Publications by authors named "Bo Yu"

1,783 Publications

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Successive Redox-Reaction-Triggered Interface Radical Polymerization for Growing Hydrogel Coatings on Diverse Substrates.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Aug 7. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, 18 Middle Tianshui Road, 730000, Lanzhou, CHINA.

Growing lubricious hydrogel coatings in controllable manners on diverse material surfaces demonstrates promising applications. Here, a surface modification method is reported for in-situ growing hydrogel coatings onto surfaces of diverse substrates in the absence of UV assistance. It is performed by decorating substrates with a universal mussel-inspired synthetic adhesive with catechol groups. Upon being immersed in reaction solution, these groups can assist substrate bonding and in-situ capture and reduce Fe 3+ into Fe 2+ for decomposing S 2 O 8 2- into SO 4 - • catalytically at the interface to initiate interface polymerization of monomers. As a result, hydrogel coatings with controllable thickness could be grown on surfaces of arbitrary substrates to change their surface characteristics regardless of materials size, category, geometry and transparency, implying considerable potential in surface engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202209741DOI Listing
August 2022

Retraction Note: TGFβ3 recruits endogenous mesenchymal stem cells to initiate bone regeneration.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2022 Aug 5;13(1):402. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

National & Regional United Engineering Lab of Tissue Engineering, Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, the Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-022-03108-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354353PMC
August 2022

Complete chloroplast genomes and comparative analyses of Hippeastrum 'milady', Hippeastrum albertii and Hippeastrum reticulatum (Amaryllidaceae).

PLoS One 2022 5;17(8):e0271335. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Environmental Horticulture Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Hippeastrum is a genus of ornamental plants with large, brightly colored flowers. Due to the very high seed-setting rate of the hybridization of Hippeastrum, the large population of hybrid progeny and the existence of superparent inheritance, it is difficult to trace the origin of the varieties collected from the market during breeding. In this study, we analyzed the chloroplast genomes of Hippeastrum 'Milady', H. alberti, and H. reticulatum using the Illumina NovaSeq sequencing platform and generated full-length sequences of 158,067, 158,067, and 158,522 bp, respectively. All three genomes had the typical tetrad structure. The large single copy, small single copy, and inverted repeat regions of H. reticulatum were observed to be respectively 277, 138, and 20 bp longer than the corresponding regions of H. 'Milady' and H. alberti. The results of comparative analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), Ka/Ks ratios, codon preferences, and complete sequences of chloroplasts of these three taxa and 14 other plant species were as follows. First, the chloroplast genomes of H. 'Milady', H. alberti, and H. reticulatum contain 209, 209, and 211 SSR sites, respectively, most of which (123, 123, and 122, respectively) are single nucleotide repeats. Second, leucine, arginine, and serine are the most frequently used amino acids in the three chloroplast genomes. Third, H. 'Milady', H. alberti, and H. reticulatum are more closely related to Lycoris and Narcissus than to Allium and Agapanthus. Our results will provide information on the study of origins or relatedness of native species, and the identification of cultivars.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0271335PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355175PMC
August 2022

Preadmission Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Had Increased Mortality in Intensive Care Units.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2022 22;15:2135-2148. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030, People's Republic of China.

Aim: To explore the clinical outcomes among preadmission insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in intensive care units (ICU).

Patients And Methods: In this retrospective observational study, 578 T2DM patients admitted to ICU were recruited from March 2011 to February 2021, which were composed of 528 patients treated with insulin after ICU admission (including 300 preadmission non-insulin-treated and 228 preadmission insulin-treated patients) and 50 patients treated without insulin before and after ICU admission. Clinical outcomes were compared between the groups. Variables of age (± 10 years), gender, blood glucose >10 mmol/l on ICU admission, and original comorbidities were used for matching to get the 1:1 matched cohort. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves were graphed to describe the survival trend and Cox regression analysis was performed to get adjusted hazard ratio (HR).

Results: Compared with the preadmission non-insulin-treated T2DM patients, preadmission insulin-treated T2DM patients had higher incidence of hypoglycemia [14.5% (33/228) vs 8.7% (26/300); = 0.036]. In the 1:1 matched cohort, the preadmission insulin-treated T2DM patients had significantly increased mortality rate [30.0% (45/150) vs (16.0% (24/150)); adjusted HR, 1.68 (1.01-2.80)] than preadmission non-insulin-treated T2DM patients. Compared with T2DM patients treated without insulin before and after ICU admission, preadmission insulin-treated T2DM patients had higher mortality and longer length of ICU stay (all < 0.05).

Conclusion: Preadmission insulin treatment was associated with increased mortality rate and longer length of ICU stay among T2DM patients in ICU. Preadmission insulin-treated T2DM patients might have worse clinical outcomes when they are critically ill.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S369152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9325876PMC
July 2022

A Benzothidiazole-Based Reversible Fluorescent Probe with Excellent Performances in Selectively and Sensitively Sensing of Hg in Water.

J Fluoresc 2022 Jul 30. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Ecological Security and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Mianyang Normal University, 621000, Mianyang, China.

