more pronounced hepatic changes than wild-type (WT) mice after chronic exposure to a diet containing 4% alcohol. The remarkable similarity between the histopathology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in Ppara-null model and in humans, and the fact that PPARα expression and activity in human liver are less than one-tenth of those in WT mouse liver make Ppara-null a good system to investigate ALD.

Methods: In this study, the Ppara-null model was used to elucidate the dynamic regulation of PPARα activity during chronic alcohol intake. Hepatic transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses were used to examine alterations of gene expression and metabolites associated with pathological changes. The changes triggered by alcohol consumption on gene expression and metabolites in Ppara-null mice were compared with those in WT mice.

Results: The results showed that in the presence of PPARα, 3 major metabolic pathways in mitochondria, namely the fatty acid β-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the electron transfer chain, were induced in response to a 2-month alcohol feeding, while these responses were greatly reduced in the absence of PPARα. In line with the transcriptional modulations of these metabolic pathways, a progressive accumulation of triglycerides, a robust increase in hepatic cholic acid and its derivatives, and a strong induction of fibrogenesis genes were observed exclusively in alcohol-fed Ppara-null mice.

Conclusions: These observations indicate that PPARα plays a protective role to enhance mitochondrial function in response to chronic alcohol consumption by adaptive transcriptional activation and suggest that activation of this nuclear receptor may be of therapeutic value in the treatment for ALD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.12424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4047177PMC
June 2014

High-energy particle-induced tumorigenesis throughout the gastrointestinal tract.

Radiat Res 2014 Feb 10;181(2):162-71. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

a Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

Epidemiological data reveals the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as one of the main sites for low-LET radiation-induced cancers. Importantly, the use of particle therapy is increasing, but cancer risk by high-LET particles is still poorly understood. This gap in our knowledge also remains a major limiting factor in planning long-term space missions. Therefore, assessing risks and identifying predisposing factors for carcinogenesis induced by particle radiation is crucial for both astronauts and cancer survivors. We have previously shown that exposure to relatively high doses of high-energy (56)Fe ions induced higher intestinal tumor frequency and grade in the small intestine of Apc(Min/+) mice than γ rays. However, due to the high number of spontaneous lesions (∼30) that develop in Apc(Min/+) animals, this Apc mutant model is not suitable to investigate effects of cumulative doses <1 Gy, which are relevant for risk assessment in astronauts and particle radiotherapy patients. However, Apc(1638N/+) mice develop a relatively small number of spontaneous lesions (∼3 per animal) in both small intestine and colon, and thus we propose a better model for studies on radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated model particle radiation increases tumor frequency and grade in the entire gastrointestinal tract (stomach and more distal intestine) after high- and low-radiation doses whether in the Apc(1638N/+). We have previously reported that an increase in small intestinal tumor multiplicity after exposure to γ rays was dependent on gender in Apc(1638N/+) mice, and here we investigated responses to particle radiation in the same model. Phenotypical and histopathological observations were accompanied by late changes in number and position of mitotic cells in intestinal crypts from animals exposed to different radiation types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR13502.1DOI Listing
February 2014

Exposure to ionizing radiation induced persistent gene expression changes in mouse mammary gland.

Radiat Oncol 2012 Dec 5;7:205. Epub 2012 Dec 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, 3970 Reservoir Rd, Washington, DC, NW 20057-1468, USA.

Background: Breast tissue is among the most sensitive tissues to the carcinogenic actions of ionizing radiation and epidemiological studies have linked radiation exposure to breast cancer. Currently, molecular understanding of radiation carcinogenesis in mammary gland is hindered due to the scarcity of in vivo long-term follow up data. We undertook this study to delineate radiation-induced persistent alterations in gene expression in mouse mammary glands 2-month after radiation exposure.

Methods: Six to eight week old female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy of whole body γ radiation and mammary glands were surgically removed 2-month after radiation. RNA was isolated and microarray hybridization performed for gene expression analysis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used for biological interpretation of microarray data. Real time quantitative PCR was performed on selected genes to confirm the microarray data.

