Publications by authors named "Bo Xu"

2,148 Publications

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Engineered Macrophage-Membrane-Coated Nanoparticles with Enhanced PD-1 Expression Induce Immunomodulation for a Synergistic and Targeted Antiglioblastoma Activity.

Nano Lett 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

School of Medicine, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, People's Republic of China.

Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common subtype of malignant gliomas, is characterized by aggressive infiltration, high malignancy, and poor prognosis. The frustrating anti-GBM outcome of conventional therapeutics is due to the immunosuppressive milieu, in addition to the formidable obstacle of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Combination therapy with an immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has emerged as a critical component in the treatment of GBM. Here, we report an engineered macrophage-membrane-coated nanoplatform with enhanced programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) expression ([email protected]/RAPA). Using both and GBM models, we demonstrate that [email protected]/RAPA can efficiently traverse across the BBB in response to the tumor microenvironment (TME) recruitment with nanoparticles accumulating at the tumor site. Furthermore, we show a boosted immune response as a result of enhancing CD8 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration. Together we provide a new nanoplatform for enhancing ICB in combination with conventional chemotherapy for GBM and many other cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c01863DOI Listing
August 2022

Self-Supervised Deep Multiview Spectral Clustering.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2022 Aug 9;PP. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Multiview spectral clustering has received considerable attention in the past decades and still has great potential due to its unsupervised integration manner. It is well known that pairwise constraints boost the clustering process to a great extent. Nevertheless, the constraints are usually marked by human beings. To ameliorate the performance of multiview spectral clustering and alleviate the consumption of human resources, we propose self-supervised multiview spectral clustering with a small number of automatically retrieved pairwise constraints. First, the fused multiple autoencoders are used to extract the latent consistent feature of multiple views. Second, the pairwise constraints are achieved based on the commonality among multiple views. Then, the pairwise constraints are propagated through the neural network with historical memory. Finally, the propagated constraints are used to optimize the fused affinity matrix of spectral clustering. Our experiments on four benchmark datasets show the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2022.3195780DOI Listing
August 2022

Emotion-Based Reinforcement Attention Network for Depression Detection on Social Media: Algorithm Development and Validation.

JMIR Med Inform 2022 Aug 9;10(8):e37818. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

College of Computer Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.

Background: Depression detection has recently received attention in the field of natural language processing. The task aims to detect users with depression based on their historical posts on social media. However, existing studies in this area use the entire historical posts of the users and select depression indicator posts. Moreover, these methods fail to effectively extract deep emotional semantic features or simply concatenate emotional representation. To solve this problem, we propose a model to extract deep emotional semantic features and select depression indicator posts based on the emotional states.

Objective: This study aims to develop an emotion-based reinforcement attention network for depression detection of users on social media.

Methods: The proposed model is composed of 2 components: the emotion extraction network, which is used to capture deep emotional semantic information, and the reinforcement learning (RL) attention network, which is used to select depression indicator posts based on the emotional states. Finally, we concatenated the output of these 2 parts and send them to the classification layer for depression detection.

Results: Experimental results of our model on the multimodal depression data set outperform the state-of-the-art baselines. Specifically, the proposed model achieved accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score of 90.6%, 91.2%, 89.7%, and 90.4%, respectively.

Conclusions: The proposed model utilizes historical posts of users to effectively identify users' depression tendencies. The experimental results show that the emotion extraction network and the RL selection layer based on emotional states can effectively improve the accuracy of detection. In addition, sentence-level attention layer can capture core posts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/37818DOI Listing
August 2022

Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on One-Year Clinical Outcomes in Patients Anticoagulated with Bivalirudin Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2022 Jan-Dec;28:10760296221113344

National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are considered to increase the risk of thrombosis and bleeding. However, whether DM is an independent risk factor for events in patients anticoagulated with bivalirudin during elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not clear. Patients anticoagulated with bivalirudin during elective PCI from January 2017 to August 2018 in 3 centers were enrolled. The primary endpoint of thrombotic events was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE, including all-cause death, myocardial infarction, ischemic revascularization, stent thrombosis, and stroke); the primary endpoint of bleeding events was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 2, 3 or 5 bleeding. 1152 patients were finally enrolled. After one-year follow-up, 89 (7.7%) MACCE and 21 (1.8%) BARC 2, 3 or 5 bleeding occurred. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed DM was not an independent risk factor for MACCE (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.029, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.674-1.573,  = .893), but peripheral artery disease (PAD) history (HR: 2.200, 95%CI: 1.290-3.751,  = .004) was an independent risk factor for MACCE. DM was not an independent risk factor for BARC 2, 3 or 5 bleeding (HR: 0.732, 95%CI: 0.293-1.831,  = .505), but PAD history (HR: 3.029, 95%CI: 1.102-8.332,  = .032) and low hemoglobin level (HR = 0.972, 95%CI: 0.947-0.998,  = .036) were independent risk factors for BARC 2, 3 or 5 bleeding. DM was not an independent risk factor for one-year thrombotic and bleeding events in patients anticoagulated with bivalirudin during elective PCI. More attention should be paid to PAD history and hemoglobin level to identify high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10760296221113344DOI Listing
August 2022

De novo transcriptome revealed genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, transport, and regulation in a mutant of Acer pseudosieboldianum.

BMC Genomics 2022 Aug 8;23(1):567. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

College of Agriculture, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002, China.