The development of mercury ion selective fluorescent probe is significant because it is one of toxic heavy metals and poses great risks and hazards to human health. Herein, we develop a mercury ion-selective fluorescent probe, namely IB, based on imidazole decorated benzothiadiazole that obtained by a facile palladium catalytic C-N coupling reaction. IB exhibits high selectivity and sensitivity towards mercury ion in water with nearly 32-fold fluorescent enhancement. The detection limit is calculated to be 0.93 nmol/L. In addition, the sensing of mercury ion can be conducted in a wide pH scope ranging from 4.0 to 10.0. Subsequently, the mercury ion elicits fluorescence of IB solution can be quenched by the addition of cyanide anions, showing "off-on-off" fluorescence transformation with at least 5 cycles, demonstrating the reversible sensing ability of IB. Furthermore, an INHIBIT logical detector has been developed using mercury ion and cyanide anions as inputs and fluorescence of IB as output. Significantly, IB can be utilized for mercury ion detection in real water sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10895-022-02966-7DOI Listing
July 2022

Clinical Outcomes of Different Calcified Culprit Plaques in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

J Clin Med 2022 Jul 11;11(14). Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Cardiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, China.

Background: Previous studies have found that coronary artery calcification is closely associated with the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and clinical outcomes of different calcified plaques in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by using optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Methods: 258 ACS patients with calcified culprit plaques who underwent OCT-guided stent implantation were enrolled. They were divided into three subtypes based on the calcified plaque morphology, including eruptive calcified nodules, calcified protrusion, and superficial calcific sheet.

Results: Compared with superficial calcific sheet and calcified protrusion, eruptive calcified nodules had the greatest calcium burden and a higher rate of stent edge dissection ( < 0.001) and incomplete stent apposition ( < 0.001). In a median follow-up period of 2 years, 39 (15.1%) patients experienced MACE (a composite event of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization), with a significantly higher incidence in the eruptive calcified nodules group (32.1% vs. 10.1% vs. 13.0%, = 0.001). A multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that the eruptive calcified nodules (hazard ratio 3.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.64-6.02; = 0.001) were an independent predictor of MACE.

Conclusions: MACE occurred more frequently in ACS patients with eruptive calcified nodules, and the eruptive calcified nodules were an independent predictor of MACE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11144018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9316434PMC
July 2022

Evolutionary game model of health care and social care collaborative services for the elderly population in China.

BMC Geriatr 2022 07 25;22(1):616. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Faculty of Management and Economics, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.

Introduction: The synergy of health care and elderly social care organizations has become the focus of the research on integrated health care and social care. This study aims to propose a collaborative strategy among health care and elderly social care service providers.

Methods: An evolutionary game model is applied for performance analysis and optimization of the cooperation between health care and elderly social care organizations. The behavioural strategies and the impact of key parameters on promoting the cooperation of the players are presented in detail.

Results: Simulation experiments and sensitivity analysis results indicate that (1) the behavioural evolution of health care organizations and elderly social care organizations forms three types of integrated health care and social care services, namely, the bilateral cooperation type, health care organization-led type and elderly social care organization-led type. (2) Increasing the additional benefits for cooperation and reducing the additional costs for cooperation can promote the willingness to synergize to provide integrated health care and elderly social care services. At the early stage of evolution, increasing the costs that elderly social care organizations pay to purchase health care services or pay for negotiation in the bilateral cooperation type can provide incentives for health care organizations to cooperate while reducing the cooperation preferences of elderly social care organizations. However, the long-term impact of the costs on the behavioural strategies for cooperation of the two players cannot be determined.

Conclusion: The behavioural decisions on cooperation between health care and elderly social care organizations influence each other; commitment to integration and effective collaboration can be achieved by increasing the additional benefits and reducing the marginal costs. The findings suggest that the political-economic context and government policies have a greater influence on promoting cooperation, thus yielding positive or negative results for integrated care practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-022-03300-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9317207PMC
July 2022

A quinoline-rhodamine hybrid probe for ratiometricly sensing of Hg in water and cell imaging application.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2022 Jul 18;281:121651. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Key Laboratory of Chemical Synthesis and Pollution Control of Sichuan Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002, China. Electronic address:

To develop efficient tools for monitoring toxicant Hg in aqueous solution attracts great attention because the abnormal distribution of Hg in environment poses great threat to human health. We here report the preparation of a novel quinoline-rhodamine hybrid fluorescent probe P7RHg for ratiometricly sensing of Hg in water, with a spirolactam-thiosemicarbazide reaction group. Upon treatment by Hg, the ratio of fluorescence intensity (F/F) exhibits nearly 90-fold enhancement, presenting two well-resolved emission peaks (140 nm). Meanwhile, the specific Hg-induced desulfurization provides probe P7RHg an excellent selectivity to Hg, with a detection limit of 8.6 nM. Moreover, the low cytotoxicity allows P7RHg to be employed for tracing Hg in living cells by confocal fluorescence imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2022.121651DOI Listing
July 2022

Differential analysis of RNA structure probing experiments at nucleotide resolution: uncovering regulatory functions of RNA structure.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 22;13(1):4227. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Center for Statistical Science, Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

