Publications by authors named "Bo Yao"

232 Publications

Rapid enrichment and sensitive detection of extracellular vesicles through measuring the phospholipids and transmembrane protein in a microfluidic chip.

Biosens Bioelectron 2022 Mar 10;199:113870. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have attracted tremendous attention in recent years and quantification of EVs is a key issue in the evaluation of vesicle-based diagnostics and therapeutic development, but it's quite challenging to determine whether higher protein expression signals are due to larger vesicle amount or higher protein content within each vesicle. To solve this problem, herein, we proposed a strategy based on staining phospholipid bilayers of EVs with lipophilic dyes to evaluate their lipid amount, which was subsequently normalized as an internal standard for studying the expression of transmembrane protein (i.e., CD63) on EVs in different samples. In addition, a microfluidic platform based on electrophoresis technology was invented to effectively enrich and detect EVs. Small fluorescent labeling molecules (i.e., uncombined aptamers) were on-chip removed from EVs without pre-separation via ultracentrifugation or ultrafiltration which were indispensable in nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and flow cytometry techniques and the performance of this assay is comparable to NTA. Finally, it was found obvious difference in the expression of CD63 on EVs before and after normalization based on lipid amount in plasma samples. This method is expected to provide more accurate information when comparing the expression levels of EVs biomarkers in different samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113870DOI Listing
March 2022

Rapid increase in dichloromethane emissions from China inferred through atmospheric observations.

Nat Commun 2021 12 14;12(1):7279. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

With the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the atmospheric abundance of ozone-depleting substances continues to decrease slowly and the Antarctic ozone hole is showing signs of recovery. However, growing emissions of unregulated short-lived anthropogenic chlorocarbons are offsetting some of these gains. Here, we report an increase in emissions from China of the industrially produced chlorocarbon, dichloromethane (CHCl). The emissions grew from 231 (213-245) Gg yr in 2011 to 628 (599-658) Gg yr in 2019, with an average annual increase of 13 (12-15) %, primarily from eastern China. The overall increase in CHCl emissions from China has the same magnitude as the global emission rise of 354 (281-427) Gg yr over the same period. If global CHCl emissions remain at 2019 levels, they could lead to a delay in Antarctic ozone recovery of around 5 years compared to a scenario with no CHCl emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27592-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8671471PMC
December 2021

Physiological and proteomic analyses reveal the effects of exogenous nitrogen in diminishing Cd detoxification in Acacia auriculiformis.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Jan 6;229:113057. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, PR China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, PR China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) has toxic effects on plants. Nitrogen (N), an essential element, is critical for plant growth, development and stress response. However, their combined effects on woody plants, especially in N-fixing tree species is still poorly understood. Our previous study revealed that the fast-growing Acacia auriculiformis showed strong Cd tolerance but the underlying mechanisms was not clear, which constrained its use in mine land reclamation. Herein, we investigated the physiological and proteomic changes in A. auriculiformis leaves to reveal the mechanisms of Cd tolerance and toxicity without N fertilizer (treatment Cd) and with excess N fertilizer (treatment CdN). Results showed that Cd tolerance in A. auriculiformis was closely associated with the coordinated gas exchange and antioxidant defense reactions under Cd treatment alone. Exogenous excessive N, however, inhibited plant growth, increased Cd concentrations, and weaken photosynthetic performance, thus, aggregated the toxicity under Cd stress. Furthermore, the aggregated Cd toxicity was attributed to the depression in the abundance of proteins, as well as their corresponding genes, involved in photosynthesis, energy metabolism (oxidative phosphorylation, carbon metabolism, etc.), defense and stress response (antioxidants, flavonoids, etc.), plant hormone signal transduction (MAPK, STN, etc.), and ABC transporters. Collectively, this study unveils a previously unknown physiological and proteomic network that explains N diminishes Cd detoxification in A. auriculiformis. It may be counterproductive to apply N fertilizer to fast-growing, N-fixing trees planted for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.113057DOI Listing
January 2022

The impact of chest pain center on treatment delay of STEMI patients: a time series study.

BMC Emerg Med 2021 11 6;21(1):129. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Department of Business and Information Technology, Fogelman College of Business and Economics, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, 38152, USA.

Objective: To study the effect of the establishment of a Chest Pain Center (CPC) on the treatment delay of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients and the influencing factors of treatment delay in a large hospital in China.

Methods: The study subjects are 318 STEMI patients admitted between August 2016 and July 2019 to a large general hospital in Henan, China. Data were extracted from the electronic medical records after removing personal identifiable information. The interrupted time series regression was used to analyze the treatment delay of patients before and after the CPC establishment.

Results: After the CPC establishment, the patients' pre-hospital and in-hospital treatment delays were significantly reduced. SO-to-FMC (Symptom Onset to First Medical Contact time) decreased by 49.237 min and D-to-B (Door to Balloon time) decreased by 21.931 min immediately after the CPC establishment. In addition, SO-to-FMC delay is significantly correlated with age, occupation, nocturnal onset, and the way to hospital. D-to-B delay is significantly associated with time from initial diagnosis to informed consent of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), catheterization lab activation time, and time for PCI informed consent.

Conclusion: The CPC significantly reduced the treatment delay of STEMI patients undergoing PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12873-021-00535-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8571845PMC
November 2021

[Spatial Distribution Characteristics of the Spectrum, Source Analysis, and Nitrogen Response of Dissolved Organic Matter in Summer Rainfall in the Hebei Province].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Nov;42(11):5250-5263

Pollution Prevention Biotechnology Laboratory of Hebei Province, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018, China.

