Publications by authors named "Bo Wang"

4,802 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Long-distance facilitation of coastal ecosystem structure and resilience.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jul 27;119(28):e2123274119. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Biotic interactions that hierarchically organize ecosystems by driving ecological and evolutionary processes across spatial scales are ubiquitous in our biosphere. Biotic interactions have been extensively studied at local and global scales, but how long-distance, cross-ecosystem interactions at intermediate landscape scales influence the structure, function, and resilience of ecological systems remains poorly understood. We used remote sensing, modeling, and field data to test the hypothesis that the long-distance impact of an invasive species dramatically affects one of the largest tidal flat ecosystems in East Asia. We found that the invasion of exotic cordgrass can produce long-distance effects on native species up to 10 km away, driving decadal coastal ecosystem transitions. The invasive cordgrass at low elevations facilitated the expansion of the native reed at high elevations, leading to the massive loss and reduced resilience of the iconic "Red Beach" marshes at intermediate elevations, largely as a consequence of reduced soil salinity across the landscape. Our results illustrate the complex role that long-distance interactions can play in shaping landscape structure and ecosystem resilience and in bridging the gap between local and global biotic interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2123274119DOI Listing
July 2022

A graph neural network approach for molecule carcinogenicity prediction.

Bioinformatics 2022 Jun;38(Supplement_1):i84-i91

Vector Institute, Toronto, ON M5G 1M1, Canada.

Motivation: Molecular carcinogenicity is a preventable cause of cancer, but systematically identifying carcinogenic compounds, which involves performing experiments on animal models, is expensive, time consuming and low throughput. As a result, carcinogenicity information is limited and building data-driven models with good prediction accuracy remains a major challenge.

Results: In this work, we propose CONCERTO, a deep learning model that uses a graph transformer in conjunction with a molecular fingerprint representation for carcinogenicity prediction from molecular structure. Special efforts have been made to overcome the data size constraint, such as multi-round pre-training on related but lower quality mutagenicity data, and transfer learning from a large self-supervised model. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our model performs well and can generalize to external validation sets. CONCERTO could be useful for guiding future carcinogenicity experiments and provide insight into the molecular basis of carcinogenicity.

Availability And Implementation: The code and data underlying this article are available on github at https://github.com/bowang-lab/CONCERTO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btac266DOI Listing
June 2022

Common Multiple Primary Cancers Associated With Breast and Gynecologic Cancers and Their Risk Factors, Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prognosis: A Review.

Front Oncol 2022 8;12:840431. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

The mammary gland is closely related to the female reproductive system in many aspects, affecting the whole gynecological system. Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women and associated with considerable negative effects. Due to various factors including co-pathogenic genetic mutations, environment factors, lifestyle, behavioral factors, treatment regimens and in-creased survival of patients with BC, there is an increased probability of developing additional primary gynecologic cancers such as ovarian cancer (OC), endometrial cancer (EC), and cervical cancer (CC). More and more studies have been conducted in recent years. Multiple primary cancers (MPCs), also known as multiple primary malignancies, refers to two or more different primary cancers in the same patient occurring in the same or different organs or tissues. The pathogenesis of multiple primary cancers is complex and has a negative effect on the prognosis and survival of patients. This review discusses the common types of BC-associated MPCs, namely, BC associated with OC, BC associated with EC and BC associated with CC, as well as risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of MPCs associated with breast and gynecologic cancers. It provides new intervention and treatment ideas for patients with BC-associated MPCs to improve quality of life and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.840431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9213651PMC
June 2022

Classification of Amino Acids Using Hybrid Terahertz Spectrum and an Efficient Channel Attention Convolutional Neural Network.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Jun 20;12(12). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Institute of Fluid Physics, 64 Mianshan Rd., Mianyang 621900, China.

Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is the de facto method to study the vibration modes and rotational energy levels of molecules and is a widely used molecular sensor for non-destructive inspection. Here, based on the THz spectra of 20 amino acids, a method that extracts high-dimensional features from a hybrid spectrum combined with absorption rate and refractive index is proposed. A convolutional neural network (CNN) calibrated by efficient channel attention (ECA) is designed to learn from the high-dimensional features and make classifications. The proposed method achieves an accuracy of 99.9% and 99.2% on two testing datasets, which are 12.5% and 23% higher than the method solely classifying the absorption spectrum. The proposed method also realizes a processing speed of 3782.46 frames per second (fps), which is the highest among all the methods in comparison. Due to the compact size, high accuracy, and high speed, the proposed method is viable for future applications in THz chemical sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12122114DOI Listing
June 2022

Numerical Simulation on Thermal Stresses and Solidification Microstructure for Making Fiber-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 12;15(12). Epub 2022 Jun 12.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China.