RNAs perform their function by forming specific structures, which can change across cellular conditions. Structure probing experiments combined with next generation sequencing technology have enabled transcriptome-wide analysis of RNA secondary structure in various cellular conditions. Differential analysis of structure probing data in different conditions can reveal the RNA structurally variable regions (SVRs), which is important for understanding RNA functions. Here, we propose DiffScan, a computational framework for normalization and differential analysis of structure probing data in high resolution. DiffScan preprocesses structure probing datasets to remove systematic bias, and then scans the transcripts to identify SVRs and adaptively determines their lengths and locations. The proposed approach is compatible with most structure probing platforms (e.g., icSHAPE, DMS-seq). When evaluated with simulated and benchmark datasets, DiffScan identifies structurally variable regions at nucleotide resolution, with substantial improvement in accuracy compared with existing SVR detection methods. Moreover, the improvement is robust when tested in multiple structure probing platforms. Application of DiffScan in a dataset of multi-subcellular RNA structurome and a subsequent motif enrichment analysis suggest potential links of RNA structural variation and mRNA abundance, possibly mediated by RNA binding proteins such as the serine/arginine rich splicing factors. This work provides an effective tool for differential analysis of RNA secondary structure, reinforcing the power of structure probing experiments in deciphering the dynamic RNA structurome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31875-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9307511PMC
July 2022

Comparing the efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants versus Vitamin K antagonists in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2022 Jul 22. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Thromboprophylaxis is the cornerstone strategy for thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Data comparing direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) to Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in the secondary prevention of thrombosis in APS patients remain contentious. We aim to review and analyse literature on the efficacy and safety of DOACs compared with VKAs in treating patients with APS. A literature search was performed from inception to 31 December 2021. Subgroups were analysed based on the risk stratification of APS profiles and different DOAC types. A total of nine studies with 1131 patients were included in the meta-analysis. High-risk APS patients (triple positive APS) who used DOACs displayed an increased risk of recurrent thrombosis [risk ratio = 3.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.49-8.93; I2 = 29%, P = 0.005] compared with those taking VKAs. Similar risk of recurrent thrombosis or major bleeding was noted in low-risk APS patients (single or double antibody-positive) upon administering DOACs or VKAs. The utilization of Rivaroxaban was associated with a high risk of recurrent thromboses (RR = 2.63; 95% CI: 1.56-4.42; I2 = 0, P = 0.0003), particularly recurrent arterial thromboses (RR = 4.52; 95% CI: 1.99-10.29; I2 = 0, P = 0.18) in overall APS patients. Comparisons of the rate of recurrent thrombosis events and major bleeding events when using dabigatran or apixaban versus VKAs yielded no statistical differences. In the absence of contraindications, this meta-analysis suggests that VKAs remain the first-choice treatment for high-risk APS patients, with DOACs a more appropriate option for low-risk APS patients. Different DOACs may exhibit different levels of efficacy and safety for thromboprophylaxis in APS patients and require further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBC.0000000000001153DOI Listing
July 2022

High-accuracy virtual testing of air conditioner's digital twin focusing on key material's deformation and fracture behavior prediction.

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 20;12(1):12432. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Shanghai ShareFEA Engineering Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China.

The concept of digital twin has been introduced for some time, yet one fundamental element of digital twin, digital material, has not been thoroughly studied. To interact with the physical product, the digital twin should always truthfully reflect the responses under various stimuli. In this paper, the deformation and fracture behavior of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) under the influencing factors of strain rate and stress triaxiality are studied to construct the material's digital model. A digital twin of air conditioner product is further built and tested under virtual drop test. Comparing to experimental results, the acceleration curve, crazing induced whitening and the fracture events can all be captured by the digital twin. Our work demonstrates the importance of material characterization as an essential step to construct an accurate digital twin and shows a promising future of digital twin in virtual testing to replace traditional "trial and error" experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-16511-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9300695PMC
July 2022

Application of diffusion tensor imaging based on automatic fiber quantification in Alzheimer's disease.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2022 Jul 18. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

School of Medical Imaging, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, P.R. China.

Background: Neuroimaging suggests that white matter microstructure is severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. However, whether alterations in white matter microstructure are confined to specific regions and whether they can be used as potential biomarkers to distinguish normal control (NC) from AD are unknown.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 33 cases of AD and 25 cases of NC were recruited for automatic fiber quantification (AFQ). A total of 20 fiber bundles were equally divided into 100 segments for quantitative assessment of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), volume and curvature. In order to further evaluate the diagnostic value, the maximum redundancy minimum (mRMR) and LASSO algorithms were used to select features, calculate the Radscore of each subject, establish logistic regression models, and draw ROC curves, respectively, to assess the predictive power of four different models.

Results: There was a significant increase in the MD values in AD patients compared with healthy subjects. The differences were mainly located in the left cingulum hippocampus (HCC), left uncinate fasciculus (UF) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). The point-wise level of 20 fiber bundles was used as a classification feature, and the MD index exhibited the best performance to distinguish NC from AD.

Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of AD and suggest that abnormal white matter based on DTI-based AFQ analysis is helpful to explore the pathogenesis of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567205019666220718142130DOI Listing
July 2022

Establishment and validation of analytical methods for 15 hazardous drugs by UPLC-Q/Orbitrap-HRMS.

Ann Transl Med 2022 Jun;10(12):686

Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Cytotoxic drug residues in pharmacy intravenous admixture services (PIVAS) have always been a major problem for pharmaceutical workers and the PIVAS environment,which is not only pollutes the PIVAS environment, but also causes serious harm to the life and health of the staff. This study aimed to establish an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/Orbitrap-HRMS) method for the rapid detection and monitor of 15 cytotoxic drugs.