Dissolved organic matter(DOM) is an important component of the organic matter in the environment. This study explored the characteristics of DOM. The components and spectral characteristics of rainwater DOM were measured using Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum(UV-vis) and three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum in the Hebei province. The results showed significant differences for DOM molecular weight in the northern, central, and southern region; the DOM of the northern region exhibited the lowest molecular weight. Two humic-like(C1 and C4), one protein-like(C2) and one fulvic-like(C3) components were identified by parallel factor(PARAFAC) analysis. Component C2 had a significant positive correlation with components C3 and C4(<0.001), which may have similar sources. The C2(protein-like substances) accounted for the major proportion of DOM with the average abundance 40.59%. The DOM components based on PARAFAC exhibited significantly difference between city and country regions without spatial difference, which was consistent with the result of fluorescence regional integration(FRI). The protein-like substances based on FRI were the main components, which accounted for 61.59%-89.01%. Redundancy analysis(RDA) showed that total nitrogen, nitrate, and ammonia were the main environmental factors determining the distribution of DOM. Spectral indices presented a significant difference between city and country regions. High fluorescence(FI) and biological(BIX) and low humification(HIX) values showed that summer rain exhibited the strong autochthonous and low humification characteristics, and country region have stronger autochthonous characteristics than city region. The regression analysis demonstrates that the prediction accuracy of rainwater quality parameters in city region is high. From all the results, rainwater DOM, showing strong autogenous characteristics, exhibited significant differences between city and country regions without spatial difference in Hebei. Meanwhile, it can also provide technical support for rainwater nitrogen concentration prediction based on DOM components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202102108DOI Listing
November 2021

[Seasonal Variation and Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Species in PM in Chengde].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Nov;42(11):5152-5161

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018, China.

In order to study the seasonal variations and pollution sources of carbonaceous species in PM in Chengde, the concentration of these components was determined in atmospheric PM samples collected in January, April, July, and October 2019. The change in carbonaceous species were analyzed based on the estimation of the ratio of organic carbon(OC) to elemental carbon(EC), total carbonaceous aerosol(TCA), and secondary organic carbon(SOC). The source of these pollutants was determined by means of the backward trajectory and principal component analysis(PCA). The results showed that the mean mass concentrations of PM, OC, and EC during the sampling period were(31.26±21.39) μg·m,(13.27±8.68) μg·m, and(2.80±1.95) μg·m, respectively. The seasonal variations of PM were:winter[(47.68±30.37) μg·m]>autumn[(28.72±17.12) μg·m]>spring[(26.59±15.32) μg·m]>summer[(23.17±8.38) μg·m], consistent with the trend of total carbon(TC), OC, and EC. The source of OC and EC during winter(=0.85) was similar. Based on the ratio of OC/EC, all four seasons were affected by traffic and coal-burning source emissions, and the most affected season by bituminous coal emissions was winter. The average concentration of TCA was(21.38±13.68) μg·m, which accounted for 68.39% of PM. The order of secondary conversion rate(SOC/OC) was:spring(54.09%) >autumn(37.64%) >summer(32.91%) >winter(25.43%). The results of the backward trajectory simulation show that the pollutant concentrations carried by air masses are relatively low in spring and summer, and the transport channels of pollutants are southwest in autumn and northwest in winter. The results of the PCA showed that the key to reducing PM in Chengde is to control emissions from vehicle exhausts, and coal and biomass combustion sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202101082DOI Listing
November 2021

First Report of causing basal stem rot of L. in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Oct 26. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Gansu Agricultural University, 74661, Grassland science college, Lanzhou, Gansu, China;

Tomato ( L.) is economically important crop in China and elsewhere where it is grown. A previously unreported basal rot of tomato affecting as much as 15% of the stems was firstly observed in greenhouses in Northwest China (Jingyuan County, Baiyin City, Gansu Province) in March of 2015, and then the same disease of tomato was observed every year from 2016 -2021 in the region. The loss of local agricultural income caused by this plant disease in greenhouse is up to 2 million ¥ (CNY) each year. Symptoms on the basal stems were initially characterized by water-soaked lesions, which and developed rapidly into a soft, watery, decayed mass within 5 to 10 days after their appearance. Ten symptomatic stem samples were collected from basal stems exhibiting decay and were processed for microbiological analysis. Three strains of the bacteria (BBSR1~3) isolated from symptomatic samples were gram-negative, rods with a single polar flagellum, 0.5 to 1.0 × 1.5 to 3.5 µm in size. Colonies on nutrient agar (NA) medium were round, smooth, translucent, with flat edges and elevated center ("fried egg" appearance), and yellowish green to light purple in color. All isolates were positive for oxidase, gelatin liquefaction, denitrification, lipase, arginine dihydrolase, growth at 41 oC; utilization of mannitol, and production of pyocyanin. In contrast, they were negative for levan formation, lecithinase, hydrosis of starch, growth at 4 oC, utilization of maltose, xylose, γ-aminobutyrate and ethylene glycol; and growth in media supplemented with 8.5% NaCl. The representative bacterium (BBSR1) was identified as using Biolog based Bacterial Identification System version 4.2 (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA), revealing 0.88 similarities to in the Omnilog Biolog database. The identity was further confirmed as based on 16S rRNA sequence (1,387 bp) analysis with universal primers 27F (5'-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3') and 1492R (5'-GGTTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3'). A BlastN search of GenBank revealed a 100% identity to that of strains JCM5962 (LC069033), SM-1 (KP794924), and KUN4 (KR025537). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain BBSR1 (1,387 bp) was deposited in GenBank (KT454095). The representative strain BBSR1 was further evaluated in pathogenicity tests. 1-month-old tomato (cv. Tomo608) potted plants were spray inoculated with BBSR1 bacterial suspensions (≈ 3×10 CFU/ml) and wounded with a sterilized needle prior to inoculation. Controls were wounded similarly and inoculated with sterile water. This experiment was maintained at 28°C with 80 to 85% relative humidity in a greenhouse. Three replicates were used for each treatment and three mature plants in each pot. Symptoms developed within 14 days and were similar to those originally observed, whereas symptoms did not occur on the control plants. Strains recovered on NA were identified as based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and Biolog (Biolog, Hayward, CA). Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa is generally regarded as a human conditional pathogen, it has been reported to cause disease on a variety of plants including ginseng (Gao et al. 2014), tinda (Mondal et al. 2012), onion (Abd-Alla and Bashandy 2012) and sweet basil (Walker et al. 2004). This is the first report of causing basal stem rot on tomato in Gansu Province, China. Under the globalization, human beings should give great importance to the bacterial pathogens that cross kingdom to cause infection and become co-pathogenic in plant and animal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-21-1830-PDNDOI Listing
October 2021