Results: Compared to untreated controls, the mRNA levels of a total of 737 genes were significantly (p<0.05) perturbed above 2-fold of control. More genes (493 genes; 67%) were upregulated than the number of downregulated genes (244 genes; 33%). Functional analysis of the upregulated genes mapped to cell proliferation and cancer related canonical pathways such as 'ERK/MAPK signaling', 'CDK5 signaling', and '14-3-3-mediated signaling'. We also observed upregulation of breast cancer related canonical pathways such as 'breast cancer regulation by Stathmin1', and 'HER-2 signaling in breast cancer' in IPA. Interestingly, the downregulated genes mapped to fewer canonical pathways involved in cell proliferation. We also observed that a number of genes with tumor suppressor function (GPRC5A, ELF1, NAB2, Sema4D, ACPP, MAP2, RUNX1) persistently remained downregulated in response to radiation exposure. Results from qRT-PCR on five selected differentially expressed genes confirmed microarray data. The PCR data on PPP4c, ELF1, MAPK12, PLCG1, and E2F6 showed similar trend in up and downregulation as has been observed with the microarray.

Conclusions: Exposure to a clinically relevant radiation dose led to long-term activation of mammary gland genes involved in proliferative and metabolic pathways, which are known to have roles in carcinogenesis. When considered along with downregulation of a number of tumor suppressor genes, our study has implications for breast cancer initiation and progression after therapeutic radiation exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748-717X-7-205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3551737PMC
December 2012

Sex-dependent differences in intestinal tumorigenesis induced in Apc1638N/+ mice by exposure to γ rays.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2013 Jan 13;85(1):223-9. Epub 2012 Apr 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia 20057, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 and 5 Gy radiation doses and to investigate the interplay of gender and radiation with regard to intestinal tumorigenesis in an adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutant mouse model.

Methods And Materials: Apc1638N/+ female and male mice were exposed whole body to either 1 Gy or 5 Gy of γ rays and euthanized when most of the treated mice became moribund. Small and large intestines were processed to determine tumor burden, distribution, and grade. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 and estrogen receptor (ER)-α were also assessed by immunohistochemistry.

Results: We observed that, with both 1 Gy and 5 Gy of γ rays, females displayed reduced susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis compared with males. As for radiation effect on small intestinal tumor progression, although no substantial differences were found in the relative frequency and degree of dysplasia of adenomas in irradiated animals compared with controls, invasive carcinomas were found in 1-Gy- and 5-Gy-irradiated animals. Radiation exposure was also shown to induce an increase in protein levels of proliferation marker Ki-67 and sex-hormone receptor ER-α in both non tumor mucosa and intestinal tumors from irradiated male mice.

Conclusions: We observed important sex-dependent differences in susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc1638N/+ mutants. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that exposure to radiation doses as low as 1 Gy can induce a significant increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity as well as enhance tumor progression in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.02.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3689297PMC
January 2013

Generation of cancerous neural stem cells forming glial tumor by oncogenic stimulation.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2012 Jun;8(2):532-45

Department of Life Sciences, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742, Korea.

Neural stem cells in the brain have been shown to be 'cells of origin' of certain brain cancers, most notably astrocytomas and medulloblastoma. In particular, in a mouse model, the targeting of genetic modifications for astrocytoma-relevant tumor suppressors to neural stem cells causes malignant astrocytoma to arise, thereby suggesting that astrocytoma is derived from neural stem cells. However, it remains to be determined whether this important finding is reproducible in humans. Herein, we generated cancerous neural stem cells by introducing a set of oncogenes to human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs). Serial genetic modification with v-myc for immortalization and consequent H-Ras for oncogenic stimulation with viral gene delivery proved sufficient to induce the transformation of hfNSCs. The resultant F3.Ras cells evidenced a variety of the hallmarks of brain cancer stem cells and most importantly were tumorigenic, forming brain cancers consisting of both a large number of differentiated and a very few undifferentiated populations of cells in an in vivo mouse model. On the contrary, oligodendrocytes derived from the v-myc expressing parent neural stem cells were not transformed by H-Ras, which suggests that neural stem cells may be more susceptible to cancerous transformation by a combination of oncogenes. We also determined that v-myc expressing fetal neural stem cells were defective in p53 response upon the introduction of H-Ras; this finding suggests that an insufficient p53-dependent tumor suppressive mechanism would be associated with high oncogenic susceptibility to H-Ras introduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-011-9280-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4043123PMC
June 2012