Background: Acer pseudosieboldianum is a kind of excellent color-leafed plants, and well known for its red leaves in autumn. At the same time, A. pseudosieboldianum is one of the native tree species in the northeast of China, and it plays an important role in improving the lack of color-leafed plants in the north. In previous study, we found a mutant of the A. pseudosieboldianum that leaves intersect red and green in spring and summer. However, it is unclear which genes cause the color change of mutant leaves.

Results: In order to study the molecular mechanism of leaf color formation, we analyzed the leaves of the mutant group and the control group from A. pseudosieboldianum by RNA deep sequencing in this study. Using an Illumina sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 276,071,634 clean reads. After the sequences were filtered and assembled, the transcriptome data generated a total of 70,014 transcripts and 54,776 unigenes, of which 34,486 (62.96%) were successfully annotated in seven public databases. There were 8,609 significant DEGs identified between the control and mutant groups, including 4,897 upregulated and 3,712 downregulated genes. We identified 13 genes of DEGs for leaf color synthesis that was involved in the flavonoid pathway, 26 genes that encoded transcription factors, and eight genes associated with flavonoid transport.

Conclusion: Our results provided comprehensive gene expression information about A. pseudosieboldianum transcriptome, and directed the further study of accumulation of anthocyanin in A. pseudosieboldianum, aiming to provide insights into leaf coloring of it through transcriptome sequencing and analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-022-08815-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9361605PMC
August 2022

Application of intraoperative photodynamic therapy in patients suspected of recurrence post radical surgery: A single center experience.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2022 Aug 2:103047. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

The Second Clinical Medical College, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030, China; The Department of Tumor Surgery, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou 730030, China. Electronic address:

Background: Difficult tumors can be treated with a combination of radical surgery and photodynamic therapy to reduce recurrences. The aim of this study is to present a combined application of radical surgery combined with intraoperative PDT approach in patients with various cancers suspected of post-operative recurrence from a single center.

Methods: Radical surgery combined with intraoperative PDT was performed in each and every patient under study at different time points from June 2020 to July 2021, and the PDT irradiation time ranged from 10, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. Hematoporphyrin, as a photo synthesizer, was administered intravenously 48 hours before surgery and during the operative period respectively, at a 3mg/kg dose. In addition, the mean and median survival times for each of these patients were also evaluated. Patient's overall disease-Free Survival (DFS) and survival (OS) were immensely evaluated.

Results: 12 patients (33.3% female and 66.7 % male) underwent radical surgery and PDT simultaneously. No photosensitivity events were reported in the included patients, except for one case with a moderate to severe erythema. Intraoperative PDT was tolerated in all included patients without serious liver and kidney damages. As from the time these patients underwent radical surgery and PDT, three mortalities were recorded and the remaining 9 patients had some remarkable outcomes with less or no recurrences.

Conclusions: Intraoperative PDT is a safe therapeutic strategy for various tumor patients who undergo operation. Intraoperative PDT combined with surgery may be a novel therapeutic option that need enrollment of more tumor patients to evaluate its efficacy in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2022.103047DOI Listing
August 2022

Hybrid phenol-rhodamine dye based mechanochromic double network hydrogels with tunable stress sensitivity.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2022 Aug 5:e2200580. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Key Laboratory of Aerospace Advanced Materials and Performance, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, P. R. China.

Mechanochromic hydrogels, which can switch their color in response to the applied external force, have shown great potential in the stress visualization and damage indication. However, the kinds of the colors in the reported mechanochromic hydrogels are limited. It is challenging to develop the mechanochromic hydrogels with new kinds of color change. Herein, we report a kind of mechanochromic double network (DN) hydrogel based on the hybrid phenol-rhodamine (HPR) mechanophore. The hydrogels turn into orange color with an emission wavelength of around 566/574 nm in response to tensile and compressive stress. The DN hydrogels show great reversibility. The color of DN hydrogels vanishes slowly after releasing the stress. The stress sensitivity can be tailored by the crosslinking density and the mechanophore concentration of the first network. In addition, the influence of the pH on the mechanochromic properties of DN hydrogels is also studied. This study provides an insightful study in tuning the stress sensitivity in the mechanochromic hydrogel, which would be beneficial for the development of the mechanochromic materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202200580DOI Listing
August 2022

Long noncoding RNA CERS6-AS1 modulates glucose metabolism and tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma by promoting the MDM2/p53 signaling pathway.