Cerebral perfusion mediated by thalamo-cortical functional connectivity in non-dominant thalamus affects naming ability in aphasia.

Hum Brain Mapp 2022 Feb 26;43(3):940-954. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Neurology & Brain Medical Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Naming is a commonly impaired language domain in various types of aphasia. Emerging evidence supports the cortico-subcortical circuitry subserving naming processing, although neurovascular regulation of the non-dominant thalamic and basal ganglia subregions underlying post-stroke naming difficulty remains unclear. Data from 25 subacute stroke patients and 26 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers were analyzed. Region-of-interest-wise functional connectivity (FC) was calculated to measure the strength of cortico-subcortical connections. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined to reflect perfusion levels. Correlation and mediation analyses were performed to identify the relationship between cortico-subcortical connectivity, regional cerebral perfusion, and naming performance. We observed increased right-hemispheric subcortical connectivity in patients. FC between the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and lateral/medial prefrontal thalamus (lPFtha/mPFtha) exhibited significantly negative correlations with total naming score. Trend-level increased CBF in subcortical nuclei, including that in the right lPFtha, and significant negative correlations between naming and regional perfusion of the right lPFtha were observed. The relationship between CBF in the right lPFtha and naming was fully mediated by the lPFtha-pSTS connectivity in the non-dominant hemisphere. Our findings suggest that perfusion changes in the right thalamic subregions affect naming performance through thalamo-cortical circuits in post-stroke aphasia. This study highlights the neurovascular pathophysiology of the non-dominant hemisphere and demonstrates thalamic involvement in naming after stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25696DOI Listing
February 2022

Phoenixin-14 protects cardiac damages in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes mice model through SIRT3.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Oct 7:1-9. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Third Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Type I diabetes is a metabolic syndrome that severely impacts the normal lives of patients through its multiple complications, such as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Phoenixin-14 is a peptide found to be widely expressed in eukaryons with multiple protective properties, including anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aims to explore the potential therapeutic impacts of Phoenixin-14 on DCM.

Methods: Type I diabetes was induced by treatment with a single dose of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days. Mice were divided into four groups: the Control, Phoenixin-14, T1DM, and Phoenixin-14 +T1DM groups. The levels of myocardial injury markers were measured. Cardiac hypertrophy was assessed using wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining.

Results: Phoenixin-14 was significantly downregulated in the cardiac tissue of diabetic mice. The myocardial injury and deteriorated cardiac function in diabetic mice induced by STZ were significantly ameliorated by Phoenixin-14, accompanied by the alleviation of cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, the severe oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic mice were dramatically mitigated by Phoenixin-14. Lastly, the downregulated SIRT3 and upregulated p-FOXO3 in diabetic mice were pronouncedly reversed by Phoenixin-14. It is worth mentioning that compared to the Control, no significant changes to any of the investigated parameters in the present study were found in the Phoenixin-14-treated normal mice, suggesting that treatment with it has no side effects.

Conclusion: Our data revealed that Phoenixin-14 protected against cardiac damages in STZ-induced diabetes mice models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2021.1981946DOI Listing
October 2021

848 kHz repetition-rate narrowband dissipative soliton ps-pulsed Figure-9 fiber laser.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(15):23967-23975

In this paper, we study the limitations of decreasing the repetition rate for the narrowband dissipative soliton picosecond (ps) pulsed Figure-9 fiber laser with periodically saturable absorber (SA), and demonstrate how to decrease the repetition rate of this kind of fiber laser. By asymmetrically increasing the passive fiber length of nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) to lower SA saturation power, Q-switching instability can be avoided, thus effectively reducing the repetition rate of ps pulses. To combat noise-like pulse caused by excessive reduction of SA saturation power, we invoke the non-reciprocal output characteristics of periodic SA, and combined with increasing the intracavity fiber length outside the SA, we further reduce the laser repetition rate. Repetition rates for ∼10 and ∼20 ps pulses are reduced to 1.7 MHz and 848 kHz, respectively, which are, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest repetition rates of Figure-9 lasers reported thus far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.432955DOI Listing
July 2021

Fluorescent whitening agents in Baiyangdian Lake in North China: Analysis, occurrence, distribution and ecological risk assessment.