Wip1-expressing feeder cells retain pluripotency of co-cultured mouse embryonic stem cells under leukemia inhibitory factor-deprivated condition.

Arch Pharm Res 2010 Aug 28;33(8):1253-60. Epub 2010 Aug 28.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, Pochon, 487-010, Korea.

The optimization of in vitro culture conditions for embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a matter of critical importance; a prompt supply of a sufficient population of cells that retain their pluripotency capabilities must be secured in order to make possible future cell therapies. Despite a number of reports asserting that a variety of cytokines, signaling ligands, and small molecules can help in maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs, mammalian feeder cells continue to be broadly accepted as the method of choice for ESC cultures. This appears to be because mammalian feeder cells seem to produce some as-yet-unidentified factor that makes them very effective as feeder cells. In this study, we investigated wild-type p53 inducible phosphatase (Wip1), the knockdown of which increases Wnt inhibitory factor-1 expression, in its feeder functions toward mouse embryonic stem cells, lowering the effect of Wnt, one of key signaling in maintaining stemness of ESCs. For this purpose, Wip1 was stably expressed in mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line (STO) using retro-viral gene delivery system and then the function as a feeder cell was monitored either with or without leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in culture medium. We demonstrated that mouse embryonic stem cells grown with Wip1 expressing STO showed higher alkaline phosphatase activity and sustained Oct-4 expression level even under LIF deprivation condition compared to both control and Wip1 phosphatase activity dead mutant expressing STO. These results imply that Wip1 phosphatase activity in feeder cells is important to retain pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells under LIF deprivation conditions. These results indicate that genetically engineered feeder cells such as Wip1 expressing cell lines, are alternative strategy for the optimization of maintenance and expansion of mouse embryonic stem cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12272-010-0816-yDOI Listing
August 2010

Zap70 functions to maintain stemness of mouse embryonic stem cells by negatively regulating Jak1/Stat3/c-Myc signaling.

Stem Cells 2010 Sep;28(9):1476-86

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, Pochon-si Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase-70 (Zap70), a Syk family tyrosine kinase, has been reported to be present exclusively in normal T-cells, natural killer cells, and B cells, serving as a pivotal regulator of antigen-mediated receptor signaling and development. In this study, we report that Zap70 is expressed in undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and may critically regulate self-renewal and pluripotency in mESCs. We found that Zap70 knocked-down mESCs (Zap70KD) show sustained self-renewal and defective differentiation. In addition, we present evidence that the sustained self-renewal in Zap70KD is associated with enhanced Jak/Stat3 signaling and c-Myc induction. These altered signaling appears to result from upregulated leukemia inhibitory factor receptor and downregulated src homology region 2 domain containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) phosphatase activity. On the basis of these results, we propose that in undifferentiated mESCs, Zap70 plays important roles in modulating the balance between self-renewal capacity and pluripotent differentiation ability as a key regulator of the Jak/Stat3/c-Myc signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3164580PMC
September 2010

Senescent growth arrest in mesenchymal stem cells is bypassed by Wip1-mediated downregulation of intrinsic stress signaling pathways.

Stem Cells 2009 Aug;27(8):1963-75

Stem Cell Research Laboratory, CHA Stem Cell Institute, Seoul, Korea.