Cell Death Discov 2022 Aug 4;8(1):348. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Department of Liver Surgery and Liver Transplantation Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most serious malignant cancers and has a high fatality rate. However, clinical strategies for the effective treatment of HCC remain lacking. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with aberrant expression have been closely correlated with the occurrence and development of HCC. Here we investigated the underlying mechanism of the lncRNA CERS6-AS1 in HCC progression. The expression and prognosis of CERS6-AS1 in HCC patients was explored using The Cancer Genome Atlas. PCR analysis was utilized to measure the expression of CERS6-AS1 in tissues and cell lines. Transwell, wound healing, proliferation and glycolysis assays were conducted to evaluate the function of CERS6-AS1 on HCC cell functions. Bioinformation methods and luciferase assays were used to screen and verify potential target miRNAs and genes. A subcutaneous tumorigenesis model was constructed in nude mice to assess the effect of CERS6-AS1 on tumorigenesis in vivo. CERS6-AS1 was highly expressed in HCC tissues and cell lines. Upregulated CERS6-AS1 expression was remarkably correlated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. High CERS6-AS1 expression facilitated cell growth, invasion and glycolysis of HCC cells. Bioinformatics analyses combining with PCR analysis identified miR-30b-3p as the potential target of CERS6-AS1, and MDM2 mRNA was verified as the target of miR-30b-3p. The expression of miR-30b-3p was negatively correlated with CERS6-AS1, whereas MDM2 was positively associated with CERS6-AS1. Mechanistic studies showed that CERS6-AS1 may sponge miR-30b-3p to elevate MDM2, thus promoting the MDM2-mediated ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the p53 tumor suppressor. MDM2 overexpression or miR-30b-3p inhibitors blocked the inhibitory effect of CERS6-AS1 knockdown on proliferation, migration and glycolysis. CERS6-AS1 depletion reduced tumor formation in the in vivo mouse model. The CERS6-AS1/miR-30b-3p/MDM2/p53 signaling axis may play key roles in regulating HCC progression. CERS6-AS1 may exert as a novel biomarker or therapeutic target for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-022-01150-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9352870PMC
August 2022

A Syntactic Information-Based Classification Model for Medical Literature: Algorithm Development and Validation Study.

JMIR Med Inform 2022 Aug 2;10(8):e37817. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

College of Computer Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.

Background: The ever-increasing volume of medical literature necessitates the classification of medical literature. Medical relation extraction is a typical method of classifying a large volume of medical literature. With the development of arithmetic power, medical relation extraction models have evolved from rule-based models to neural network models. The single neural network model discards the shallow syntactic information while discarding the traditional rules. Therefore, we propose a syntactic information-based classification model that complements and equalizes syntactic information to enhance the model.

Objective: We aim to complete a syntactic information-based relation extraction model for more efficient medical literature classification.

Methods: We devised 2 methods for enhancing syntactic information in the model. First, we introduced shallow syntactic information into the convolutional neural network to enhance nonlocal syntactic interactions. Second, we devise a cross-domain pruning method to equalize local and nonlocal syntactic interactions.

Results: We experimented with 3 data sets related to the classification of medical literature. The F1 values were 65.5% and 91.5% on the BioCreative ViCPR (CPR) and Phenotype-Gene Relationship data sets, respectively, and the accuracy was 88.7% on the PubMed data set. Our model outperforms the current state-of-the-art baseline model in the experiments.

Conclusions: Our model based on syntactic information effectively enhances medical relation extraction. Furthermore, the results of the experiments show that shallow syntactic information helps obtain nonlocal interaction in sentences and effectively reinforces syntactic features. It also provides new ideas for future research directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/37817DOI Listing
August 2022

One-step algorithm for fast-track localization and multi-category classification of histological subtypes in lung cancer.

Eur J Radiol 2022 Jul 21;154:110443. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin 300060, China; Center for Intelligent Oncology, Chongqing University Cancer Hospital, Chongqing University School of Medicine, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Intelligent Oncology for Breast Cancer, Chongqing 400030, China. Electronic address:

Backgrounds: Accumulated evidence has proven that computer-derived features from computed tomography (CT) through radiomics and deep learning technologies can identify extensive characteristics of pulmonary malignancies, such as nodules detection and malignant lesion discrimination. However, there are few studies on whether CT images can reflect histological subtypes of lung cancer through computer-derived features.

Methods: Contrast-enhanced CT images prior treatment from 417 patients diagnosed with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), or lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were collected. ITK-SNAP software was used by trained radiologists for the manual delineation of tumor volume. Patients of each category (SCLC, ADC, SCC) were then randomly split into training datasets and test datasets in an approximately ratio of 8:2. After image pre-processing and augmentation, 25,042 CT images from the training datasets were used to train our self-developed deep learning model for fast-tracking tumor lesions and classifying corresponding histological subtypes simultaneously. The performance of the network was evaluated by accuracy, F1-score and weighted F1-average using 1,921 testing images based on parameters generated during training.

Results: The prediction accuracy of SCLC, ADC, and SCC were 0.83, 0.75 and 0.67, respectively. The weighted F1-average was 0.75. ADC obtained the best F1-score of 0.78, which was outperformed SCLC (0.77) and SCC (0.66). The corresponding AUC values of SCLC, ADC, and SCC were 0.87, 0.84, and 0.76, respectively. Only 0.24 s were required to simultaneously achieve functions of tumor localization and histological classification on a thoracic CT image slice. The heat map visualization illustrated the extracted tumor features to classify subtypes of lung cancer by the proposed model.

Conclusions: The newly developed multi-task algorithm provides a CNN-based DL approach in lung cancer for automatically fast-tracking tumor lesions and classifying corresponding histological subtypes in one-step.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2022.110443DOI Listing
July 2022

Identification of Novel Genes and Associated Drugs in Advanced Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma by Bioinformatic Methods.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.2022.J059DOI Listing
July 2022

A Cu-based nanoplatform for near-infrared light amplified multi-mode prostate cancer specific therapy.

J Mater Chem B 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry (CIAC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, China.