The fabrication of fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) mainly consists of two stages: infiltration and solidification, which have a significant influence on the properties of MMCs. The present study is primarily focused on the simulation of the solidification process and the effect of the active cooling of fibers with and without nickel coating for making the continuous carbon fiber-reinforced aluminum matrix composites. The thermomechanical finite element model was established to investigate the effects of different cooling conditions on the temperature profile and thermal stress distributions based on the simplified physical model. The predicted results of the temperature distribution agree well with the results of the references. Additionally, a three-dimensional cellular automata (CA) finite element (FE) model is used to simulate the microstructure evolution of the solidification process by using ProCAST software. The results show that adding a nickel coating can make the heat flux smaller in the melt, which is favorable for preventing debonding at the coating/fiber and alloy interface and obtaining a finer microstructure. In the presence of the nickel coating, the number of grains increases significantly, and the average grain size decreases, which can improve the properties of the resultant composite materials. Meanwhile, the predicting results also show that the interfaces of fiber-coating, fiber-melt, and coating-melt experience higher temperature gradients and thermal stresses. These results will lead to the phenomenon of stress concentration and interface failure. Thus, it was demonstrated that these simulation methods could be helpful for studying the solidification of fiber-reinforced MMCs and reducing the number of trial-and-error experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15124166DOI Listing
June 2022

Unveiling a Novel Source of Resistance to Bacterial Blight in Medicinal Wild Rice, .

Life (Basel) 2022 Jun 2;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Biotechnology and Germplasm Resources Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yunnan Provincial Key Lab of Agricultural Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Kunming 650205, China.

Bacterial blight (BB) caused by pv. () is among the oldest known bacterial diseases found for rice in Asia. It is the most serious bacterial disease in many rice growing regions of the world. A total of 47 resistance (R) genes ( to ) have been identified. Nonetheless, these R genes could possibly be defeated to lose their qualitative nature and express intermediate phenotypes. The identification of sources of novel genetic loci regulating host plant resistance is crucial to develop an efficient control strategy. Wild ancestors of cultivated rice are a natural genetic resource contain a large number of excellent genes. Medicinal wild rice () belongs to the CC genome and is a well-known wild rice in south China. In this study, was crossed with cultivated rice HY-8 and their hybrids were screened for BB resistance genes deployed through natural selection in wild rice germplasm. The molecular markers linked to R genes for BB were used to screen the genomic regions in wild parents and their recombinants. The gene coding and promoter regions of major R genes were inconsistently found in and its progenies. showed resistance to all thirty inoculated strains with non-availability of various known R genes. The results indicated the presence of novel genomic regions for BB resistance in . The present study not only provides a reference to investigate medicinal rice for R gene(s) identification against BB but also identified it as a new breeding material for BB resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life12060827DOI Listing
June 2022

Expansion of Double-Negative T Cells in Patients before Liver Transplantation Correlates with Post-Transplant Infections.

J Clin Med 2022 Jun 17;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

National Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Precision Surgery and Regenerative Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Liver transplantation (LTx) is currently the only effective therapy for patients with end-stage liver diseases, but post-transplant infection is a key issue for morbidity and mortality. In this study, we found that pre-transplant patients with an expansion of double-negative T (DNT) cells (CD3CD4CD8 T cells) had an increased incidence of infections within the first 6 months after LTx. These DNT cells also negatively correlated with their CD4/CD8 ratio. Compared to patients who had no infections after LTx, these DNT cells expressed more CD25, especially in the memory compartment. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the threshold area under the ROC curve of DNT cells which could be used to distinguish LTx patients with post-transplant infections from patients without infections after LTx was 0.8353 (95% CI: 0.6591-1.000). The cut-off for the pre-LTx DNT cell level was 11.35%. Although patients with post-transplant infections had decreased levels of CD4/CD8 T cells, CD8 T cells in these patients were more exhausted, with higher PD-1 expression and lower IFNγ secretion. The increased levels of DNT cells in patients with post-transplant infections were still observed 2 weeks after LTx, with higher proportions of memory DNT cells. In conclusion, increased levels of DNT cells in pre-LTx patients may be valuable for the prognosis of post-transplant infections, especially within the first 6 months after LTx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123502DOI Listing
June 2022

Biomimetic Nanosponges Enable the Detoxification of Hemolysin.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 19;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Department of Marine Biomedicine and Polar Medicine, Naval Special Medical Center, Naval Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.

() infection-associated multiple antibiotic resistance has raised serious public health concerns. Recently, nanosponges (NSs) have been expected to provide innovative platforms for addressing antibacterial and drug-resistant challenges by targeting various pore-forming toxins (PFTs). In the present study, we constructed NSs to explore the effects and possible mechanism of recombinant hemolysin (rVvhA)-induced injuries. In vitro, NSs significantly reversed rVvhA-induced apoptosis and necrosis, and improved toxin-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion, and apoptosis signaling pathway disruption. To explore the clinical translation potential of NSs, we established VvhA-induced septicemia and wound infection mouse models, respectively, and further found NSs could notably attenuate rVvhA-induced acute toxicity and septicemia-associated inflammation, as well as local tissue damage. In a conclusion, NSs showed excellent protective effects against rVvhA-induced toxicity, thus providing useful insights into addressing the rising threats of severe infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126821DOI Listing
June 2022

Source Apportionment of Fine Particulate Matter during the Day and Night in Lanzhou, NW China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jun 9;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China.