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been widely studied as a source of primary adult stem cells for cell therapy because of their multidifferentiation potential; however, the growth arrest (also known as "premature senescence") often found in hMSCs cultured in vitro has been a major obstacle to the in-depth characterization of these cells. In addition, the inability to maintain constant cell growth hampers the development of additional genetic modifications aimed at achieving desired levels of differentiation to specific tissues; however, the molecular mechanisms that govern this phenomenon remain unclear, with the exception of a few studies demonstrating that induction of p16INK4a is responsible for this senescence-like event. Here, we observed that the premature growth arrest in hMSCs occurs in parallel with the induction of p16INK4a, following abrogation of inhibitory phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. These stress responses were concurrent with increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) from mitochondria and increased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity. The introduction of Wip1 (wild-type p53 inducible phosphatase-1), a well-studied stress modulator, significantly lowered p16INK4a expression and led to p38 MAPK inactivation, although it failed to affect the levels of ROSs. Moreover, the suppression of stress responses by Wip1 apparently extended the life span of hMSCs, compared with control conditions, while maintaining their multilineage differentiation potential. Based on these results, we suggest that senescent growth arrest in hMSCs may result from activation of stress signaling pathways and consequent onset of stress responses, due in part to ROS production during prolonged in vitro culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.121DOI Listing
August 2009

A single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin that produces reduced food and water intake induces long-lasting expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and proopiomelanocortin in rat brain.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2008 Dec 11;233(2):314-22. Epub 2008 Sep 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Division of Brain Korea 21, Biomedical Science, Korea University College of Medicine, 126-1, 5-ga, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705, Republic of Korea.

The mechanism by which a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces food and water intake is unclear. We examined whether such a food and water intake-reducing single administration of TCDD induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in rat brain. To observe time-dependent changes in these neuropeptides, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given TCDD (50 microg/kg) and terminated 1, 2, 4, or 7 days later. In addition, to observe dose-dependent changes in feeding and neuropeptides, rats were also given a range of TCDD doses (12.5, 25, or 50 microg/kg) and terminated 14 days later. TCDD suppressed food and water intake over 14 days in a dose-dependent manner. TCDD treatment also increased CRF and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus, respectively, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These increases were related to decreased food intake following TCDD administration. TCDD treatment increased AVP and CRF mRNA levels in the PVN, and these increases were related to decreased water intake. Interestingly, the increases in CRF, AVP and POMC expression were observed 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration. These results suggest that a single administration of TCDD induced long-lasting increases in CRF, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and that these changes are related to reduced food and water intake 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2008.09.001DOI Listing
December 2008

Lamotrigine prevents MK801-induced alterations in early growth response factor-1 mRNA levels and immunoreactivity in the rat brain.

Eur J Pharmacol 2008 Jul 7;589(1-3):58-65. Epub 2008 May 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Korea University College of Medicine, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

MK801 (dizocilpine) induces selective neurotoxic effects in the retrosplenial cortex, ranging from neuronal vacuolization to irreversible neurodegeneration depending on the dose administered. Although lamotrigine prevents MK801-induced neuronal vacuolization in the retrosplenial cortex 4 h after injection, it is not clear whether lamotrigine attenuates the subsequent neurodegeneration that occurs 3-4 days later. Because early growth response factor-1 (egr-1) plays a key role in neurodegeneration and its expression is induced in the retrosplenial cortex following MK801 treatment, it is possible that lamotrigine may attenuate MK801-induced neurodegeneration via inhibition of egr-1 expression in the retrosplenial cortex. To address this issue, we treated rats with lamotrigine (10 or 20 mg/kg) followed by MK801 (2 mg/kg) and measured changes in the levels of egr-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in the retrosplenial cortex and other brain regions 3 h later. We also evaluated the effects of these treatments on neurodegeneration 4 days following treatment using Fluoro-Jade B staining. MK801 treatment increased egr-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in the restrosplenial, cingulate, entorhinal and piriform cortices, but decreased levels in hippocampal subfields. These MK801-induced changes in egr-1 expression were significantly inhibited by lamotrigine pretreatment. In addition, MK801-induced neurodegeneration in the retrosplenial cortex was partially blocked by lamotrigine pretreatment in a dose dependent manner. These results demonstrate that lamotrigine pretreatment prevents the MK801-induced upregulation of egr-1 expression in a region-selective manner, and suggest that this effect may contribute, in part, to the attenuation of MK801-induced neurodegeneration in the retrosplenial cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.04.059DOI Listing
July 2008

Chronic mild stress decreases survival, but not proliferation, of new-born cells in adult rat hippocampus.