Chemodynamic therapy (CDT), as a new method for oncotherapy, can convert less reactive hydrogen peroxide (HO) into highly toxic hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to kill tumor cells and inhibit tumor growth. However, the TME usually presents a low content of endogenous HO and weak acidity, which weakens the therapeutic effect of CDT to a certain extent. Here, we developed a multifunctional nanoplatform based on Cu-doped mesoporous carbon nanospheres loaded with free radical generator 2'-azobis[2-(2-imidazolin-2-yl)propane]-dihydrochloride (AIPH) and polyacrylic acid ([email protected]). [email protected] exhibited high photothermal conversion efficiency, and could not only act as a good photothermal agent for photothermal therapy (PTT) but also trigger AIPH to produce alkyl radicals. In response to the specificity of the TME, [email protected] could generate ˙OH through a Fenton-like reaction for CDT and enhance the efficacy of CDT by a photothermal effect. The excellent anticancer efficiency by the synergistic effect of CDT, PTT and free radicals, high biocompatibility and low adverse effects of [email protected] make it an ideal nanoplatform for tumor therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2tb01109cDOI Listing
July 2022

Interfacial Composition of Surfactant Aggregates in the Presence of Fragrance: A Chemical Trapping Study.

Molecules 2022 Jul 6;27(14). Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Daily Chemical Engineering, Beijing Technology and Business University, No. 11 Fucheng Road, Beijing 100048, China.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in daily-use chemical products providing a pleasant scent. The added fragrance molecules may induce microstructural transitions of surfactant aggregates, which further affect the physical and chemical properties of the products. Here, the effects of four types of aromatic alcohols (cinnamyl alcohol, phenyl ethanol, phenyl methanol and anisyl alcohol) on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/KBr aggregates were studied. The combined results from rheology, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy measurements showed that cinnamyl alcohol induced significant micellar growth, while increases in micellar growth were less obvious for the other aromatic alcohols. The changes in the interfacial molarities of water, aromatic alcohol, and bromide ions during such transitions were studied using the chemical trapping method. Transitions resulting from added cinnamyl alcohol were accompanied by significant declines in interfacial water and bromide ion molarities, and a rise in interfacial alcohol molarity. The marked decrease in interfacial water molarity was not observed in previous studies of the octanol induced formation of wormlike micelles and vesicles, indicating that a different mechanism was presented in the current system. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation showed that π-π stacking between cinnamyl alcohols, but not cation-π interactions between alcohols and CTAB headgroups, facilitated the tight packing of alcohol molecules in CTAB aggregates and the repulsion of water from the interfacial region. The current study may provide a theoretical basis for the morphological regulation of surfactant aggregates in the presence of additives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27144333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9320350PMC
July 2022

A Novel Model of Ultrasonic Fatigue Test in Pure Bending.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jul 13;15(14). Epub 2022 Jul 13.

MOE Key Laboratory of Deep Earth Science and Engineering, College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

The very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) failure of in-service components is mainly caused by the vibration of thin-wall elements at a high frequency. In this work, a novel model of ultrasonic fatigue test was developed to test thin-wall material in bending up to VHCF with an accelerated frequency. The theoretical principle and finite element analysis were introduced for designing a sample that resonated at the frequency of 20 kHz in flexural vibration. In the advantage of the second-order flexural vibration, the gauge section of the sample was in the pure bending condition which prevented the intricate stress condition for thin-wall material as in the root of cantilever or the contact point of three points bending. Moreover, combining the constraint and the loading contact in one small section significantly reduced heating that originated from the friction at an ultrasonic frequency. Both strain gauge and deflection angle methods were applied to verify the controlling of stress amplitude. The fractography observation on Ti6Al4V samples indicated that the characterized fracture obtained from the novel model was the same as that from the conventional bending test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15144864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9317056PMC
July 2022

A Novel mechanisms of the signaling cascade associated with the SAPK10-bZIP20-NHX1 synergistic interaction to enhance tolerance of plant to abiotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Plant Sci 2022 Jul 22;323:111393. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Lianyungang Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production, Lianyungang, Jiangsu province 222006, China. Electronic address:

The bzip transcription factors can modulate the transcriptional expressions of target genes by binding specifically to cis-regulatory elements in the promoter region of stress-related genes, hence regulating plant stress resistance. Here, we investigated a stress-responsive transcription factor Osbzip20 under abiotic stresses. The OsbZIP20-GFP fusion protein predominantly aggregated in the nucleus, in accordance with our subcellular localization. OsbZIP20 transcript was observed in all vegetative tissues with highest levels being detected in the seed. Transcription of Osbzip20 was induced by salinity, exsiccation, and abscisic acid. Overexpression of OsbZIP20 in transgenic rice considerably improved tolerance to salt and drought stresses, as well as increased sensitivity to ABA. Furthermore, abiotic stress responsive genes transcript were found to be remarkably elevated in transgenic rice overexpressing OsbZIP20 than in wild-type plants. SAPK10 was discovered to directly interact with and phosphorylate OsbZIP20. Yeast one-hybrid and luciferase assay revealed that OsbZIP20 acted as a transcriptional stimulator. Interestingly, gel shift assay showed that phosphorylated bZIP20 augmented its DNA-binding affinity to the ABRE element of the NHX1 promoter and induced its transcription. In sum, our findings establish a novel signaling pathway associated with the SAPK10-bZIP20-NHX1 synergistic interaction, as well as a new strategy for enhancing rice drought and salt tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2022.111393DOI Listing
July 2022

Targeting the Macrophage-Ferroptosis Crosstalk: A Novel Insight into Tumor Immunotherapy.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2022 Jun;27(7):203