Source apportionment of PM in Lanzhou, China, was carried out using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Seventeen elements (Ca, Fe, K, Ti, Ba, Mn, Sr, Cd, Se, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Co, Cr, V), water-soluble ions (Na, NH, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, NO, SO), and organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were analyzed. The results indicated that the mean concentration of PM was 178.63 ± 96.99 μg/m. In winter, the PM concentration was higher during the day than at night, and the opposite was the case in summer, and the nighttime PM concentration was 1.3 times higher than during the day. Water-soluble ions were the dominant component of PM during the study. PMF source analysis revealed six sources in winter, during the day and night: salt lakes, coal combustion, vehicle emissions, secondary aerosols, soil dust, and industrial emissions. In summer, eight sources during the day and night were identified: soil dust, coal combustion, industrial emissions, vehicle emissions, secondary sulfate, salt lakes, secondary aerosols, and biomass burning. Secondary aerosols, coal combustion, and vehicle emissions were the dominant sources of PM. In winter, the proportions of secondary aerosols and soil dust sources were greater during the day than at night, and the opposite was the case in summer. The coal source, industrial emissions source, and motor vehicle emissions source were greater at night than during the day in winter. This work can serve as a case study for further in-depth research on PM pollution and source apportionment in Lanzhou, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127091DOI Listing
June 2022

The Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Spirulina () Chlorophylls Microencapsulated in Different Ratios of Gum Arabic and Whey Protein Isolate.

Foods 2022 Jun 20;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Suqian Huiwei Food Co., Ltd., Suqian 223900, China.

Spirulina () is rich in chlorophylls (CH) and is used as a potential natural additive in the food industry. In this study, the CH content was extracted from spirulina powder after ultrasound treatment. Microcapsules were then prepared at different ratios of gum Arabic (GA) and whey protein isolate (WPI) through freeze-drying to improve the chemical stability of CH. As a result, and values of the microcapsules prepared from GA:WPI ratios (3:7) were -8.94 ± 0.05 and 15.44 ± 0.08, respectively. The GA fraction increased from 1 to 9, and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of microcapsules also increased by 9.62%. Moreover, the absorption peaks of CH at 2927 and 1626 cm in microcapsules emerged as a redshift detected by FT-IR. From SEM images, the morphology of microcapsules changed from broken glassy to irregular porous flake-like structures when the GA ratio increased. In addition, the coated microcapsules (GA:WPI = 3:7) showed the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (SA) (56.38 ± 0.19) due to low moisture content and better chemical stability through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Conclusively, GA and WPI coacervates as the wall material may improve the stability of CH extracted from spirulina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11121809DOI Listing
June 2022

Vasa Is a Potential Germ Cell Marker in Leopard Coral Grouper ().

Genes (Basel) 2022 Jun 16;13(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding (Ministry of Education), College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

Vasa (, DEAD box polypeptide 4), an extremely specific marker of germ cells in vivo, is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase that plays an essential role in germ cell development and gametogenesis. However, the expression and function information about this gene in groupers remains lacking. Here, homolog termed was isolated and identified as a putative germ cell marker in the leopard coral grouper, (). Results indicated that contained 17 exons in the genomic sequence and 9 conserved motifs of the DEAD-box protein by sequence analysis. The sequence comparison, phylogenetic analyses and synteny analyses showed that was homologous with other teleosts. Additionally, the expression of was significantly higher in gonads than in other tissues in adult individuals ( < 0.05). Further, the distribution of revealed that it was only expressed in the germ cells, such as spermatids, germline stem cells and oocytes at different stages, and could not be detected in the somatic cells of gonads. The current study verified that the gene is a valuable molecular marker of germ cells in leopard coral grouper, which potentially plays an important role in investigating the genesis and development of teleost germ cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes13061077DOI Listing
June 2022

Development of a Fully Automated Graf Standard Plane and Angle Evaluation Method for Infant Hip Ultrasound Scans.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Jun 9;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Shenzhen Mindray Bio-Medical Electronics Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057, China.

Background: Graf's method is currently the most commonly used ultrasound-based technique for the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). However, the efficiency and accuracy of diagnosis are highly affected by the sonographers' qualification and the time and effort expended, which has a significant intra- and inter-observer variability.

Methods: Aiming to minimize the manual intervention in the diagnosis process, we developed a deep learning-based computer-aided framework for the DDH diagnosis, which can perform fully automated standard plane detection and angle measurement for Graf type I and type II hips. The proposed framework is composed of three modules: an anatomical structure detection module, a standard plane scoring module, and an angle measurement module. This framework can be applied to two common clinical scenarios. The first is the static mode, measurement and classification are performed directly based on the given standard plane. The second is the dynamic mode, where a standard plane from ultrasound video is first determined, and measurement and classification are then completed. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed framework is the first CAD method that can automatically perform the entire measurement process of Graf's method.

Results: In our experiments, 1051 US images and 289 US videos of Graf type I and type II hips were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed framework. In static mode, the mean absolute error of α, β angles are 1.71° and 2.40°, and the classification accuracy is 94.71%. In dynamic mode, the mean absolute error of α, β angles are 1.97° and 2.53°, the classification accuracy is 89.51%, and the running speed is 31 fps.