Methods: UPLC-Q/Orbitrap-HRMS method was used to establish a rapid detection method for 15 cytotoxic drugs such as cytarabine, gemcitabine and so on. The daily precision and accuracy of this method were verified by injecting four concentrations of standard solution on the same day, and the same four concentrations of standard solution were injected within three days respectively to verify the daily precision of this method. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 10:1 was calculated as the limit of quantity. The mixed standard solution of 15 cytotoxic drugs with concentrations of 0.5, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, and 1,000 ng/mL was configured and detected by this method for linearity and range.The stability of this method was investigated using a mixture of 15 drugs (15MIX) standard solutions at high concentration (300 ng/mL) and low concentration (10 ng/mL) at room temperature for 12 and 24 hours, respectively. A standard solution of each drug, 15MIX and blank solution were taken to verify the exclusivity of the method.

Results: The results showed that the method had good specificity, and the intraday precision of all drugs was less than 10% and the intraday precision was less than 15%. At the same time, the standard curve had good linearity, R was greater than 0.99, and the limit of quantification of most drugs was about 1 ng/mL.

Conclusions: In this study, an UPLC-Q/Orbitrap-HRMS method was established for the rapid detection of 15 cytotoxic drugs, providing technical support for the monitoring of cytotoxic drug residues in PIVAS, which is of great significance for environmental contamination mornitoring as well as occupational exposure alert.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-22-2330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9279804PMC
June 2022

Efficient molasses utilization for low-molecular-weight poly-γ-glutamic acid production using a novel Bacillus subtilis stain.

Microb Cell Fact 2022 Jul 16;21(1):140. Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology & Business University (BTBU), Beijing, 100048, People's Republic of China.

Background: Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a biopolymer and has various applications based on its biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and edibility. Low-molecular-weight (Mw)-γ-PGA has promising applications in agriculture and pharmaceuticals. It is traditionally produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. Cost-effective bioproduction of low-Mw-γ-PGA is essential for commercial application of γ-PGA.

Results: Bacillus subtilis 242 is a newly isolated low-Mw-γ-PGA-producing strain. To develop cost-effective production of γ-PGA using this newly isolated strain, cane molasses and corn steep liquor were used to produce γ-PGA. The concentration of cane molasses was optimized and 100 g/L cane molasses resulted in high γ-PGA production. The effects of yeast extract and corn steep liquor on γ-PGA yield were investigated. High concentration of γ-PGA was obtained in the medium with corn steep liquor. A concentration of 32.14 g/L γ-PGA was achieved in fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 0.67 g/L/h and a percentage yield (g/g) of 106.39%. The Mw of γ-PGA was 27.99 kDa.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated the potential application of B. subtilis 242 for cost-effective production of low-Mw-γ-PGA from cane molasses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-022-01867-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9287850PMC
July 2022

Efficacy and safety of immune checkpoint inhibitors in post-TKI NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2022 Jul 14. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Objective: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been validated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild-type advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, there exists no evidence regarding NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations, experiencing EGFR-TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) treatment failure. We collected clinical information from real world and conducted a time series-based meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of ICIs in patients harboring EGFR mutations and experienced EGFR-TKIs resistance.

Methods: Twenty-two NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations after TKI resistance were included from two hospitals. PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant literature published until December 31, 2021. Endpoint outcomes included mortality and progression-free survival (PFS) at different times of follow-up.

Results: In total, 22 patients showed that the median PFS was 5.6 months (range 2.0-9.0 months). According to treatment strategies, the median PFS was 2.4 months (range 2.0-5.3 months) in the ICI monotherapy group and 5.9 months (range 2.8-9.0 months) in the ICI combined Chemotherapy group. Additionally, sixteen studies, including 5 trials, 10 controlled cohorts and 1 real-world study, were assessed, involving a total of ICI-treated NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation after TKI failure. The 6-month survival and PFS rate were 0.82 (95% CI 0.36-0.97) and 0.55 (95% CI 0.34-0.74), respectively. ICI combined chemotherapy showed the best survival outcome among these groups, as demonstrated by the 12-month survival rate and PFS. No new safety signals were identified with the combination therapy. The frequency of treatment-related adverse events was similar to that in previously reported studies of chemotherapy combined with checkpoint inhibitors.

Conclusions: The addition of ICIs plus chemotherapy may significantly improve progression-free survival among patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-squamous NSCLC who EGFR-TKIs resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-022-04176-xDOI Listing
July 2022

Meta-analysis of echinocandins combined with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia.

J Chemother 2022 Jul 9:1-7. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Department of Organ Transplantation, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Echinocandins form a new drug class for the treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), but their efficacies have not been confirmed. The objective of this study was to review the all-cause mortality and efficacy of echinocandins combined with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) for the treatment of PCP. A meta-analysis of retrospective case-control studies of echinocandins combined with TMP/SMZ or TMP/SMZ alone for treating adult PCP was performed. Pubmed, Web of Sciences, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase databases were searched from inception to October 20, 2021. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a fixed effects model in the meta-analysis to derive pooled estimates of effect size. Five-hundred forty articles were identified and screened, and five studies were included meta-analysis. Echinocandins combined with TMP/SMZ led to a reduction in all-cause mortality of pneumocystis pneumonia (OR = 0.47; 95%CI 0.32-0.71; P = 0.0003), and the total positive response rate of echinocandins combined with TMP/SMZ was higher than that of TMP/SMZ (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.46-3.19; P = 0.0001). This meta-analysis based on retrospective case-control studies was first to show that echinocandins combined with TMP/SMZ for the treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia can lead to a reduction in mortality and improvement in treatment response rates. It is suggested that echinocandins may be a good drug for treating PCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1120009X.2022.2095155DOI Listing
July 2022

Comprehensive Analysis of the E2F Transcription Factor Family in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Int J Gen Med 2022 2;15:5973-5984. Epub 2022 Jul 2.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The First People's Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University, Lianyungang, 222000, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: E2F transcription factors (E2Fs), code a family of pivotal transcription factors, have been identified as key regulators in tumor tumorigenesis. However, the function of E2F family in human lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) have not been fully elucidated.