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, 610041 Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Ferroptosis is an emerging form of non-apoptotic, regulated cell death that is mechanistically dependent on aberrant iron accumulation and excessive lipid peroxidation. Further evidence indicates that ferroptosis plays a crucial role in the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy. Ferroptosis is often constrained by tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and this poses a challenge to clinicians aiming to exploit the potency of immunotherapy to treat various forms of cancer. Current advances revealed a dual character to TAMs in regulating tumor ferroptosis. Specifically, some signaling molecules released from cells undergoing ferroptosis can exert effects on TAM polarization. In this review, we summarize the currently characterized mechanisms of macrophage-ferroptosis crosstalk, discuss how macrophage-ferroptosis crosstalk affects the outcome of tumor immunotherapy, and provide an overview of current advances that seek to leverage this crosstalk to improve cancer immunotherapy efficacy. Despite the fact that further efforts are still required to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that control this signaling, targeting macrophage-ferroptosis crosstalk has clear potential for reversing immunotherapeutic resistance and may shed light on new therapeutic strategies to overcome some advanced and metastatic malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31083/j.fbl2707203DOI Listing
June 2022

Artificial Intelligence in Cardiovascular Medicine: Current Insights and Future Prospects.

Vasc Health Risk Manag 2022 12;18:517-528. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Section of Cardiovascular Imaging, Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart, Vascular and Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a significant and increasing burden on healthcare systems. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly evolving transdisciplinary field employing machine learning (ML) techniques, which aim to simulate human intuition to offer cost-effective and scalable solutions to better manage CVD. ML algorithms are increasingly being developed and applied in various facets of cardiovascular medicine, including and not limited to heart failure, electrophysiology, valvular heart disease and coronary artery disease. Within heart failure, AI algorithms can augment diagnostic capabilities and clinical decision-making through automated cardiac measurements. Occult cardiac disease is increasingly being identified using ML from diagnostic data. Improved diagnostic and prognostic capabilities using ML algorithms are enhancing clinical care of patients with valvular heart disease and coronary artery disease. The growth of AI techniques is not without inherent challenges, most important of which is the need for greater external validation through multicenter, prospective clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S279337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9288176PMC
July 2022

Big Endothelin-1 and long-term all-cause death in patients with coronary artery disease and prediabetes or diabetes after percutaneous coronary intervention.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fu Wai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The present study aimed to examine the association between big endothelin-1 (big ET-1) and long-term all-cause death in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and different glucose metabolism status.

Methods And Results: We consecutively enrolled 8550 patients from January 2013 to December 2013. Patients were categorized according to both status of glucose metabolism status [Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Pre-Diabetes (Pre-DM), Normoglycemia (NG)] and big ET-1 levels. Primary endpoint was all-cause death. During a median of 5.1-year follow-up periods, 301 all-cause deaths occurred. Elevated big ET-1 was significantly associated with long-term all-cause death (adjusted HR: 2.230, 95%CI 1.629-3.051; p < 0.001). Similarly, patients with DM, but not Pre-DM, had increased risk of all-cause death compared with NG group (p < 0.05). When patients were categorized by both status of glucose metabolism and big ET-1 levels, high big ET-1 were associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause death in Pre-DM (adjusted HR: 2.442, 95% CI 1.039-5.740; p = 0.041) and DM (adjusted HR: 3.162, 95% CI 1.376-7.269; p = 0.007). The Kaplan-Meier curve indicated that DM patients with the highest big ET-1 levels were associated with the greatest risk of all-cause death (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The present data indicate that baseline big ET-1 levels were independently associated with the long-term all-cause death in DM and Pre-DM patients with CAD undergoing PCI, suggesting that big ET-1 may be a valuable marker in patients with impaired glucose metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2022.06.002DOI Listing
June 2022

Compressing speaker extraction model with ultra-low precision quantization and knowledge distillation.

Neural Netw 2022 Jun 27;154:13-21. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China; School of Future Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; School of Artificial Intelligence, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, CAS, Shanghai, China.

Recently, our proposed speaker extraction model, WASE (learning When to Attend for Speaker Extraction) yielded superior performance over the prior state-of-the-art methods by explicitly modeling onset clue and regarding it as important guidance in speaker extraction tasks. However, it still remains challenging when it comes to the deployments on the resource-constrained devices, where the model must be tiny and fast to perform inference with minimal budget in CPU and memory while keeping the speaker extraction performance. In this work, we utilize model compression techniques to alleviate the problem and propose a lightweight speaker extraction model, TinyWASE, which aims to run on resource-constrained devices. Specifically, we mainly investigate the grouping effects of quantization-aware training and knowledge distillation techniques in the speaker extraction task and propose Distillation-aware Quantization. Experiments on WSJ0-2mix dataset show that our proposed model can achieve comparable performance as the full-precision model while reducing the model size using ultra-low bits (e.g. 3 bits), obtaining 8.97x compression ratio and 2.15 MB model size. We further show that TinyWASE can combine with other model compression techniques, such as parameter sharing, to achieve compression ratio as high as 23.81 with limited performance degradation. Our code is available at https://github.com/aispeech-lab/TinyWASE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2022.06.026DOI Listing
June 2022

Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Study of Paclitaxel ± Napabucasin in Pretreated Advanced Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2022 Jul 14:OF1-OF9. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Gastroenterology/Digestive Oncology, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg Leuven and KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: To compare napabucasin (generator of reactive oxygen species) plus paclitaxel with paclitaxel only in patients with second-line advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma.