Conclusions: Experimental results demonstrate that our fully automated framework can accurately perform standard plane detection and angle measurement of an infant's hip at a fast speed, showing great potential for clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12061423DOI Listing
June 2022

Influence of CaO on the thermal kinetics and formation mechanism of high value-added products during waste tire pyrolysis.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Aug 23;436:129220. Epub 2022 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China; Shandong Engineering and Technology Research Center of High Carbon Low Carbonization, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China. Electronic address:

There is a lack of detailed research on the production of isoprene and D-limonene by solid base-catalysed thermal depolymerization of waste tires (WTs). This work aimed to investigate the thermal decomposition characteristics, reaction kinetics, high value-added products production and potential mechanisms during WT pyrolysis in the presence of calcium oxide (CaO) via Thermogravimetry-Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (TG-FTIR) and Pyrolyzer-Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The results obtained from TG indicated that CaO accelerated depolymerization in terms of reducing the reaction temperature, which is also reflected in the kinetic parameters. It can be found that the content of D-limonene increased by 13.76% and that of isoprene increased by 37.57%, which were attributed to differences in the depolymerization mechanisms in the presence of CaO. Furthermore, CaO had a profound impact on desulfurization by reducing benzothiazole, sulfoacid, and thiophene. The potential catalytic mechanisms of isoprene and D-limonene production and desulfurization were also proposed. This work deepens the understanding of the catalytic pyrolysis of WT under CaO and unambiguously demonstrates the great potential of CaO in enhancing isoprene and D-limonene production, providing new insight for the cleaner production of high value-added products from WT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129220DOI Listing
August 2022

Brain single-nucleus transcriptomics highlights that polystyrene nanoplastics potentially induce Parkinson's disease-like neurodegeneration by causing energy metabolism disorders in mice.

J Hazard Mater 2022 05 11;430:128459. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

NMPA Key Laboratory for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

With the prevalence of nanoplastics in daily life, human exposure is inevitable. However, whether and how nanoplastics cause neurotoxicity in humans remains obscure. Herein, we conducted a 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity study in C57BL/6 J mice exposed to 0.25-250 mg/kg body weight (BW) polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs, 50 nm). We revealed that PS-NP-caused Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurodegeneration in mice by multiple approaches. Furthermore, a single-nucleus RNA sequencing of 62,843 brain nuclei unearthed PS-NP-induced cell-specific responses in the mouse brains. These disturbed responses among various brain cells were primarily linked with energy metabolism disorder and mitochondrial dysfunction in all brain cells, and especially in excitatory neurons, accompanied by inflammatory turbulence in astrocytes and microglia, dysfunction of proteostasis and synaptic-function regulation in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and endotheliocytes. These responses may synergize in PS-NP-motivated PD-like neurodegeneration pathogenesis. Moreover, we verified these single-nucleus transcriptomics findings on different brain regions and found that PS-NPs potentially caused PD-like neurodegeneration primarily by causing energy metabolism disorder in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and striatum. This manifested as decreases in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and expression levels of ATP-associated genes and proteins. Given nanoplastics' inevitable and growing exposure risks to humans, the neurological health risks of nanoplastic exposure warrant serious consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128459DOI Listing
May 2022

Genus : A Prolific Producer of Natural Products.

Mar Drugs 2022 May 31;20(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China.

Actinomycetes are currently one of the major sources of bioactive secondary metabolites used for medicine development. Accumulating evidence has shown that , a key class of actinomycetes, has the ability to produce novel bioactive natural products. This review covers the sources, distribution, bioactivities, biosynthesis, and structural characteristics of compounds isolated from in the period between March 2018 and 2021. Our results reveal that 67% of -derived natural products are reported for the first time, and 73% of them are isolated from marine . The chemical structures of the -derived compounds have diverse skeletons, concentrating on the categories of polyketides, peptides, terphenyls, and alkaloids. Almost 50% of the natural products isolated from have been discovered to display various bioactivities. These results fully demonstrate the great potential of the genus to produce novel bioactive secondary metabolites that may serve as a structural foundation for the development of novel drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md20060374DOI Listing
May 2022

The gut metagenomics and metabolomics signature in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Gut Pathog 2022 Jun 21;14(1):26. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Key Laboratory of Medical Science and Laboratory Medicine of Jiangsu Province, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic gut immune dysregulation and dysbiosis condition is rapidly increasing in global incidence. Regardless, there is a lack of ideal diagnostic markers, while conventional treatment provides scarce desired results, thus, the exploration for better options. Changes in the gut microbial composition and metabolites either lead to or are caused by the immune dysregulation that characterizes IBD. This study examined the fecal metagenomics and metabolomic changes in IBD patients. A total of 30 fecal samples were collected from 15 IBD patients and 15 healthy controls for 16S rDNA gene sequencing and UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS detection of metabolomics. Results showed that there was a severe perturbation of gut bacteria community composition, diversity, metabolites, and associated functions and metabolic pathways in IBD. This included a significantly decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, increased disease-associated phyla such as Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and increased Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in IBD. A total of 3146 metabolites were detected out of which 135 were differentially expressed between IBD and controls. Metabolites with high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating IBD from healthy individuals included 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone and thyroxine 4'-o-.beta.-d-glucuronide (AUC = 0.92), normorphine and salvinorin a (AUC = 0.90), and trichostachine (AUC = 0.91). Moreover, the IBD group had significantly affected pathways including primary bile acid biosynthesis, vitamin digestion and absorption, and carbohydrate metabolism. This study reveals that the combined evaluation of metabolites and fecal microbiome can be useful to discriminate between healthy subjects and IBD patients and consequently serve as therapeutic and diagnostic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13099-022-00499-9DOI Listing
June 2022