Exp Mol Med 2006 Feb;38(1):44-54

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705, Korea.

New-born cells continue to proliferate and survive to become mature granule cells in adult rat hippocampus. Although this process, known as neurogenesis, is inhibited by acute stress, it is not clear whether chronic stress affects neurogenesis. To determine whether chronic mild stress (CMS) influences neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CMS and administered bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) before or after CMS to observe the survival/differentiation or proliferation of new-born cells, respectively. In addition, we measured brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA in the granule cell layer (GCL) of the hippocampus, because BDNF is known to play an important role in the survival of new-born cells. CMS significantly decreased the survival of new-born cells in the GCL, but did not influence the proliferation or differentiation of new-born cells. CMS did not affect the proliferation and survival of new-born cells in the hilus. In addition, CMS did not change BDNF mRNA levels in the GCL. These results demonstrate that CMS reduces the survival of new-born cells but not of their proliferation, suggesting that repeated mild stress could influence a part of neurogenesis, but not the whole part of neurogenesis. These results raise the possibility that the survival of new-born cells may be suppressed in the presence of normal BDNF mRNA levels in GCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emm.2006.6DOI Listing
February 2006

Effects of repeated tianeptine treatment on CRF mRNA expression in non-stressed and chronic mild stress-exposed rats.

Neuropharmacology 2006 Jun 28;50(7):824-33. Epub 2006 Feb 28.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.

Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) may play a role in depression and that this dysregulation may be corrected by antidepressant drug treatment. Here, we examined whether chronic mild stress (CMS) alters CRF mRNA levels in stress-related brain areas including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), and whether repeated tianeptine treatment can attenuate CMS-induced changes in CRF mRNA levels. Male rats were exposed to CMS for 19 days, and control animals were subjected to brief handling. Both groups were injected daily with tianeptine or saline. CMS significantly increased CRF mRNA levels in the dorsal BNST (dBNST), but not in other areas. Repeated tianeptine treatment prevented the CMS-induced increase in CRF mRNA levels in the dBNST, and reduced CRF mRNA levels in dBNST in non-stressed controls. Moreover, repeated tianeptine treatment significantly decreased CRF mRNA levels in the ventral BNST and CeA of non-stressed controls as well as CMS-exposed rats. These results show that CMS induces a rather selective increase of CRF mRNA in the dBNST. In addition, these results suggest that repeated tianeptine treatment diminishes the basal activity of CRF neurons and reduces their sensitivity to stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2005.12.003DOI Listing
June 2006

Doxapram increases corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity and mRNA expression in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala.

Peptides 2005 Nov 25;26(11):2246-51. Epub 2005 Apr 25.

Department of Pharmacology, Korea University College of Medicine, Sungbuk-gu, Anam-dong 5-ga 126-1, Seoul 136-705, Republic of Korea.

Doxapram causes panic anxiety in humans. To determine whether doxapram alters corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN), or bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), we used immunohistochemistry to measure CRF peptide in these brain areas after doxapram injection. Doxapram injection significantly increased CRF-like immunoreactivity (CRF-IR) within the CeA, but not in the BNST or PVN, and this increase was significant 2h after injection. In addition, doxapram significantly increased CRF mRNA expression within the CeA, and this was most prominent 30min after injection. These results suggest that doxapram selectively increases CRF expression within the CeA, and that this is mediated by increased CRF gene transcription. This increase in CRF-IR within the CeA might explain the doxapram-induced anxiety reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2005.03.036DOI Listing
November 2005
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