Experimental Design: In the double-blind, phase III BRIGHTER study (NCT02178956), patients were randomized (1:1) to napabucasin (480 mg orally twice daily) plus paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 i.v. weekly for 3 of 4 weeks) or placebo plus paclitaxel. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety.

Results: Overall, 714 patients were randomized (napabucasin plus paclitaxel, n = 357; placebo plus paclitaxel, n = 357). 72.1% were male, 74.6% had gastric adenocarcinoma, and 46.2% had peritoneal metastases. The study was unblinded following an interim analysis at 380 deaths. The final efficacy analysis was performed on 565 deaths (median follow-up, 6.8 months). No significant differences were observed between napabucasin plus paclitaxel and placebo plus paclitaxel for OS (6.93 vs. 7.36 months), PFS (3.55 vs. 3.68 months), ORR (16% vs. 18%), or DCR (55% vs. 58%). Grade ≥3 adverse events occurred in 69.5% and 59.7% of patients administered napabucasin plus paclitaxel and placebo plus paclitaxel, respectively, with grade ≥3 diarrhea reported in 16.2% and 1.4%, respectively.

Conclusions: Adding napabucasin to paclitaxel did not improve survival in patients with pretreated advanced gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma. Consistent with previous reports, the safety profile of napabucasin was driven by manageable gastrointestinal events; grade ≥3 diarrhea occurred at a higher frequency with napabucasin plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-4021DOI Listing
July 2022

Risk Stratification and Validation of Eleven Autophagy-Related lncRNAs for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Genet 2022 27;13:894990. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the most prevalent subtype of esophageal cancer, ranks sixth in cancer-related mortality, making it one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. The identification of potential risk factors for ESCC might help in implementing precision therapies. Autophagy-related lncRNAs are a group of non-coding RNAs that perform critical functions in the tumor immune microenvironment and therapeutic response. Therefore, we aimed to establish a risk model composed of autophagy-related lncRNAs that can serve as a potential biomarker for ESCC risk stratification. Using the RNA expression profile from 179 patients in the GSE53622 and GSE53624 datasets, we found 11 lncRNAs (AC004690.2, AC092159.3, AC093627.4, AL078604.2, BDNF-AS, HAND2-AS1, LINC00410, LINC00588, PSMD6-AS2, ZEB1-AS1, and LINC02586) that were co-expressed with autophagy genes and were independent prognostic factors in multivariate Cox regression analysis. The risk model was constructed using these autophagy-related lncRNAs, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the risk model was 0.728. To confirm that the model is reliable, the data of 174 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) esophageal cancer dataset were analyzed as the testing set. A nomogram for ESCC prognosis was developed using the risk model and clinic-pathological characteristics. Immune function annotation and tumor mutational burden of the two risk groups were analyzed and the high-risk group displayed higher sensitivity in chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Expression of differentially expressed lncRNAs were further validated in human normal esophageal cells and esophageal cancer cells. The constructed lncRNA risk model provides a useful tool for stratifying risk and predicting the prognosis of patients with ESCC, and might provide novel targets for ESCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.894990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9271611PMC
June 2022

Comparative Chloroplast Genomics of Seven Endangered Species and Phylogenetic Relationships of Orchidaceae.

Front Plant Sci 2022 22;13:911702. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

China-Croatia "Belt and Road" Joint Laboratory on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization & Ecological Restoration and Biodiversity Conservation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China.

The species in the genus (Orchidaceae) are considered endangered, mainly distributed in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with high ornamental and economic value. Despite previous extensive studies based on both morphology and molecular data, species and sections relationships within remain controversial. Here, we employed two newly generated chloroplast genomes with five other published genomes to elucidate their genomic characteristics. The two genomes were 162,773-207,142 bp in length and contained 128-130 genes, including 82-84 protein-coding genes, 38 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. We identified 2,192 simple sequence repeats, 786 large repeat sequences, and 7,929 variable loci. The increase of repeat sequences (simple sequence repeats and large repeat sequences) causes a significant amplification in the chloroplast genome size of . The expansion of the IR region led to the pseudogenization or loss of genes in the SSC region. In addition, we identified 12 highly polymorphic loci (Pi > 0.09) suitable for inferring the phylogeny of species. Based on data sets of whole chloroplast genomes (IRa excluded) and protein-coding sequences, a well-supported phylogenetic tree was reconstructed, strongly supporting the five subfamilies of Orchidaceae and the genus as monophyletic taxa. Our findings also supported that belonged to sect. rather than sect. . This study also enriched the genomic resources of , which may help to promote the conservation efforts of these endangered species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.911702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9257239PMC
June 2022

Homeodomain protein HOMEZ is dispensable for male fertility in mice.

Transl Androl Urol 2022 Jun;11(6):750-760

Reproductive and Genetic Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Background: Homeodomain (HD) proteins contain an evolutionarily conserved helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding motif and act as transcription factors to control gene expression. A previous study showed that the HD gene is highly enriched in adult testes. However, the role of HOMEZ in spermatogenesis and male fertility remains unknown.

Methods: Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, mutant mice were generated and performed histological, immunofluorescence, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot and mating assays to analyze the phenotype of mutants.