[Changes of leaf functional traits of in burned areas with different fire severities].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2022 Jun;33(6):1497-1504

Beijing Key Laboratory for Forest Resources and Ecosystem Processes, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

The response of leaf functional traits to forest fire is one of the research hotspots in the forest fire ecology. Studying post-fire changes in leaf functional traits of can reveal its growth strategies to adapt to fire environment and provide reference for the post-fire recovery. We analyzed the changes of leaf functional traits in burned areas with different fire severities (unburned, light burn and moderate burn) in Qinyuan County burned area of Shanxi Province, and studied the variation characteristics of leaf economic spectrum in different burned areas. The results showed that there were significant differences in burned areas with different fire severities for all leaf functional traits except N/P. Among them, the difference of leaf area was the most obvious, which was the most sensitive trait. With the increases of fire severity in burned areas, leaf area, leaf thickness, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen content and leaf phosphorus content increased, while specific leaf area and leaf organic carbon content decreased. There were significant correlations among some leaf functional traits, with the correlations being distinct in burned areas with different fire severities. The leaf economic spectrum moved from 'unburned-light burn-mode-rate burn' to the resource trade-off strategy of 'rapid investment-return type' along the fire environment. The recovery of would be accelerated in burned area with low fire severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202206.001DOI Listing
June 2022

Improved Glass Bead-Vortex Oscillation Method for DNA Extraction from Diatom.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Feb;38(1):119-126

Hainan Province Tropical Forensic Engineering Research Center, Department of Forensic Medicine of Hainan Medical University, Haikou 571199, China.

Objectives: To examine the effect of improving diatom DNA extraction by glass bead - vortex oscillation method.

Methods: The DNeasy PowerSoil Pro kit was used as control, two plant DNA extraction kits with different principles (New Plant genomic DNA extraction kit and Plant DNA Isolation kit) and one whole blood DNA extraction kit (whole blood genomic DNA extraction kit) were selected to extract diatom DNA from lung tissue and water sample of the same drowning case. The combination of mass ratio of glass beads with different sizes and vortex oscillation time was designed, and the optimal DNA extraction conditions were selected with the addition of glass beads oscillation. The extracted products of the conventional group and the modified group were directly electrophoretic and detected by diatom specific PCR. Finally, all the extracts were quantified by qPCR, and the Ct values of different groups were statistically analyzed.

Results: When the frequency of vortex oscillation was 3 000 r/min, the optimal combination of DNA extraction was vortex oscillation for 4 min, and the mass ratio of large glass beads to small glass beads was 1∶1. The DNeasy PowerSoil Pro kit was used as a reference, and the Ct value of 10 mL water sample was greater than that of 0.5 g tissue. The Ct values of the other three kits used for plant DNA extraction decreased after the glass beads-vortex oscillation method was used, and the Ct values of the tissues before and after the improvement were statistically significant (<0.05). The whole blood genomic DNA extraction kit used in this study could successfully extract diatom DNA, the extraction of water samples was close to DNeasy PowerSoil Pro kit, after the modified method was applied to tissue samples, the difference in Ct value was statistically significant (<0.05). However, when the three kits were used to extract diatom DNA from water samples, Ct values before and after the improvement were only statistically significant in New Plant genomic DNA extraction kit group (<0.05).

Conclusions: The improved glass bead-vortex oscillation method can improve the extraction efficiency of diatom DNA from forensic materials, especially from tissue samples, by plant and blood DNA extraction kits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.410801DOI Listing
February 2022

Application Progress of High-Throughput Sequencing Technology in Forensic Diatom Detection.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Feb;38(1):20-30

Department of Forensic Medicine of Hainan Medical University, Academician Workstation of Hainan Province (Tropical Forensic Medicine), Hainan Province Tropical Forensic Engineering Research Center, Center of Forensic Science, Hainan Medical University, Haikou 571199, China.

Diatom detection is an important method for identifying drowning and throwing corpses after death and inferring the drowning sites in forensic examination of corpses in water. In recent years,high-throughput sequencing technology has achieved rapid development and has been widely used in research related to diatom taxonomic investigations. This paper reviews the research status and prospects of high-throughput sequencing technology and its application in forensic diatom detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.410807DOI Listing
February 2022

Research on the Influence Mechanism of Agricultural Entrepreneurship: Evidence From Five Provinces in Western China.

Front Psychol 2022 1;13:864226. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Shaanxi Provincial Land Engineering Construction Group Co., Ltd., Xi'an, China.