Environ Pollut 2021 Dec 25;291:118235. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang, 050018, China; Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are very important chemical additives that are widely applied in the industrial production field. The history of global FWA production and use spans more than 60 years, but the environmental fate of FWAs has been less reported in the public literature and most studies predate 2000; in addition, the studied FWAs were still limited to FWA71 and FWA351. In this study, the occurrence and distribution of 9 commonly used FWAs in a lake in North China were reported for the first time. We found that 6 target FWAs were prevalent in the lake, and the concentration levels were usually at the ng L level. Decreasing FWA levels with increasing distance from the estuary area were observed in summer. FWA135, FWA185, and FWA367, the most detected 3 FWAs, with the ecological risk at high levels, and ΣRQ >10 were obtained from all the investigated samples, suggesting that all the sampling sites could be considered with certain ecological risk for aquatic life. As a category of heavily and widely used dyes, FWAs in environmental media have been ignored for a long time. Substantial additional research needs to be conducted to determine the environmental behavior and ecological toxicology of FWAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118235DOI Listing
December 2021

Muscle Fiber Diameter and Density Alterations after Stroke Examined by Single-Fiber EMG.

Neural Plast 2021 13;2021:3045990. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

University of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Qingdao, China.

This study presents single-fiber electromyography (EMG) analysis for assessment of paretic muscle changes after stroke. Single-fiber action potentials (SFAPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle bilaterally in 12 individuals with hemiparetic stroke. The SFAP parameters, including the negative peak duration and the peak-peak amplitude, were measured and further used to estimate muscle fiber diameter through a model based on the quadratic function. The SFAP parameters, fiber density, and muscle fiber diameter derived from the model were compared between the paretic and contralateral muscles. The results show that SFAPs recorded from the paretic muscle had significantly smaller negative peak duration than that from the contralateral muscle. As a result, the derived muscle fiber diameter of the paretic muscle was significantly smaller than that of the contralateral muscle. The fiber density of the paretic muscle was significantly higher than that of the contralateral muscle. These results provide further evidence of remodeled motor units after stroke and suggest that paretic muscle weakness can be due to both complex central and peripheral neuromuscular alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3045990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380495PMC
January 2022

[Structure of Aerobic Denitrification Bacterial Community in Response to Dissolved Organic Matter in Baiyangdian Lake During the Water Delivery Period].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Sep;42(9):4319-4331

Pollution Prevention Biotechnology Laboratory of Hebei Province, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018, China.

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the evolution of microbial communities. Meanwhile, ecological water delivery is an important feature of Baiyangdian Lake. To explore how the structure of the aerobic denitrification bacteria community responds to DOM during the water delivery period, the DOM components of water were examined and high-throughput sequencing of aerobic denitrification bacteria was performed. The results showed significant differences in DOM concentration in Baiyangdian Lake, with the estuary area exhibiting lower DOM concentrations. The water exhibited strong autogenous source, while DOM in the estuary area had a higher molecular weight and degree of humification. Three protein-like substances (C1, C2, and C4) and one humic-like substance (C3) were identified through PARAFAC. The protein-like substances accounted for the major proportion of DOM, which was consistent with the results of fluorescence regional integration (FRI). The genera of the water body were mainly in the Protebacterice phylum, including , , , , and . Meanwhile, , , , , and were the main indicator species, according to random forest (RF) analysis. Through network analysis, 35 key nodes of the network were obtained, belonging to , and Unclassified_bacteria, respectively. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that a humic-like substance was the main environmental factor regulating the whole structure of the aerobic denitrification bacterial community, while protein-like substances played important roles in changes to the indicator species and key nodes of the community. Overall, protein-like substances could provide an important reference for selecting carbon sources during the screening of efficient and cold resistance aerobic denitrification bacteria that are adapted to actual water bodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202101290DOI Listing
September 2021

Rational engineering the DNA tetrahedrons of dual wavelength ratiometric electrochemiluminescence biosensor for high efficient detection of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp gene by using entropy-driven and bipedal DNA walker amplification strategy.

Chem Eng J 2022 Jan 9;427:131686. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

NHC Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214063, China.

Fast and effective detection of epidemics is the key to preventing the spread of diseases. In this work, we constructed a dual-wavelength ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on entropy-driven and bipedal DNA walker cycle amplification strategies for detection of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The entropy-driven cyclic amplification reaction was started by the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp gene to generate a bandage. The bandage could combine with two other single-stranded S1 and S2 to form a bipedal DNA walker to create the following cycle reaction. After the bipedal DNA walker completed the walking process, the hairpin structures at the top of the DNA tetrahedrons (TDNAs) were removed. Subsequently, the [email protected]@AuNPs-S7 probes were used to combine with the excised hairpin part of TDNAs on the surface of Au-g-CN, and the signal change was realized employing electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET). By combining entropy-driven and DNA walker cycle amplification strategy, the ratiometric ECL biosensor exhibited a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 7.8 aM for the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp gene. As a result, detecting the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp gene in human serum still possessed high recovery so that the dual-wavelength ratiometer biosensor could be used in early clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.131686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8349740PMC
January 2022

Comparison of sequential feeding and continuous feeding on the blood glucose of critically ill patients: a non-inferiority randomized controlled trial.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Jul;134(14):1695-1700

The Department of Critical Care Medicine in the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, China.

Background: Glucose control is an important aspect in managing critically ill patients. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of sequential feeding (SF) and continuous feeding (CF) on the blood glucose of critically ill patients.

Methods: A non-inferiority randomized controlled trial was adopted in this study. A total of 62 patients who were fed enteral nutritional suspension through gastric tubes were enrolled. After achieving 80% of the nutrition target calories (25 kcal·kg-1·day-1) through CF, the patients were then randomly assigned into SF and CF groups. In the SF group, the feeding/fasting time was reasonably determined according to the circadian rhythm of the human body as laid out in traditional Chinese medicine theory. The total daily dosage of the enteral nutritional suspension was equally distributed among three time periods of 7 to 9 o'clock, 11 to 13 o'clock, and 17 to 19 o'clock. The enteral nutritional suspension in each time period was pumped at a uniform rate within 2 h by an enteral feeding pump. In the CF group, patients received CF at a constant velocity by an enteral feeding pump throughout the study. Blood glucose values at five points (6:00/11:00/15:00/21:00/1:00) were monitored and recorded for seven consecutive days after randomization. Enteral feeding intolerance was also recorded. Non-inferiority testing was adopted in this study, the chi-square test or Fisher test was used for qualitative data, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for quantitative data to determine differences between groups. In particular, a repeated measure one-way analysis of variance was used to identify whether changes in glucose value variables across the time points were different between the two groups.

