Publications by authors named "Bo Tan"

264 Publications

Electrocardiographic effect of artemisinin-piperaquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, and artemether-lumefantrine treatment in falciparum malaria patients.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2021 10;54:e05362020. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Artemisinin Research Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), such as artemisinin-piperaquine (AP), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), and artemether-lumefantrine (AL), is the first-line treatment for malaria in many malaria-endemic areas. However, we lack a detailed evaluation of the cardiotoxicity of these ACTs. This study aimed to analyze the electrocardiographic effects of these three ACTs in malaria patients.

Methods: We analyzed the clinical data of 89 hospitalized patients with falciparum malaria who had received oral doses of three different ACTs. According to the ACTs administered, these patients were divided into three treatment groups: 27 treated with AP (Artequick), 31 with DP (Artekin), and 31 with AL (Coartem). Electrocardiograms and other indicators were recorded before and after the treatment. The QT interval was calculated using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) and Bazett's formula (QTcB).

Results: Both QTcF and QTcB interval prolongation occurred in all three groups. The incidence of such prolongation between the three groups was not significantly different. The incidence of both moderate and severe prolongation was not significantly different between the three groups. The ΔQTcF and ΔQTcB of the three groups were not significantly different. The intra-group comparison showed significant prolongation of QTcF after AL treatment.

Conclusions: Clinically recommended doses of DP, AL, and AP may cause QT prolongation in some malaria patients but do not cause torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia or other arrhythmias.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0536-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7891559PMC
February 2021

A Comparative Study of 3D UE Positioning in 5G New Radio with a Single Station.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 8;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Electrical Engineering Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, 33720 Tampere, Finland.

The 5G network is considered as the essential underpinning infrastructure of manned and unmanned autonomous machines, such as drones and vehicles. Besides aiming to achieve reliable and low-latency wireless connectivity, positioning is another function provided by the 5G network to support the autonomous machines as the coexistence with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is typically supported on smart 5G devices. This paper is a pilot study of using 5G uplink physical layer channel sounding reference signals (SRSs) for 3D user equipment (UE) positioning. The 3D positioning capability is backed by the uniform rectangular array (URA) on the base station and by the multiple subcarrier nature of the SRS. In this work, the subspace-based joint angle-time estimation and statistics-based expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms are investigated with the 3D signal manifold to prove the feasibility of using SRSs for 3D positioning. The positioning performance of both algorithms is evaluated by estimation of the root mean squared error (RMSE) versus the varying signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), the bandwidth, the antenna array configuration, and multipath scenarios. The simulation results show that the uplink SRS works well for 3D UE positioning with a single base station, by providing a flexible resolution and accuracy for diverse application scenarios with the support of the phased array and signal estimation algorithms at the base station.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914539PMC
February 2021

TiRobot-Assisted Percutaneous Cannulated Screw Fixation in the Treatment of Femoral Neck Fractures: A Minimum 2-Year Follow-up of 50 Patients.

Orthop Surg 2021 Feb 15;13(1):244-252. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Orthopaedics, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Objective: To assess the long-term clinical efficacy of TiRobot-assisted percutaneous cannulated screw fixation in the treatment of femoral neck fractures.

Methods: This retrospective study included 50 patients with unilateral femoral neck fractures who were treated with TiRobot-assisted percutaneous cannulated screw fixation from September 2017 to May 2018. After at least 2 years of follow-up, the results of treatment, including operation duration, frequency of fluoroscopy use, intraoperative bleeding, hospital stay, medical expense, screw placement accuracy, rate of fracture healing and necrosis of the femoral head, and Harris hip scores at the last follow up, were recorded and compared with those of 83 matched patients who underwent conventional manual positioning surgery.

Results: The TiRobot group had longer operation duration (83.3 ± 31.2 min vs 44.1 ± 14.8 min) and higher medical expenses (28,407.1 ± 7498.0 yuan vs 22,672.3 ± 4130.3 yuan) than the conventional group. The TiRobot group had significantly less intraoperative bleeding (11.3 ± 7.3 mL vs 51.6 ± 40.4 mL) and shorter hospital stay (8.6 ± 2.8 days vs 11.1 ± 3.41 days) than the conventional group. Screw parallelism (1.32° ± 1.85° vs 2.54° ± 2.99° on anteroposterior radiograph; 1.42° ± 2.25° vs 3.09° ± 3.63° on lateral radiograph) and distance between screws (58.44 ± 10.52 mm vs 39.69 ± 12.17 mm) were significantly improved. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of the use of fluoroscopy (40.1 ± 28.5 times vs 38.6 ± 21.0 times) and Harris hip scores at the last follow-up (93.2 ± 10.3 points vs 88.4 ± 11.9 points). Two cannulated screws penetrated the femoral head during manual insertion in the conventional group but not in the TiRobot group. The rate of nonunion and necrosis of the femoral head in the TiRobot group was reduced compared with that in the conventional group (0 vs 7.2%; 6.0% vs 24.1%).