Methods: Herein, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases, Kaplan-Meier plotter, cBioPortal and TIMER were used to analyze differential expression, prognostic value, genetic alteration and immune cell infiltration of E2Fs in LUAD patients.

Results: The expression levels of () were all significantly upregulated in LUAD tissues compared with normal lung tissues. All eight had low rates of gene mutation in LUAD patients from cBioPortal databases. Survival analysis revealed that E2F2 (P=0.038; HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.02-1.81), E2F7 (P<0.001; HR 1.78; 95% CI 1.33-2.39) and E2F8 (P=0.03; HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.02-1.82) were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Multivariate cox regression analysis found that only E2F7 (P<0.001; HR 2.72; 95% CI 1.75-4.25) was an independent prognostic predictor in LUAD after adjusting common clinical parameters. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis also found that E2F7 had high diagnostic value for LUAD (AUC=0.901). Further analysis found that E2F7 was significantly associated with LUAD immune cell infiltration of B cell, T cell, neutrophil, and myeloid dendritic cell. E2F7 also have positive correlations with immune checkpoint genes including SIGLEC15, CD274, HAVCR2, PDCD1LG2, CTLA4, TIGIT, LAG3 and PDCD1 in LUAD.

Conclusion: Our findings showed various association of E2F7 in LUAD diagnostic and prognostic aspects, which suggested its potential in becoming a novel biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S369582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9259060PMC
July 2022

Shear Bond Strength of Composite Diluted with Composite-Handling Agents on Dentin and Enamel.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Jun 30;14(13). Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Restorative Materials and Applied Dental Research Laboratory, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

This in vitro study aimed to examine the shear bond strength of composite on the dentin and enamel substrates when mixed with different composite-handling agents (CHAs). Eighty extracted molars were embedded into acrylic resin and sectioned sagittally. On the prepared specimens, four groups of resin mixtures were bonded onto the enamel or dentin surfaces-composite only, composite mixed with Composite Wetting Resin (CWR), composite mixed with Brush and Sculpt (BS), and composite mixed with Modeling Resin (MR). All groups were prepared by mixing at a 1:1 ratio by weight. Each specimen was subjected to the shear bond strength test. After the test, adhesive or cohesive failures were examined at the fractured sites. Data were analyzed using one-way and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey post hoc test. All composite groups mixed with CHAs displayed a reduced shear bond strength on dentin and enamel substrates compared to composite alone ( < 0.05). The shear bond strength on dentin decreased in the following order: CWR > BS > MR. A similar pattern was observed on enamel, except that there was no statistically significant difference between BS and MR. Statistically significant interactions between resin mixtures and substrates were found ( < 0.001). On the dentin substrate, adhesive failure dominated while adhesive/cohesive failure dominated on the enamel substrate. Conclusions: The shear bonding strength of composite decreases when mixed with CHAs on both dentin and enamel substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14132665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9269268PMC
June 2022

Stabilization of SAMHD1 by NONO is crucial for Ara-C resistance in AML.

Cell Death Dis 2022 Jul 8;13(7):590. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Cancer Metastasis and Precision Treatment, Central Laboratory, The First Hospital of Nanchang, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, North 128 Xiangshan Road, Nanchang, 330008, China.

Cytarabine (Ara-C) is the first-line drug for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, resistance eventually develops, decreasing the efficacy of Ara-C in AML patients. The expression of SAMHD1, a deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) triphosphohydrolase, has been reported to be elevated in Ara-C-resistant AML patients and to play a crucial role in mediating Ara-C resistance in AML. However, the mechanism by which SAMHD1 is upregulated in resistant AML remains unknown. In this study, NONO interacted with and stabilized SAMHD1 by inhibiting DCAF1-mediated ubiquitination/degradation of SAMHD1. Overexpression of NONO increased SAMHD1 expression and reduced the sensitivity of AML cells to Ara-C, and downregulation of NONO had the opposite effects. In addition, the DNA-damaging agents DDP and adriamycin (ADM) reduced NONO/SAMHD1 expression and sensitized AML cells to Ara-C. More importantly, NONO was upregulated in Ara-C-resistant AML cells, resulting in increased SAMHD1 expression in resistant AML cells, and DDP and ADM treatment resensitized resistant AML cells to Ara-C. This study revealed the mechanism by which SAMHD1 is upregulated in Ara-C-resistant AML cells and provided novel therapeutic strategies for Ara-C-resistant AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-05023-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9270467PMC
July 2022

Neferine Exerts Ferroptosis-Inducing Effect and Antitumor Effect on Thyroid Cancer through Nrf2/HO-1/NQO1 Inhibition.

J Oncol 2022 27;2022:7933775. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Thyroid Surgery, The First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001, China.