Results: Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that the HOMEZ is evolutionarily conserved among mammalian species. qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that is highly expressed in the testis, with a relatively increased expression trend during spermatogenesis. mutant males were viable and showed no differences in body and testis weight compared to their wild-type. In addition, mating between mutant males and wild-type females produced normal litter sizes. Moreover, histopathology detected complete spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules and mature spermatozoa in the epididymides from knockout males. Furthermore, significantly increased transcription of three genes were found in mutatnt testes compared with wild-type testes.

Conclusions: knockout mice are fertile and are not essential for germ cell development. These findings could prevent unnecessary duplicative work by other groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-21-1169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9262745PMC
June 2022

Appropriate Surrogate Endpoint in Drug-Coated Balloon Trials for Coronary Artery Diseases.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 22;9:897365. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Cardiology, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Fu Wai Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: The appropriateness of using late lumen loss (LLL) as a surrogate endpoint was established in drug-eluting stent (DES) studies, but it was less supportive for drug-coated balloon (DCB) trials.

Methods: Studies published until 23 June 2021 were searched from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The correlation between LLL, MLD (minimal lumen diameter), and %DS (percentage diameter stenosis) and clinical endpoints was evaluated by linear regression. Standardized effect size and its 95% CIs were used to illustrate the difference among LLL, MLD, and %DS.

Results: A total of 24 clinical trials were eligible [16 DCB vs. DES, 7 DCB vs. plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA), and 1 DCB vs. DES vs. POBA]. Thirteen (54.2%) trials used LLL as the primary endpoint. LLL, MLD, and %DS all had significant associations with clinical endpoints. For DCB vs. DES trials, the number of studies that reported inconsistent results between LLL and MLD was 12/16 (75.0%) and between LLL and %DS was 10/15 (66.7%), while in MLD and %DS, it was 1/16 (6.3%). The difference of standardized effect size between LLL and MLD was -0.47 (95% CI, -0.69 to -0.25, < 0.001) and LLL and %DS was-0.31 (95%CI,-0.43 to-0.20, < 0.001) while in MLD and %DS, there was no difference, 0.1 (95%CI,-0.02 to 0.22, = 0.084).

Conclusions: For DCB trials, an appropriate surrogate is associated with the control device. The traditional LLL could be used in the DCB vs. POBA trials. However, MLD/%DS should be considered a more suitable surrogate endpoint when comparing DCB with DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.897365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9256952PMC
June 2022

Empirical Variational Mode Decomposition Based on Binary Tree Algorithm.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Jun 30;22(13). Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Engineering Research Center for Metallurgical Automation and Measurement Technology, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China.

Aiming at non-stationary signals with complex components, the performance of a variational mode decomposition (VMD) algorithm is seriously affected by the key parameters such as the number of modes K, the quadratic penalty parameter α and the update step τ. In order to solve this problem, an adaptive empirical variational mode decomposition (EVMD) method based on a binary tree model is proposed in this paper, which can not only effectively solve the problem of VMD parameter selection, but also effectively reduce the computational complexity of searching the optimal VMD parameters using intelligent optimization algorithm. Firstly, the signal noise ratio (SNR) and refined composite multi-scale dispersion entropy (RCMDE) of the decomposed signal are calculated. The RCMDE is used as the setting basis of the α, and the SNR is used as the parameter value of the τ. Then, the signal is decomposed into two components based on the binary tree mode. Before decomposing, the α and τ need to be reset according to the SNR and MDE of the new signal. Finally, the cycle iteration termination condition composed of the least squares mutual information and reconstruction error of the components determines whether to continue the decomposition. The components with large least squares mutual information (LSMI) are combined, and the LSMI threshold is set as 0.8. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed empirical VMD algorithm can decompose the non-stationary signals adaptively, with lower complexity, which is O(), good decomposition effect and strong robustness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22134961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9269750PMC
June 2022

Conjunctive Analyses of BSA-Seq and BSR-Seq Unveil the and as Key Candidate Genes for Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Alfalfa ( L.).

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 28;23(13). Epub 2022 Jun 28.

College of Forestry and Grassland, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China.

Knowing the molecular mechanism of male sterility in alfalfa is important to utilize the heterosis more effectively. However, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility in alfalfa are still unclear. In this study, the bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and bulked segregant RNA-seq (BSR) were performed with F2 separation progeny to study the molecular mechanism of male sterility in alfalfa. The BSA-seq analysis was located in a candidate region on chromosome 5 containing 626 candidate genes which were associated with male sterility in alfalfa, while the BSR-seq analysis filtered seven candidate DEGs related to male sterility, and these candidate genes including , , , , and . The conjunctive analyses of BSR and BSA methods revealed that the genes of and are the common detected candidate genes involved in male sterility in alfalfa. Our research provides a theory basis for further study of the molecular mechanism of male sterility in alfalfa and significant information for the genetic breeding of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23137172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9266382PMC
June 2022

Ruscogenin Ameliorated Sjögren's Syndrome by Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 28;2022:6425121. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