Individual entrepreneurial behaviors will be affected by their attitudes and environmental factors. Therefore, entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial environment interpret the entrepreneurial behavior mechanism of farmers from the perspectives of internal and external factors. This manuscript is based on a survey data of farmers in five western provinces in China. Using structural equation modeling, the mechanism of the effects of farmers' entrepreneurial attitudes and entrepreneurial environment on entrepreneurial behavior was analyzed empirically. The research results show that individual entrepreneurial attitudes and the external entrepreneurial environment cannot directly affect entrepreneurial behavior, and both will be through entrepreneurial self-efficacy. The sense of entrepreneurship indirectly affects entrepreneurial behavior, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy plays an intermediary role. The "entrepreneurial behavior structure" model proposed in this manuscript points out that cultivating entrepreneurial attitudes and creating an entrepreneurial environment cannot directly promote entrepreneurial behavior of farmers, but must stimulate farmers' entrepreneurial behavior. The sense of self-efficacy provides a direction for the promotion of policy formulation and practical guidance for farmers' entrepreneurship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.864226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9199860PMC
June 2022

Machine learning approaches to the human metabolome in sepsis identify metabolic links with survival.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2022 Jun 17;10(1):24. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Metabolic predictors and potential mediators of survival in sepsis have been incompletely characterized. We examined whether machine learning (ML) tools applied to the human plasma metabolome could consistently identify and prioritize metabolites implicated in sepsis survivorship, and whether these methods improved upon conventional statistical approaches.

Methods: Plasma gas chromatography-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry quantified 411 metabolites measured ≤ 72 h of ICU admission in 60 patients with sepsis at a single center (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, USA). Seven ML approaches were trained to differentiate survivors from non-survivors. Model performance predicting 28 day mortality was assessed through internal cross-validation, and innate top-feature (metabolite) selection and rankings were compared across the 7 ML approaches and with conventional statistical methods (logistic regression). Metabolites were consensus ranked by a summary, ensemble ML ranking procedure weighing their contribution to mortality risk prediction across multiple ML models.

Results: Median (IQR) patient age was 58 (47, 62) years, 45% were women, and median (IQR) SOFA score was 9 (6, 12). Mortality at 28 days was 42%. The models' specificity ranged from 0.619 to 0.821. Partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis and nearest shrunken centroids prioritized the greatest number of metabolites identified by at least one other method. Penalized logistic regression demonstrated top-feature results that were consistent with many ML methods. Across the plasma metabolome, the 13 metabolites with the strongest linkage to mortality defined through an ensemble ML importance score included lactate, bilirubin, kynurenine, glycochenodeoxycholate, phenylalanine, and others. Four of these top 13 metabolites (3-hydroxyisobutyrate, indoleacetate, fucose, and glycolithocholate sulfate) have not been previously associated with sepsis survival. Many of the prioritized metabolites are constituents of the tryptophan, pyruvate, phenylalanine, pentose phosphate, and bile acid pathways.

Conclusions: We identified metabolites linked with sepsis survival, some confirming prior observations, and others representing new associations. The application of ensemble ML feature-ranking tools to metabolomic data may represent a promising statistical platform to support biologic target discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40635-022-00445-8DOI Listing
June 2022

H3K27ac mediated SS18/BAFs relocation regulates JUN induced pluripotent-somatic transition.

Cell Biosci 2022 Jun 16;12(1):89. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy and Sciences, Guangzhou, 510530, China.

Background: The exit from pluripotency or pluripotent-somatic transition (PST) landmarks an event of early mammalian embryonic development, representing a model for cell fate transition.

Results: In this study, using a robust JUN-induced PST within 8 h as a model, we investigate the chromatin accessibility dynamics (CAD) as well as the behaviors of corresponding chromatin remodeling complex SS18/BAFs, to probe the key events at the early stage of PST. Here, we report that, JUN triggers the open of 34661 chromatin sites within 4 h, accomplished with the activation of somatic genes, such as Anxa1, Fosl1. ChIP-seq data reveal a rapid relocation of SS18/BAFs from pluripotent loci to AP-1 associated ones. Consistently, the knockdown of Brg1, core component of BAF complexes, leads to failure in chromatin opening but not closing, resulting in delay for JUN induced PST. Notably, the direct interaction between SS18/BAFs and JUN-centric protein complexes is undetectable by IP-MS. Instead, we show that H3K27ac deposited by cJUN dependent process regulates SS18/BAFs complex to AP1-containing loci and facilitate chromatin opening and gene activation.

Conclusions: These results reveal a rapid transfer of chromatin remodeling complexes BAF from pluripotent to somatic loci during PST, revealing a simple mechanistic aspect of cell fate control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-022-00827-1DOI Listing
June 2022

Controlled Axial Coordination Modification for Transition Metal Single Atom Electrocatalyst.

Chemistry 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic/Electrophotonic Conversion Materials, 5 S. Zhongguancun Ave,, Central Building Rm. 108, 100081, Beijing, CHINA.