Thyroid cancer is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy with an increasing incidence in the past few decades. Neferine possesses various pharmacological activities, which have been applied in diverse disease models, including various tumors. However, the detailed effect and mechanism of neferine on thyroid cancer are still unclear. In the current study, the viability of IHH-4 and CAL-62 cells was examined by the CCK-8 assay. The effect of neferine on the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and ferroptosis was evaluated by CCK-8, flow cytometry, western blot, and spectrophotometry assays. Mechanically, the expressions levels of Nrf2/HO-1/NQO1 signaling were first determined by a western blot, which was then verified by Nrf2 overexpression. validation was also conducted on BALB/ nude mice with an inoculation dose of 2 × 10 IHH-4 cells. The results showed that neferine repressed the viability of both IHH-4 and CAL-62 cells both in a dose-dependent way and in a time-dependent fashion, in which the IC50 value of neferine on IHH-4 and CAL-62 cells was 9.47 and 8.72 M, respectively. Besides, neferine enhanced apoptosis but suppressed invasion, angiogenesis, and EMT of IHH-4 and CAL-62 cells. Moreover, neferine induced the activation of ferroptosis in thyroid cancer cells. Notably, it was revealed that the Nrf2/HO-1/NQO1 pathway was strongly associated with the effect of neferine on the modulation of thyroid cancer. Furthermore, these outcomes were validated in xenografted mice. Therefore, neferine exerted an antitumor effect and ferroptosis-inducing effect on thyroid cancer via inhibiting the Nrf2/HO-1/NQO1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7933775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9252705PMC
June 2022

Histone Demethylase Jmjd3 Regulates the Osteogenic Differentiation and Cytokine Expressions of Periodontal Ligament Cells.

Acta Med Okayama 2022 Jun;76(3):281-290

Department of Endodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, China Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Disease.

Periodontal ligament (PDL) cells are critical for the bone remodeling process in periapical lesions since they can differentiate into osteoblasts and secrete osteoclastogenesis-promoting cytokines. Post-translational histone modifications including alterations of the methylation status of H3K27 are involved in cell differentiation and inflammatory reaction. The histone demethylase Jumonji domain-containing 3 (Jmjd3) specifically removes methylation of H3K27. We investigated whether Jmjd3 is involved in the osteogenic differentiation and secretion of PDL cells' inflammatory factors. Jmjd3 expression in periapical lesions was examined by immunostaining. Using siRNA specific for Jmjd3 or the specific Jmjd3 inhibitor GSK-J4, we determined Jmjd3's roles in osteogenic differentiation and cytokine production by real-time RT-PCR. The locations of Jmjd3 and NF-κB were analyzed by immunocytochemistry. Compared to healthy PDLs, the periapical lesion samples showed higher Jmjd3 expression. Treatment with GSK-J4 or Jmjd3 siRNA suppressed PDL cells' osteogenic differentiation by suppressing the expressions of bone-related genes (Runx2, Osterix, and osteocalcin) and mineralization. Jmjd3 knockdown decreased the expressions of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) induced by lipopolysaccharide extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis (Pe-LPS). Pe-LPS induced the nuclear translocations of Jmjd3 and NF-κB; the latter was inhibited by GSK-J4 treatment. Jmjd3 appears to regulate PDL cells' osteogenic differentiation and proinflammatory cytokine expressions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18926/AMO/63722DOI Listing
June 2022

Colchicine for Coronary Artery Disease: A Review.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 16;9:892588. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Coronary artery disease is a serious threat to human health. More and more evidences indicate chronic inflammatory plays a key role in the development of this disease. Inflammation markers are gradually used in the diagnosis and treatment. Although the treatment of coronary heart disease with colchicine is still controversial, more and more studies showed that patients can benefit from this medicine. In this review, we discuss and summarize colchicine on essential pharmacology, anti-inflammatory mechanism of action, and the most important and recent clinical studies. According to these literatures, colchicine possibly will possibly become a new valuable and cheap medicine for the treatment of coronary artery disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.892588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9246049PMC
June 2022

The combined impact of Type D personality and depression on cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction.

Psychol Med 2021 Aug 2:1-11. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: Type D personality and depression are the independent psychological risk factors for adverse outcomes in cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to examine the combined effect of Type D personality and depression on clinical outcomes in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Methods: This prospective cohort study included 3568 patients diagnosed with AMI between February 2017 and September 2018. Type D personality and depression were assessed at baseline, while the major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate (cardiac death, recurrent non-fatal myocardial infarction, revascularization, and stroke) and in-stent restenosis (ISR) rate were analyzed after a 2-year follow-up period.

Results: A total of 437 patients developed MACEs and 185 had ISR during the follow-up period. The Type D (+) depression (+) and Type D (+) depression (-) groups had a higher risk of MACE [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-6.07] (95% CI 1.25-2.96) and ISR (95% CI 3.09-8.28) (95% CI 1.85-6.22). Analysis of Type D and depression as continuous variables indicated that the main effect of Type D, depression and their combined effect were significantly associated with MACE and ISR. Moreover, Type D (+) depression (+) and Type D (+) depression (-) emerged as significant risk factors for MACE and ISR in males, while only Type D (+) depression (+) was associated with MACE and ISR in female patients.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that patients complicated with depression and Type D personality are at a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Individual assessments of Type D personality and depression, and comprehensive interventions are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721002932DOI Listing
August 2021

Association Between Dietary Intakes and Plaque Vulnerability Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: A Mediation Analysis of Inflammatory Factors.