This article investigated the role and the specific mechanism of Ruscogenin in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). NOD/ShiLtJ mice were treated with Ruscogenin, and acinar cells isolated from submandibular glands were treated with TNF-, Ruscogenin and transfected with NLRP3 overexpression plasmid. Salivary flow rate (SFR) was measured at weeks 11, 13, 15, 17, and 20. Histological analysis of the submandibular glands was conducted by hematoxylin-eosin staining assay. IL-6, IL-17, TNF-, and IL-1 mRNA expression was detected through qRT-PCR. AQP 5, AQP 4, P2X7R, NLRP3, caspase 1, IL-1, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein levels were tested by western blot. Cell apoptosis was assessed through acridine orange and propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining assay and flow cytometry assay. Ruscogenin ameliorated the SFR and submandibular gland inflammation of NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Ruscogenin promoted the preservation of acinar cells and suppressed inflammation-related factors (P2X7R, NLRP3, caspase 1, and IL-1) in submandibular gland tissues of NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Ruscogenin inhibited acinar cell apoptosis in NOD/ShiLtJ mice and reversed TNF--induced apoptosis and inflammation of acinar cells. NLRP3 overexpression reversed the repressive effect of Ruscogenin on TNF--induced inflammation and apoptosis of acinar cells. Ruscogenin ameliorated SS by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6425121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9256408PMC
June 2022

Coherent interfaces govern direct transformation from graphite to diamond.

Nature 2022 07 6;607(7919):486-491. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Center for High Pressure Science (CHiPS), State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China.

Understanding the direct transformation from graphite to diamond has been a long-standing challenge with great scientific and practical importance. Previously proposed transformation mechanisms, based on traditional experimental observations that lacked atomistic resolution, cannot account for the complex nanostructures occurring at graphite-diamond interfaces during the transformation. Here we report the identification of coherent graphite-diamond interfaces, which consist of four basic structural motifs, in partially transformed graphite samples recovered from static compression, using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy. These observations provide insight into possible pathways of the transformation. Theoretical calculations confirm that transformation through these coherent interfaces is energetically favoured compared with those through other paths previously proposed. The graphite-to-diamond transformation is governed by the formation of nanoscale coherent interfaces (diamond nucleation), which, under static compression, advance to consume the remaining graphite (diamond growth). These results may also shed light on transformation mechanisms of other carbon materials and boron nitride under different synthetic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04863-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9300464PMC
July 2022

Cardioprotective Effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum against Streptozotocin Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Rats via Alteration of AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway.

J Oleo Sci 2022 ;71(7):991-1002

Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Yunnan University.

Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) is a plant commonly used in diabetic therapy in China. GP having potent antioxidant effect against various free radicals. The purpose of the current investigation to identify the cardioprotective effect of GP against streptozotocin (STZ)/ high fat diet (HFD) induced cardiac dysfunction in rats via alteration of AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Wistar rats were used for the current protocol. The rats were received the intraperitoneal injection of STZ and HFD to induce the cardiac remodelling. Blood glucose level, insulin and lipid parameters were estimated. Blood pressure and heart rate were also estimated. Cardiac parameters, antioxidant, cytokines, total protein and inflammatory mediators were analysed. The mRNA expression was detected using the RT-qPCR, respectively. GP significantly (p < 0.001) decreased the BGL and improved the insulin level. GP altered the ratio of heart/BW, liver/BW, and lung/BW. GP treatment significantly (p < 0.001) suppressed the heart rate and blood pressure (diastolic, systolic and mean pressure). GP significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the level of TC, LDL, TG, VLDL and increased the level of HDL. DCM induced rats received the GP administration exhibited reduction in the level of CK and LDH. GP significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the levels of MDA, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, ROS and increased the level of GSH, SOD, CAT and GPx. GP significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) and inflammatory parameters (COX-2 and NFκB). GP significantly (p < 0.001) suppressed the NLRP3 and NF-κB expression. GP also boosted mitochondrial biogenesis by boosting the PGC-1α, HO-1 and Nrf2 expression in cardiac tissue. GP treatment showed the cardioprotective effects against STZ induced diabetic cardiac dysfunction via alteration of AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess21281DOI Listing
July 2022

Risk factors for and predictive nomogram of overall survival in adult patients with craniopharyngiomas: A SEER population-based study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jul 1;101(26):e29777. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Huangshi Central Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei Polytechnic University, Edong Healthcare Group, Hubei Province, China.

Studies with relatively large sample size as well as long-term follow-up focusing on adult craniopharyngioma (CP) patients are still lacking. We attempted to identify independent prognostic factors and establish a nomogram model to estimate survival rates for adult CP patients. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to obtain data on patients with CP. Univariable and multivariable Cox analyses were utilized to identify the prognostic factors of adult CP patients. A survival prediction model was constructed and its predictive performance was also assessed. A total of 991 patients (695 in training group and 296 in validation group) were eligible for final inclusion. Multivariate Cox analysis presented that age at diagnosis, marital status, race, tumor size, and surgery type were statistically significant prognostic factors for overall survival (all P < .05). A graphical predicting nomogram model was developed to calculate the predicted patients' survival probabilities at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years. The concordance indexes were 0.708 ± 0.019 and 0.750 ± 0.025 for the training and validation samples, respectively, demonstrating favorable discrimination abilities. Similarly, the time-dependent area under curve also showed overall satisfactory discrimination ability. Favorable consistencies between the predicted and actual survival were presented according to the calibration curves. An easy-to-use nomogram, being proven to be with reliable discrimination ability and accuracy, was established to help predict overall survival for adult patients with CP using the identified significant prognostic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000029777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9239608PMC
July 2022
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