Single atom catalysts (SACs) have emerged as a new frontier in catalysis area such as electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, and enzymatic catalysis. Aided by recent advances in synthetic methodologies of nanomaterials, atomic characterization technologies, and theoretical calculation modeling, various of SACs have been prepared for a variety of catalytic reactions. To meet the requirements of SACs with distinctive performance and appreciable selectivity, many researches have been carried out to adjust the coordination configuration and electronic properties of SACs. This concept summarizes the latest advances in the experimental and computational efforts aimed at tuning the axial coordination of the SACs. Series of atoms, functional groups or even macrocycle molecules are oriented introduced into the atomic metal center, and how this affects the electrocatalytic performance are also reviewed. Finally, this concept presents perspectives for further precise design, preparation and in situ detection of axial coordinated SACs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202201471DOI Listing
June 2022

Surveillance Study of Epidemiology, Antifungal Susceptibility and Risk Factors of Invasive Candidiasis in Critically ill Patients.

Clin Lab 2022 Jun;68(6)

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the Candida species distribution and their antifungal sensitivities, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of the critically ill patients with invasive Candida infections in a tertiary hospital.

Methods: Candida strains from critically ill patients were isolated in a tertiary hospital of Anhui Province from June 2019 to June 2020 through fungal cultures and identified with MALDI-TOF MS system. The antifungal susceptibility was measured by ATB Fungus-3 method. Demographic information and laboratory data were retrieved from the computerized hospital data system.

Results: Candida albicans (C. albicans, 41.49%) was the predominant species in sterile body sites of critically ill patients developing invasive candidiasis, followed by C. glabrata (24.47%) and C. tropicalis (20.21%). The specimen sources were mainly urine (47.87%), then bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (18.09%) and blood (14.89%). In vitro, common Candida species were observed to be highly sensitive to amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine. All C. albicans exhibited susceptibility to both fluconazole and voriconazole, as did C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. However, some C. tropicalis identified were frequently resistant to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. The rate of Candida infection was positively correlated with certain risk factors including invasive interventions, age, length of stay in hospital, etc. Conclusions: C. albicans was the main species of invasive Candida infections in critically ill patients, followed by C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. Candida spp. showed the highest rate (10.60%) of resistance to fluconazole, followed by itraconazole (5.30%), voriconazole (5.30%), and 5-fluorocytosine (1.10%). All invasive Candida isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B. In addition, several C. tropicalis were tested and exhibited a high-level resistance to azoles. Notably, a variety of specific risk factors for candidiasis were identified in critically ill patients which need to be taken into consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2021.211001DOI Listing
June 2022

Electron coupled FeS/MoS heterostructure for efficient electrocatalytic ammonia synthesis under ambient conditions.

Dalton Trans 2022 Jun 27;51(25):9720-9727. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, PR China.

Developing efficient ammonia synthesis technology under ambient conditions is of vital importance. In this work, an FeS coupled MoS heterostructure with ultrathin features was designed by a one-step hydrothermal process for the electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the electronic structure of MoS greatly changes with the introduction of FeS. The modulated electronic structure of MoS not only exhibits enhanced conductivity but also facilitates the activation of N molecules due to its abundant electronic region. The optimized FeS/MoS nanosheet heterostructure achieves a high NH yield rate of 2.59 μmol h mg and a FE of 4.63% at -0.3 V RHE. Besides, the well-designed nanocomposite also shows excellent selectivity without NH by-products and exhibits good stability after electrocatalysis for 48 hours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2dt01467jDOI Listing
June 2022

Mental health services in Scandinavia and Eurasia: comparison of financing and provision.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2022 Feb 1;34(2):118-127. Epub 2022 May 1.

Department of Mental Health, Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare (RKBU Central Norway), Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

The aim of this study was to compare financial and human resources for mental health services in selected Scandinavian and Eurasian countries. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical approach was adopted to analyse questionnaire data provided by members of the Ukraine-Norway-Armenia Partnership Project. We compared Scandinavia (Sweden and Norway) and Eurasia (Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine). Health expenditure in Eurasia was generally below 4% of gross domestic product, with the exception of Georgia (10.2%), compared with 11% in Scandinavia. Inpatient hospital care commonly exceeded 50% of the mental health budget. The central governments in Eurasia paid for over 50% of the health expenditure, compared to 2% in Scandinavia. The number of mental health personnel per head of population was much smaller in Eurasia than Scandinavia. Financial and human resources were limited in Eurasia and mainly concentrated on institutional services. Health activities were largely managed by central governments. Community-based mental healthcare was poorly implemented, compared to Scandinavia, especially for children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2022.2065190DOI Listing
February 2022

Lanthanide-doped Mn-based perovskite-like single crystals: Switching on highly thermal-stable near-infrared emission and LED device.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Oct 30;624:725-733. Epub 2022 May 30.

School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) have sparked ongoing research interest due to their high-performance optoelectronic properties. However, blue-light excitable near-infrared (NIR) emitting MHPs is still inaccessible and the achievement of robust thermal-quenching resistance so far remains a huge challenge. In this work, we report on the synthesis of lead-free all-inorganic Mn-based perovskite-like single crystals using the designed nonstoichiometric precursor ratio. The special crystal structure endows Mn with efficient blue light excitation and red emission, which enables the capabilities of a good matching with commercial blue LED chips and an efficient sensitization for Ln emitters. The incorporations of Yb, Er, and Ho functionalize the CsMnCl single crystals with multiple NIR emissions by virtue of feeding the energy from Mn to Ln via multi-channels. Most remarkable is the achievement of the robust thermal-quenching resistance, exhibiting (near-) zero-thermal-quenching and even anti-thermal quenching, of the Ln NIR emissions above room temperature. Finally, as a proof-of-concept study, a prototype of an NIR-LED device was fabricated. This work not only provides a general strategy to unlock the blue-light excitable NIR emission from f-f transitions of Ln ions, and a fundamental understanding of the sensitization-activation mechanisms in Ln-functionalized manganese (Ⅱ)-based perovskite-like phosphor, but also endows the MHPs with optical functionalities for the future high-potential applications, such as NIR phosphor-converted LEDs, and optical telecommunication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2022.05.153DOI Listing
October 2022

Transcriptional and functional motifs defining renal function revealed by single-nucleus RNA sequencing.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jun 13;119(25):e2203179119. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Genetics, Blavatnik Institute, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115.