Front Nutr 2022 14;9:920892. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Although studies have proven that diet has a critical role in preventing or delaying atherosclerosis and is far simpler to adjust and adhere to than other risk factors, the underlying mechanisms behind this effect remain not well comprehended. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of inflammatory factors on the connection between dietary ingestion and coronary plaque fragility as measured via optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). This research eventually comprised 194 participants with CHD who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) was utilized to investigate dietary consumption status, serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and OCT was employed to identify the plaque susceptibility of causative lesions in the body. Following correction for statistically meaningful possible confounders in univariate analysis, quartiles of soy and nuts, fruits and vitamin C were negatively associated with coronary plaque vulnerability. Conversely, the upper quartile group of sodium intake had 2.98 times the risk of developing vulnerable plaques compared with the most minimal quartile group. Meanwhile, we observed an inverse dose-response connection between vitamin C consumption and inflammatory biomarkers as well as plaque vulnerability. More importantly, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significant mediators of the connection between vitamin C and plaque vulnerability, suggesting that vitamin C may inhibit the atherosclerotic inflammatory process by decreasing the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α, thereby reducing the risk of vulnerable plaques. These new findings provide crucial clues to identify anti-inflammatory dietary components as effective therapeutic approaches in the management of CHD, while also providing some insights into their mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.920892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9237541PMC
June 2022

Characterization of a new L-carnosine synthase mined from deep-sea sediment metagenome.

Microb Cell Fact 2022 Jun 27;21(1):129. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

College of Life Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, 050024, China.

L-Carnosine is a natural biologically active dipeptide with critical physiological functions, such as antioxidant, antiglycation, and cytoplasmic buffering properties. Direct enzymatic synthesis is a promising way for L-carnosine production. In this study, a new aminopeptidase (gene_236976) with synthetic activity toward L-carnosine was identified by a metagenome mining approach from deep-sea sediment and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme shared a low identity of 14.3% with reported L-carnosine dipeptidase (SmPepD) from Serratia marcescens. β-Alanine methyl ester was proven to be the best substrate for the synthesis, and no ATP was needed for the enzymatic reaction. The enzyme activity was increased by structure-guided rational design. Only the mutant of G310 site gave positive results, and G310A mutant showed the best performance among the site-direct saturation mutagenesis, indicating that the additional CH group of mutant G310A was the main factor affecting the enzymatic activity. The engineered enzyme produced about 10 mM L-carnosine was produced from substrates of 50 mM β-alanine methyl ester and 50 mM L-histidine, under a tentatively optimized condition. This study enriched the enzyme resources for developing the microbial synthesis process of L-carnosine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-022-01854-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9235088PMC
June 2022

Non-optimum temperature increases risk and burden of acute myocardial infarction onset: A nationwide case-crossover study at hourly level in 324 Chinese cities.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Aug 17;50:101501. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education and NHC Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The associations of ambient temperature with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have seldom been examined based on the time of symptom onset.

Methods: We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study among 1,046,773 eligible AMI patients from 2,093 hospitals in 324 Chinese cities from January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2021, after excluding those transferred from other hospitals or having not reported the time of symptom onset. Hourly exposure to ambient temperature was calculated as multiple moving 24-h averages (days) before hourly onset of AMI symptoms. Conditional logistic regression and distributed lag non-linear models with a duration of 0-21 days were used to estimate the cumulative associations of non-optimum temperature with AMI onset and the corresponding disease burden nationally. Subgroup analyses by region and period were conducted. Specifically, cities with and without centralized heating system were classified into heating and non-heating regions, respectively. The whole year in heating region was divided into heating and non-heating periods based on the duration of centralized heating in each city.

Findings: Almost monotonically increasing risks were observed for both overall AMI and its two subtypes when ambient temperature declined. The effects of extremely low temperature occurred immediately on the concurrent day, and lasted up to almost 3 weeks. The excess risks of AMI onset associated with non-optimum ambient temperatures were observed during the whole year in the non-heating region and non-heating period in the heating region, but not during heating period. Specifically, odds ratios of AMI onset associated with extremely low temperature cumulated over 0-21 days were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13-1.37), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.20-1.76), and 1.62 (95% CI: 1.46-1.81) in the heating region during non-heating period, in the non-heating region during winter and non-winter period, respectively. The heat effects on AMI onset were very modest and transient. Totally, 13.26% of AMI cases could be attributable to non-optimum temperatures nationally. The burden of AMI attributable to non-optimum temperature was much smaller in heating region than in non-heating region. Somewhat stronger effects were observed in females and patients aged older than 65.

Interpretation: This nationwide study provided robust evidence that non-optimum ambient temperature may significantly trigger AMI onset, and for the first time estimated the disease burden after accounting for spatial and seasonal heterogeneity. Centralized heating might substantially mitigate AMI burden due to non-optimum temperature.

Funding: Shanghai International Science and Technology Partnership Project, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Talent Training Program of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218136PMC
August 2022

Effects of Fucoidan Powder Combined with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as a Direct Pulp-Capping Material.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Jun 8;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Section of Dentistry, Department of Prosthodontics, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620, Korea.