Conclusion: TiRobot-assisted percutaneous cannulated screw fixation of femoral neck fractures is accurate and minimally invasive and helps in reducing late complications, particularly necrosis of the femoral head and nonunion of fractures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862148PMC
February 2021

Frailty in Elderly Gastric Cancer Patients Undergoing Gastrectomy.

Dig Surg 2020 Dec 8:1-7. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea,

Introduction: There is a dearth of literature on frailty specifically in elderly (aged ≥65 years) gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy. We aim to assess the effects of frailty on postoperative outcomes.

Methods: A review of a prospective database was performed from November 2011 to April 2019. Frailty was assessed by multidimensional frailty score (MFS). Outcomes assessed were early postoperative complications and mortality, and length of stay.

Results: 289 patients were included. The mean age was 77.3 (range 66-94) years. 183 (63.3%) were males and 172 (59.5%) had early cancer. 275 (95.2%) underwent minimally invasive gastrectomy. 79 (27.3%) patients suffered early postoperative complications, with 47 (16.3%) suffering from Clavien-Dindo grade ≥2 complications. One-year, 90-day, 30-day, and inhospital mortality were 6.6, 1.4, 0.7, and 0%, respectively. 111 (38.4%) of patients were classified as "frail" based on MFS > 5. "Frail" patients were associated with higher 1-year mortality (odds ratio (OR) 4.51, 95% CI 1.57-12.98, p = 0.005) on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, "frail" patients did not have significantly increased 1-year mortality. However, when definition of "frail" was changed from MFS > 5 to MFS > 6, frailty was significantly associated with increased 1-year mortality (OR 3.73, 95% CI 1.11-12.53, p = 0.033).

Conclusions: Elderly gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy with MFS > 5 do not have increased mortality risk. The influence of frailty on postoperative outcomes may vary based on the risk of the surgical procedure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511895DOI Listing
December 2020

Challenges and stepwise fit-for-purpose optimization for bioanalyses of remdesivir metabolites nucleotide monophosphate and triphosphate in mouse tissues using LC-MS/MS.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Feb 30;194:113806. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Remdesivir is a prodrug of the nucleotide analogue and used for COVID-19 treatment. However, the bioanalysis of the active metabolites remdesivir nucleotide triphosphate (RTP) and its precursor remdesivir nucleotide monophosphate (RMP) is very challenging. Herein, we established a novel method to separate RTP and RMP on a BioBasic AX column and quantified them by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode. Stepwise, we optimized chromatographic retention on an anion exchange column, improved stability in matrix through the addition of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2nitrobenzoic acid) and PhosSTOP EASYpack, and increased recovery by dissociation of tight protein binding with 2 % formic acid aqueous solution. The method allowed lower limit of quantification of 20 nM for RMP and 10 nM for RTP. Method validation demonstrated acceptable accuracy (93.6%-103% for RMP, 94.5%-107% for RTP) and precision (RSD < 11.9 % for RMP, RSD < 11.4 % for RTP), suggesting that it was sensitive and robust for simultaneous quantification of RMP and RTP. The method was successfully applied to analyze RMP and RTP in mouse tissues. In general, the developed method is suitable to monitor RMP and RTP, and provides a useful approach for exploring more detailed effects of remdesivir in treating diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703390PMC
February 2021

An efficient approach for wholemount preparation of the myenteric plexus of rat colon.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Jan 26;348:109012. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Research Center for Integrative Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: The nerve plexus of the enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a crucial part in regulating gastrointestinal functions, such as muscle contractile activity and nutrient absorption. Studying the nerve plexus can provide vital information for research on ENS disorders. Whole-mount preparation is an important technique for investigating the nerve plexus. However, currently available methods are time consuming and highly technical.

New Method: This study describes a simple and rapid method for preparing whole mounts of the longitudinal muscle and myenteric plexuses (LMMPs) of rat colon. Integral LMMPs can be easily separated from the underlying layer by using glass rods and wet cotton swabs.