Results: There were no significant demographic or physiological differences between the SF and CF groups (P > 0.050). The average glucose level in SF was not higher than that in CF (8.8 [7.3-10.3] vs. 10.7 [9.1-12.1] mmol/L, Z = -2.079, P for non-inferiority = 0.019). Hyperglycemia incidence of each patient was more common in the CF group than that in the SF group (38.4 [19.1-63.7]% vs. 11.8 [3.0-36.7]%, Z = -2.213, P = 0.027). Hypoglycemia was not found in either group. Moreover, there was no significant difference during the 7 days in the incidence of feeding intolerance (P > 0.050).

Conclusions: In this non-inferiority study, the average blood glucose in SF was not inferior to that in CF. The feeding intolerance in SF was similar to that in CF. SF may be as safe as CF for critically ill patients.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03439618; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT03439618.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318659PMC
July 2021

[Temporal and Spatial Evolution Characteristics of DOM Spectra in Sediment Interstitial Water in Typical Zones of Baiyangdian Lake].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Aug;42(8):3730-3742

Pollution Prevention Biotechnology Laboratory of Hebei Province, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018, China.

The sources and distribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the interstitial water of Baiyangdian Lake sediments were analyzed using the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum (UV-vis) method and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Results showed that the DOM concentrations and molecular weight were significantly higher in summer than in spring and autumn, based on and E2/E3 values. Three protein-like substance (C1, C2, and C3) and two humic-like substances (C4, C5) were identified with the PARAFAC model. Moreover, protein-like substances accounted for the majority of DOM, reaching (63.56±16.07)%. Total DOM fluorescence intensity, the fluorescence intensity of each component, and the relative abundance exhibited significant spatial variation among the different functional zones in Baiyangdian Lake. Protein-like substances were mainly found in the breeding area, whereas humic-like substances mainly occurred in the natural area. The high BIX, FI, :, and low HIX indicated that DOM in sediment interstitial water exhibited low humification and highly autochthonous characteristics. Moreover, the perfect regression equations between water quality and the fluorescent components could provide a useful reference for managers aiming to protect the ecosystem of Baiyangdian Lake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202011063DOI Listing
August 2021

Electrochemiluminescence platform for transcription factor diagnosis by using CRISPR-Cas12a -cleavage activity.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Aug;57(65):8015-8018

NHC Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214063, China.

Herein, we exploited the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding property of transcription factor (TF), combined with the trans cleavage characteristic of CRISPR-Cas12a, for the detection of NF-κB p50.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03071jDOI Listing
August 2021

[Analysis of Water Quality and Exchange Flux of Interstitial Water-Overlying Water in Sediments of Baiyangdian Entrance Area in Summer].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Jul;42(7):3176-3185

Pollution Prevention Biotechnology Laboratory of Hebei Province, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018, China.

In order to reveal the interaction of overlying water-interstitial water nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient salt in summer at the entrance region of Baiyangdian Lake, this study sampled six main rivers in the region during July 2019. An analysis of the overlying water and interstitial water quality characteristics and the diffusion flux of applied nutrients at the sediment-water interface revealed the effects of nutrient diffusion on sediments and overlying water. The overlying water analysis showed that the water quality was slightly alkaline in the Baiyangdian Lake. The content of dissolved oxygen (DO) was lower, which provided an anaerobic environment for the release of endogenous pollutants from sediments. The ammonia nitrogen (NH-N) ranged from 0.35 to 1.76 mg·L, and the content of ammonia nitrogen was the highest in the Zhulong River, which was the main source of water supply. The nitrate nitrogen (NO-N) content ranged from 0.75 to 1.97 mg·L. The total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) ranged from 0.99 to 2.70 mg·L, and the content of TDN was the highest in Puhe River. The content of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) was 0.03 to 0.15 mg·L, and the content of TDP was the highest was Baigouyin River, which is near the residential area. The results indicated that the content of ammonia nitrogen in the interstitial water was between 5.24 and 10.64 mg·L, which was 10 times that of the overlying water, and endogenous pollution in the former was severe. The nitrate nitrogen content ranged from 0.36 to 0.79 mg·L. The total dissolved nitrogen content was between 5.36 and 12.02 mg·L, which was 5 times higher than that of the overlying water. The total dissolved phosphorus was between 0.03 and 0.3 mg·L. According to integrated pollution index, the degree of interstitial water pollution was much higher than that of overlying water, and the sampling points are seriously polluted. The exchange flux analysis of NH-N, TDN, and TDP demonstrated that the diffusion flux of NH-N was between 1.71 and 7.43 mg·(m·d), and the diffusion rate of endogenous ammonia nitrogen to the overlying water was fastest in Fu River, the absorbing river in Baoding. The diffusion flux of total dissolved nitrogen was lower in the Baigouyin River, and the other five sample points averaged 9.11 mg·(m·d). In summer, the dissolved oxygen was lower and the water-sediment had a larger concentration difference, which led to massive nitrogen nutrient of sediment in anaerobic conditions released to the overlying water in great quantities that caused the serious pollution. The diffusion flux of dissolved total phosphorus showed that the sediment of Pinghe River acted as a "sink" of phosphorus nutrients, and the other sampling points ranged from 0.03 to 0.16 mg·(m·d), showing the state of phosphorus nutrient released upward to the overlying water. Finally, diffusion flux indicated that endogenous pollutants are crucial sources of overlying water pollutants. In order to effectively control the water quality in the entrance area, desilting the nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient salt of sediment is urgently required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202011136DOI Listing
July 2021

Reading direct speech quotes increases theta phase-locking: Evidence for cortical tracking of inner speech?