The development of direct pulp-capping materials with favorable biological and structural properties is an important goal in restorative dentistry. Fucoidan is a sulfated, fucose-containing polysaccharide obtained from brown seaweed, with a wide range of applications; however, its use as a direct pulp-capping material has not been examined. This study aimed to evaluate the mechanical, physical, and biological effects of fucoidan combined with conventional mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) for direct pulp capping. The capping materials were created using Portland cement (80 wt%) and zirconium oxide (20 wt%) as base components, compared with base components plus 5 wt% fucoidan (PZF5) and base components plus 10 wt% fucoidan (PZF10). The initial and final setting time, compressive strength, chemical components, cell viability, adhesion, migration, osteogenesis, and gene expression were analyzed. Fucoidan significantly reduced the initial and final setting time, regardless of quantity. However, the compressive strength was lower for PZF5. Sulfur levels increased with fucoidan. The biological activity improved, especially in the PZF5 group. Cell migration, Alizarin Red S staining, and alkaline phosphatase activity were upregulated in the PZF5 group. Fucoidan is a useful regenerative additive for conventional pulp-capping materials because it reduces the setting time and improves cell migration and osteogenic ability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14122315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9228542PMC
June 2022

Optimization of Naringenin Nanoparticles to Improve the Antitussive Effects on Post-Infectious Cough.

Molecules 2022 Jun 10;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No. 151, Malianwa North Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China.

Naringenin (NRG) is a natural compound with several biological activities; however, its bioavailability is limited owing to poor aqueous solubility. In this study, NRG nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using the wet media milling method. To obtain NRG NPs with a small particle size and high drug-loading content, the preparation conditions, including stirring time, temperature, stirring speed, and milling media amount, were optimized. The NRG (30 mg) and D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (10 mg) were wet-milled in deionized water (2 mL) with 10 g of zirconia beads via stirring at 50 °C for 2 h at a stirring speed of 300 rpm. As a result, the NRG NPs, with sheet-like morphology and a diameter of approximately 182.2 nm, were successfully prepared. The NRG NPs were stable in the gastrointestinal system and were released effectively after entering the blood circulation. In vivo experiments indicated that the NRG NPs have good antitussive effects. The cough inhibition rate after the administration of the NRG NPs was 66.7%, cough frequency was three times lower, and the potential period was 1.8 times longer than that in the blank model group. In addition, the enzyme biomarkers and histological analysis results revealed that the NRG NPs can effectively regulate the inflammatory and oxidative stress response. In conclusion, the NRG NPs exhibited good oral bioavailability and promoted antitussive and anti-inflammatory effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27123736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9228777PMC
June 2022

Study on the Influence of Reinforced Particles Spatial Arrangement on the Neutron Shielding Performance of the Composites.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 16;15(12). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Particle-reinforced composites are widely applied as nuclear radiation shielding materials for their excellent comprehensive properties. The work aimed to calculate the influence of the functional reinforced particles spatial arrangement on the neutron shielding performance of composites and attempted to explain the influence mechanism by investigating the neutron flux distribution in the materials. Firstly, four suitable physical models were established based on the Monte Carlo Particle Transport Program (MCNP) and mathematical software MATLAB, namely the RSA (Random Sequential Adsorption) Model with particles random arrangement and FCC Model, BCC Model and Staggered Arrangement Model (SA Model) with particle periodic arrangements. Later, based on these four physical models, the neutron transmittance of two kinds of typical BC reinforced composites, 316 stainless steel matrix composite and polyethylene matrix composite, were calculated under different energy neutrons sources (0.0253 eV, 50 eV, 50 keV, fission spectrum, Am-Be spectrum and 14.1 MeV) and the neutron flux distribution in the 316 stainless steel composite was also analyzed under 0.0253 eV neutron and fission neutron sources. The results indicated that the spatial arrangement of BC has an impact on the neutrons shielding performance of the composite and the influence changes with neutron energy and BC content. It can be concluded that the RSA model and the periodic arrangement models can be used in different calculation cases in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15124266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9227434PMC
June 2022

Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Epoxy Resin-Based Root Canal Sealers before and after Setting Procedures.

Life (Basel) 2022 Jun 7;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Prosthodontics, Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620, Korea.

Epoxy resin-based sealers are commonly used for successful endodontic treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of epoxy resin-based sealers under unset and set conditions. Three epoxy resin-based sealers were used: Adseal, AH Plus, and Dia-Proseal. To test cytotoxicity, an agar overlay test and a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay were performed using unset and set sealers on L929 mouse fibroblasts. The genotoxicity test of the comet assay was performed using the same cell line. Extract dilutions in the culture media were used as test materials for the MTT and comet assays. The comet tail produced by the damaged DNA was calculated by image analyses. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test. Unset sealers did not show defined decolorized areas. Hardened specimens of resin-based sealers showed circular discolored zones in the agar overlay test. Dia-Proseal was the least cytotoxic after hardening. These results were confirmed in the MTT assay. Cell viability was significantly higher in cells treated with hardened sealers in both groups than that in cells treated with freshly mixed sealers in the MTT assay. Unset AH Plus and Dia-Proseal™ significantly increased cell viability with decreasing dilution. Adseal™ was the least cytotoxic. Freshly mixed Adseal™ was more genotoxic when freshly mixed than when set. Unset epoxy resin-based sealers were generally more cytotoxic and genotoxic than set materials. Cytotoxicity does not always match the genotoxicity results; therefore, various test tools are required to test toxicity. It is necessary to properly evaluate the toxic effects to establish a biocompatibility test that mimics clinical conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life12060847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9227444PMC
June 2022
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