Results: The proposed method allows the easy separation of the LMMPs in intact sheets. Immunofluorescence histochemical staining of whole mounts enable clear visualization of enteric ganglia, nerve fibers, and several subtypes of neuronal populations residing in the myenteric plexus.

Comparison With Existing Methods: Compared with existing procedures for whole-mount preparations, the proposed method achieves a quicker and more efficient preparation of high-quality LMMPs from intestinal segments in sufficient quantity.

Conclusions: This work provides a rapid method for efficiently preparing whole mounts of the intestines. Our method can be used for in situ observation of the morphological and functional alterations of the myenteric plexus for further studies on the ENS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.109012DOI Listing
January 2021

Altered expression of microRNA-92b-3p predicts survival outcomes of patients with prostate cancer and functions as an oncogene in tumor progression.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jan 3;21(1). Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Urology, Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital, Dongying, Shandong 257034, P.R. China.

The global incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) has been increasing in recent years. Meanwhile, some studies have indicated the association between malignancies, such as lung and gastric cancer and PCa, and microRNAs (miRNAs). The present study was designed to assess the prognostic value of miR-92b-3p in patients with PCa and further investigate the biological function of miR-92b-3p. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to estimate the expression of miR-92b-3p in PCa tissues and cell lines compared with normal tissues and cells. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the overall survival rate of patients with PCa. A Cox regression analysis was used to verify the prognostic value of miR-92b-3p. The biological function of miR-92b-3p was investigated using cell experiments. The findings of the present study revealed the upregulated expression of miR-92b-3p in PCa tissues and cells compared with normal tissues and cells. The overexpression of miR-92b-3p was significantly associated with the distant metastasis status and Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage of patients with PCa and predicted poor prognosis of PCa. In addition, the cell experiment results indicated that miR-92b-3p overexpression in PCa cells promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The present study revealed that the overexpression of miR-92b-3p predicted poor prognosis in patients with PCa. Decreased expression of miR-92b-3p can suppress PCa cell proliferation, migration and invasion, which indicated that miR-92b-3p may function as an oncogene and serve as a novel therapeutic target for PCa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.12265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7681231PMC
January 2021

Relationship Between the Nanopore Structure and Basic Characteristics of Coal with the Protogenetic CO Content.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Jan;21(1):505-514

State Key Laboratory of Coal Mining and Clean Utilization, China Coal Research Institute, Beijing 100013, China.

In the prediction and forecasting of spontaneous coal combustion, protogenetic CO produced in the process of coal oxidation is used as the indicator gas, but the sources of CO gas in coal seams are extensive. Protogenetic CO in coal seams often interferes with predictions of spontaneous coal combustion. To predict the content of protogenetic CO gas in coal seams and its emission, this study established an experimental system of protogenetic CO content and emission in coal seams. Six groups of coal samples were tested, and the CO emission content was determined per hour within 24 hours of obtaining each coal sample. Four kinds of protogenetic CO gas emission indexes were defined. Then, internal factors of coal, including industrial components, elemental content and pore structure, were analysed. Finally, the relationship between the protogenetic CO gas emission index of coal seams and the internal factors of coal was obtained. The results indicate that the relation between the CO dispersion concentration and the time of the coal sample follows an exponential power distribution. The internal factors of coal influence the content and emission of protogenetic CO in coal seams, but there is no strict correlation with each parameter as it is a multi-parameter correlation synthesis process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.18478DOI Listing
January 2021

Litter chemical traits strongly drove the carbon fractions loss during decomposition across an alpine treeline ecotone.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 8;753:142287. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

National Forestry and Grassland Administration Key Laboratory of Forest Resources Conservation and Ecological Safety on the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering on the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Institute of Ecology & Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

The decomposition of litter carbon (C) fraction is a major determinant of soil organic matter pool and nutrient cycling. However, knowledge of litter chemical traits regulate C fractions release is still relatively limited. A litterbag experiment was conducted using six plant functional litter types at two vegetation type (coniferous forest and alpine shrubland) in a treeline ecotone. We evaluated the relative importance of litter chemistry (i.e. Nutrient, C quality, and stoichiometry) on the loss of litter mass, non-polar extractables (NPE), water-soluble extractables (WSE), acid-hydrolyzable carbohydrates (ACID), and acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) during decomposition. Litter nutrients contain nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu), litter C quality contains C, WSE, NPE, ACID, and AUR, and stoichiometry was defined by C:N, C:P; N:P, ACID:N, and AUR:N. The results showed single exponential model fitted decomposition rates of litter mass and C fractions better than double exponential or asymptotic decomposition, and the decomposition rates of C fractions were strongly correlated with initial litter nutrients, especially K, Na, Ca. Furthermore, the temporal dynamics of litter nutrients (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Zn, and Fe) strongly regulated C fractions loss during the decomposition process. Changes in litter C quality had an evident effect on the degradation of ACID and AUR, supporting the concept of "priming effect" of soluble carbon fraction. The significant differences were found in the release of NPE, WSE, and ACID rather than AUR among coniferous forest and alpine shrubland, and the vegetation type effects largely depend on the changes in litter stoichiometry, which is an important implication for the change in plant community abundance regulate decay. Collectively, elucidating the hierarchical drivers of litter chemistry on decomposition is critical to soil C sequestration in alpine ecosystems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142287DOI Listing
January 2021