Neuroimage 2021 10 25;239:118313. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Neuropsychology & Psychopharmacology, Maastricht University, Maastricht 6211 LK, Netherlands; Department of Neuropsychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig 04103, Germany.

Growing evidence shows that theta-band (4-7 Hz) activity in the auditory cortex phase-locks to rhythms of overt speech. Does theta activity also encode the rhythmic dynamics of inner speech? Previous research established that silent reading of direct speech quotes (e.g., Mary said: "This dress is lovely!") elicits more vivid inner speech than indirect speech quotes (e.g., Mary said that the dress was lovely). As we cannot directly track the phase alignment between theta activity and inner speech over time, we used EEG to measure the brain's phase-locked responses to the onset of speech quote reading. We found that direct (vs. indirect) quote reading was associated with increased theta phase synchrony over trials at 250-500 ms post-reading onset, with sources of the evoked activity estimated in the speech processing network. An eye-tracking control experiment confirmed that increased theta phase synchrony in direct quote reading was not driven by eye movement patterns, and more likely reflects synchronous phase resetting at the onset of inner speech. These findings suggest a functional role of theta phase modulation in reading-induced inner speech.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118313DOI Listing
October 2021

Nanoparticle-based fluorescence probe for detection of NF-κB transcription factor in single cell via steric hindrance.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 06 9;188(7):226. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

NHC Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, 214063, Jiangsu, China.

A novel nanoparticle-based fluorescence probe was developed for NF-κB transcription factor detection and in situ imaging via steric hindrance. The probe contains gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to quench fluorescence, and nucleic acids immobilized on the surface of AuNPs to output fluorescence. In the basal state, Cy5 labeled DNA1 folds its long chain into a hairpin structure and quenches fluorescence by forcing the Cy5 fluorophore close to the surface of AuNPs. After the probe enters the cell, the NF-κB transcription factor can bind to the κB site in the DNA duplex of the nucleic acids. The steric hindrance caused by NF-κB leads to the extension of the long chain of DNA1 and the removal of the Cy5 fluorophore from the surface of AuNPs, thereby restoring the fluorescence of the probe. By measuring NF-κB in cell lysis in vitro, the probe obtains a detection limit of 0.38 nM and the linear range from 0.5 to 16 nM. Repeated measurements showed the recovery in the cell nuclear extract was between 93.38 and 109.32%, with relative standard deviation less than 5%. By monitoring the sub-localization of the Cy5 fluorophore in single cell, the probe system can effectively distinguish active NF-κB (nucleus) and inactive NF-κB (cytoplasm) through in situ imaging. The well-designed probe will make up for the shortcomings of the existing technology, and reveal the regulatory role of transcription factors in many disease processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04878-yDOI Listing
June 2021

The atmospheric concentrations and emissions of major halocarbons in China during 2009-2019.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 14;284:117190. Epub 2021 May 14.

State Key Joint Laboratory for Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China. Electronic address:

Due to the characteristics of ozone-depleting and high global warming potential, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have been restricted by the Montreal Protocol and its amendments over the world. Considering that China is one of the main contributors to the emission of halocarbons, a long-term atmospheric observation on major substances including CFC-11 (CClF), CFC-12 (CClF), HCFC-22 (CHClF), HCFC-141b (CHCClF), HCFC-142b (CHCClF) and HFC-134a (CHFCF) was conducted in five cities (Beijing, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Lanzhou and Chengdu) of China during 2009-2019. The atmospheric concentrations of CFC-11, CFC-12, HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b all showed declining trends on the whole while those of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a were opposite. A paired sample t-test showed that the ambient mixing ratios of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a in cities were 41.9% and 25.7% higher on average than those in suburban areas, respectively, while the other substances did not show significant regional differences. The annual emissions of halocarbons were calculated using an interspecies correlation method and the results were generally consistent with the published estimates. Discrepancies between bottom-up inventories and the estimates in this study for CFCs emissions were found. Among the most consumed ozone depleting substances (ODSs) in China, CFCs accounted for 75.1% of the ozone depletion potential (ODP)-weighted emissions while HCFCs contributed a larger proportion (58.6%) of CO-equivalent emissions in 2019. China's emissions of HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b contributed the most to the global emission (17.8%-48.0%). The elimination of HCFCs in China will have a crucial impact on the HCFCs phase-out in the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117190DOI Listing
September 2021

Post-Assembly Modification of Peptides by Ligand-Enabled β-C(sp)-H Arylation of Alanine at the C-Terminus: Overcoming the Inhibition Effect of Peptide Bonds.

Org Lett 2021 06 1;23(12):4807-4812. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

MOE Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Beijing Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic-Electrophotonic Conversion Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 102488, P. R. China.

Postassembly modification of peptides via C(sp)-H functionalization on aliphatic side chains provides a straightforward approach to access functionalized peptides as therapeutics. However, C(sp)-H functionalization of C-terminal residues remains underdeveloped due to the inhibition effect of secondary amides in the backbone. Herein, we report a ligand-enabled, bidentate auxiliary-assisted β-C(sp)-H arylation method, which is well tolerant of secondary amides. A wide range of peptides (tri- to dodecapeptides) underwent position-specific modification of alanine at the C-terminus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01481DOI Listing
June 2021

Alteration of gut microbiota and metabolomics in critically ill patients by sequential feeding: A pilot study.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

The Department of Critical Care Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Background: Sequential feeding (SF) is a new feeding mode for critically ill patients that involves a combination of continuous feeding (CF) in the beginning, rhythmic feeding in the second stage, and oral feeding in the last stage. In this study, we investigated the influence of SF on gut microbiota and metabolomics in critically ill patients.