Recent advances in single-cell sequencing provide a unique opportunity to gain novel insights into the diversity, lineage, and functions of cell types constituting a tissue/organ. Here, we performed a single-nucleus study of the adult renal system, consisting of Malpighian tubules and nephrocytes, which shares similarities with the mammalian kidney. We identified 11 distinct clusters representing renal stem cells, stellate cells, regionally specific principal cells, garland nephrocyte cells, and pericardial nephrocytes. Characterization of the transcription factors specific to each cluster identified () as playing a role in stem cell regeneration and () in regulating glycogen and triglyceride metabolism. In addition, we identified a number of genes, including (), (), , and that are involved in regulating the unusual star shape of stellate cells. Importantly, the single-nucleus dataset allows visualization of the expression at the organ level of genes involved in ion transport and junctional permeability, providing a systems-level view of the organization and physiological roles of the tubules. Finally, a cross-species analysis allowed us to match the fly kidney cell types to mouse kidney cell types and planarian protonephridia, knowledge that will help the generation of kidney disease models. Altogether, our study provides a comprehensive resource for studying the fly kidney.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2203179119DOI Listing
June 2022

Feature Matching Optimization of Multimedia Remote Sensing Images Based on Multiscale Edge Extraction.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 2;2022:1764507. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Shaanxi Geomatics Center, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710054, China.

In order to solve the problem of low efficiency of image feature matching in traditional remote sensing image database, this paper proposes the feature matching optimization of multimedia remote sensing images based on multiscale edge extraction, expounds the basic theory of multiscale edge, and then registers multimedia remote sensing images based on the selection of optimal control points. In this paper, 100 remote sensing images with a size of 3619825 with a resolution of 30 m are selected as experimental data. The computer is configured with 2.9 ghz CPU, 16 g memory, and i7 processor. The research mainly includes two parts: image matching efficiency analysis of multiscale model; matching accuracy analysis of multiscale model and formulation of model parameters. The results show that when the amount of image data is large, feature matching takes more time. With the increase of sampling rate, the amount of image data decreases rapidly, and the feature matching time also shortens rapidly, which provides a theoretical basis for the multiscale model to improve the matching efficiency. The data size is the same, 3619 × 1825, which makes the matching time between images have little difference. Therefore, the matching time increases linearly with the increase of the number of images in the database. When the amount of image data in the database is large, a higher number of layers should be used; when the amount of image data in the database is small, the number of layers of the model should be reduced to ensure the accuracy of matching. The availability of the proposed method is proved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1764507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9184184PMC
June 2022

PVP-Modified Multifunctional BiWO Nanosheets for Enhanced CT Imaging and Cancer Radiotherapy.

ACS Omega 2022 Jun 24;7(22):18795-18803. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Oral Radiology, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110002, P. R. China.

Malignant tumors are one of the main causes of human death. The clinical treatment of malignant tumors is usually surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and so forth. Radiotherapy, as a traditional and effective treatment method for cancer, is widely used in clinical practice, but the radiation resistance of tumor cells and the toxic side effects to normal cells are still the Achilles heel of radiotherapy. Multifunctional inorganic high-atom nanomaterials are expected to enhance the effect of tumor radiotherapy. Tungsten and bismuth, which contain elements with high atomic coefficients, have strong X-ray energy attenuation capability. We synthesized BiWO nanosheets (NSs) using a hydrothermal synthesis method and modified polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on their surface to make them more stable. PVP-BiWO NSs have a variety of effects after absorbing X-rays (such as the photoelectric effect and Compton effect) and release a variety of particles such as photoelectrons, Compton electrons, auger electrons, and so forth, which can react with organic molecules or water in cells, generate a large number of free radicals, and promote cell apoptosis, thereby improving the effect of radiotherapy. We show through γ-H2AX and DCFH-DA probe analysis experiments that PVP-BiWO NSs can effectively increase cell DNA damage and reactive oxygen species formation under X-ray irradiation. Clone formation analysis showed that PVP-BiWO NSs can effectively suppress cell colony formation under X-ray irradiation. These versatile functions endow PVP-BiWO NSs with enhanced radiotherapy efficacy in animal models. In addition, PVP-BiWO NSs can also be used as contrast agents for X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging with obvious effects. Therefore, PVP-BiWO NSs can be used as CT imaging contrast agents and tumor radiotherapy sensitizers and have potential medical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c01591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9178605PMC
June 2022
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