Methods: Stool specimens from 20 patients (10 patients with the SF group, 10 patients with the CF group) were collected for full-length 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and untargeted metabolomics analysis.

Results: The proportion of patients with low bacterial diversity (Shannon index < 4) in the SF group was much lower than that in the CF group, but there was no significant difference in the proportions (20% vs 50%, P = .350). The abundances of Actinobacteria/Actinobacteria (at the phylum and class levels), Pseudomonadaceae/Pseudomonas (at the family and genus levels), and Fusobacteria/Fusobacteriaceae/Fusobacteriales/Fusobacteria/Fusobacterium (at the phylum, class, order, family, and genus levels) were all higher in the SF group than in the CF group. Actinobacteria/Actinobacteria (at the phylum and class levels) were the most influential of these gut flora. Retinoic acid and leucine were upregulated in the SF group and were respectively responsible for the intestinal immune network for immunoglobulin A production and the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in the enriched pathways according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database classification.

Conclusions: SF could alter gut microbiota and metabolomics in critically ill patients. Because of the small sample size, further study is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jpen.2198DOI Listing
May 2021

Rational Engineering of the DNA Walker Amplification Strategy by Using a [email protected]@PEI-Ru(dcbpy) Nanocomposite Biosensor for Detection of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp Gene.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 23;13(17):19816-19824. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

NHC Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214063, P.R. China.

The detection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is crucial for preventing and controlling infectious diseases and disease treatment. In this work, a [email protected]@PEI-Ru(dcbpy) nanocomposite-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was rationally designed, which realized sensitive detection of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, a DNA walker was also used to excise the hairpin DNAs under the action of Nb.BbvCI endonuclease. Furthermore, model DNA-Ag nanoclusters (model DNA-AgNCs) were used to quench the initial ECL signal. As a result, the ECL biosensor was used to sensitively detect the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp gene with a detection range of 1 fM to 100 pM and a limit of detection of 0.21 fM. It was indicated that the ECL biosensor had a great application potential for clinical medical detection. Furthermore, the DNA walker amplification also played a reliable candidate strategy for other detection methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084271PMC
May 2021

Bioremediation and pharmacological applications of gold nanoparticles synthesized from plant materials.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 29;7(3):e06591. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Louisiana, USA.

Nanotechnology and nanoscience are gaining remarkable attention in this era due to their distinctive properties and multi applications. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is one of the most relevant metal nanoparticles with enormous applications in various field of research and industries. The demand for AuNPs is increasing rapidly. Extensive awareness has been allotted to the development of novel approaches for the synthesis of AuNPs with quality morphological properties using biological sources due to the limitations associated with the chemical and physical methods. Several factors such as contact time, temperature, pH of solution media, concentration of gold precursors and volume of plant extract influences the synthesis, characterization and applications of AuNPs. Characterization of synthesized AuNPs is important in evaluating the morphological properties of AuNPs since the morphological properties of AuNPs affect their potential use in various applications. This review highlights various methods of synthesizing AuNPs, parameters influencing the biosynthesis of AuNPs from plant extract, several techniques used for AuNPs characterization and their potential in bioremediation and biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035509PMC
March 2021

SMIXnorm: Fast and Accurate RNA-Seq Data Normalization for Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Samples.

Front Genet 2021 24;12:650795. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Population and Data Sciences, Quantitative Biomedical Research Center, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a comprehensive quantification of transcriptomic activities in biological samples. Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) samples are collected as part of routine clinical procedure, and are the most widely available biological sample format in medical research and patient care. Normalization is an essential step in RNA-seq data analysis. A number of normalization methods, though developed for RNA-seq data from fresh frozen (FF) samples, can be used with FFPE samples as well. The only extant normalization method specifically designed for FFPE RNA-seq data, MIXnorm, which has been shown to outperform the normalization methods, but at the cost of a complex mixture model and a high computational burden. It is therefore important to adapt MIXnorm for simplicity and computational efficiency while maintaining superior performance. Furthermore, it is critical to develop an integrated tool that performs commonly used normalization methods for both FF and FFPE RNA-seq data. We developed a new normalization method for FFPE RNA-seq data, named SMIXnorm, based on a simplified two-component mixture model compared to MIXnorm to facilitate computation. The expression levels of expressed genes are modeled by normal distributions without truncation, and those of non-expressed genes are modeled by zero-inflated Poisson distributions. The maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters are obtained by a nested Expectation-Maximization algorithm with a less complicated latent variable structure, and closed-form updates are available within each iteration. Real data applications and simulation studies show that SMIXnorm greatly reduces computing time compared to MIXnorm, without sacrificing the performance. More importantly, we developed a web-based tool, , that offers a simple workflow to compute normalized RNA-seq data for both FFPE and FF samples. It includes SMIXnorm and MIXnorm for FFPE RNA-seq data, together with five commonly used normalization methods for FF RNA-seq data. Users can easily upload a raw RNA-seq count matrix and select one of the seven normalization methods to produce a downloadable normalized expression matrix for any downstream analysis. The R package is available at https://github.com/S-YIN/RSEQNORM. The web-based tool, is available at http://lce.biohpc.swmed.edu/rseqnorm with no restriction to use or redistribute.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.650795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024626PMC
March 2021

Electrochemiluminescence aptasensor for Siglec-5 detection based on [email protected] nanocomposites emitter and exonuclease III-powered DNA walker.

Sens Actuators B Chem 2021 May 8;334:129592. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing, 211816, China.

Lectins are highly specific binding proteins for glycoproteins which widely exist in living organisms, playing a vital role in exploring the biological evolution process, such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, carcinogenesis and apoptosis. Therefore, the content monitoring of lectin becomes particularly significant and urgent in the bioanalytical application. In this work, we fabricated an aptasensor, majorly capitalizing the eminent affinity between sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectin 5 (Siglec-5) and nucleic acids aptamer (K19), with nontoxic [email protected] nanocomposites as electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emitters based on exonuclease III (Exo III)-powered DNA walker for the bioassays of Siglec-5. The DNA track was constructed on the emitters' surface, providing a reliable platform for the DNA walker's autonomous move. In the assay, the primer DNA in the DNA duplex was replaced by Siglec-5 due to the aptamer interactions and repeatedly released to participate in the movement of the DNA walker, further triggering cascade signal amplification. Finally, our aptasensor indicates significant potential for assays of Siglec-5 with a detection limit of 8.9 pM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2021.129592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869706PMC
May 2021

Exploring the trans-cleavage activity of CRISPR-Cas12a for the development of a Mxene based electrochemiluminescence biosensor for the detection of Siglec-5.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Apr 26;178:113019. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Life Sciences, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins (Siglecs) is a type I transmembrane receptor on the cell surface. Siglec-5, as one of the Siglecs family, play an important role as an inhibitory receptor for leukocytes in the human body. The development of novel siglec-5 assays can help to study the pathogenesis of related diseases as well as to develop novel therapeutic drugs. We use catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) amplification strategy combined with CRISPR-Cas12a's side-cutting feature to build a 2D ultra-thin TiCT (MXene) based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for the detection of Siglec-5. By using this ECL biosensor, the cleavage of CRISPR-Cas12a is reasonably combined with CHA-mediated isothermal amplification, thereby realizing the sensitive amplification assay Siglec-5 with 20.22 fM sensitivity. By introducing pairs of sites that are not in the same double-stranded DNA into the DNA duplex, the hybridization sequence of CRISPR-Cas12a complements the targeting mechanism to enhance indirect Siglec-5 amplification assay. Also, the double-strand DNA (dsDNA) design based on CRISPR-Cas12a amplification allows the same CRISPR RNA (crRNA, also known as guide RNA (gRNA)) to detect the output of DNA duplexes from different intermediate DNAs, which provides a common way for biomarker detection based on the conversion of protein analytes to intermediate DNA strategy. This work extends the application scope of CRISPR-Cas12a to the construction of ECL biosensors, evaluates the role of lectins, which can be used for the biochemical research and clinical diagnosis of protein markers. This is the first investigative work exploring the Trans-Cleavage activity of CRISPR-Cas12a for Mxene-based ECL biosensor establishment to the best of our knowledge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113019DOI Listing
April 2021

Mental Simulations of Phonological Representations Are Causally Linked to Silent Reading of Direct Versus Indirect Speech.

Authors:
Bo Yao

J Cogn 2021 Jan 8;4(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, UK.

Embodied theories propose that language is understood via mental simulations of sensory states related to perception and action. Given that direct speech (e.g., ) is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., ) in perception, recent research shows in silent reading that more vivid speech representations are mentally simulated for direct speech than for indirect speech. This 'simulated' speech is found to contain suprasegmental prosodic representations (e.g., speech prosody) but its phonological detail and its causal role in silent reading of direct speech remain unclear. Here in three experiments, I explored the phonological aspect and the causal role of speech simulations in silent reading of tongue twisters in direct speech, indirect speech and non-speech sentences. The results demonstrated greater visual tongue-twister effects (phonemic interference) during silent reading (Experiment 1) but not oral reading (Experiment 2) of direct speech as compared to indirect speech and non-speech. The tongue-twister effects in silent reading of direct speech were selectively disrupted by phonological interference (concurrent articulation) as compared to manual interference (finger tapping) (Experiment 3). The results replicated more vivid speech simulations in silent reading of direct speech, and additionally extended them to the phonological dimension. Crucially, they demonstrated a causal role of phonological simulations in silent reading of direct speech, at least in tongue-twister reading. The findings are discussed in relation to multidimensionality and task dependence of mental simulation and its mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/joc.141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792465PMC
January 2021

A deep learning-based model for screening and staging pneumoconiosis.

Sci Rep 2021 01 26;11(1):2201. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Quantitative Biomedical Research Center, Department of Population and Data Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.

This study aims to develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based model to assist radiologists in pneumoconiosis screening and staging using chest radiographs. The model, based on chest radiographs, was developed using a training cohort and validated using an independent test cohort. Every image in the training and test datasets were labeled by experienced radiologists in a double-blinded fashion. The computational model started by segmenting the lung field into six subregions. Then, convolutional neural network classification model was used to predict the opacity level for each subregion respectively. Finally, the diagnosis for each subject (normal, stage I, II, or III pneumoconiosis) was determined by summarizing the subregion-based prediction results. For the independent test cohort, pneumoconiosis screening accuracy was 0.973, with both sensitivity and specificity greater than 0.97. The accuracy for pneumoconiosis staging was 0.927, better than that achieved by two groups of radiologists (0.87 and 0.84, respectively). This study develops a deep learning-based model for screening and staging of pneumoconiosis using man-annotated chest radiographs. The model outperformed two groups of radiologists in the accuracy of pneumoconiosis staging. This pioneer work demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of AI-assisted radiography screening and diagnosis in occupational lung diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77924-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838184PMC
January 2021
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