Study On Radon Concentration Variation During Subway Construction.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2020 Nov 17. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

School of Emergency Management and Safety Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, China.

The high radon concentration in the underground space of the subway station during construction often endangers the health of workers. Subway station project No. 16 in Beijing, while under construction, was selected as the main measuring point, a year's monitoring data was obtained to analyse the change of radon concentration. It was found that the concentration of radon was basically within the range of 5 ~ 500 Bq/m3 and showing a low level in the morning and a high level at noon, and presents the seasonal rule, compared with other seasons, the summer radiation is stronger. Furthermore, among the different measuring points, the radon concentration of the heading roadway is the highest, and the construction level of the station hall is the lowest. According to the comprehensive analysis, the concentration of radon during the construction of the subway station is mainly affected by the ambient temperature and air mobility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncaa168DOI Listing
November 2020

Prediction of Cancer Stem Cell Fate by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Functionalized Nanoprobes.

ACS Nano 2020 11 11;14(11):15468-15491. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Keenan Research Center for Biomedical Science, St. Michael's Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 1W8.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the fundamental building blocks of cancer dissemination, so it is desirable to develop a technique to predict the behavior of CSCs during tumor initiation and relapse. It will provide a powerful tool for pathological prognosis. Currently, there exists no method of such prediction. Here, we introduce nickel-based functionalized nanoprobe facilitated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for prediction of cancer dissemination by undertaking CSC-based surveillance. SERS profiling of CSCs of various cell lines (breast cancer, cervical cancer, and lung cancer) was compared with their cancer counterparts for the prediction of prognosis, with statistical significance of single-cell sensitivity. The single-cell sensitivity is critical as even a few CSCs are capable of initiating a tumor. Intermediate states of CSC transmutation to cancer cells and its reverse were monitored, and nanoprobe-assisted SERS profiling was undertaken. We experimentally demonstrated that the -intermediate CSC states have dissimilar profiles during the transformation from cancer to CSC and enabling statistical differentiation without ambiguity. It was also observed that molecular signatures of these opposite pathways are cancer-type specific. This observation provided additional clarity to the current understanding of relatively unfamiliar -intermediate states; making it possible to predict CSC dissemination for variety of cancers with ∼99% accuracy. Nano probe-based prediction of CSC fate is a powerful prediction tool for ultrasensitive prognosis of malignancy in a complex environment. Such CSC-based cancer prognosis has never been proposed before. This prediction technique has potential to provide insights for cancer diagnosis and prognosis as well as for obtaining information instrumental in designing of meaningful CSC-based cancer therapeutics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c06104DOI Listing
November 2020

Diabetic bladder dysfunction in T2D KK-Ay mice and its changes in the level of relevant gene expression.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Nov 23;131:110706. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; Dongguan & Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine Cooperative Academy of Mathematical Engineering for Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Dongguan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD) is one of the most common and bothersome complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). The purpose of the present study is to investigate DBD in KK-Ay mice, and to identify the expression of relative genes.

Method: Totally twenty-seven KK-Ay mice and thirty C57BL/6 J mice, respectively, were randomly divided into 12-, 18-, and 25-week old groups. The weight, water intake, voided volume, the frequency of micturition, fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured at varying time points. Maximum bladder volume (MBC), residual volume (RV), bladder compliance (BC), micturition efficiency (VE) and maximum micturition pressure (MVP) were assessed by urodynamic test, and contractile responses to α, β-methylene ATP, KCl, electrical-field stimulation, carbachol were performed by detrusor smooth muscle strips contractility test. The bladders were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome to determine bladder wall thickness. Additionally, the mRNA expression of Myosin Va, SLC17A9, P2X1, M3 and M2 were then verified by qRT-PCR.

Result: The weight, water intake, voided volumes, micturition frequency, FBG, the blood glucose AUC of KK-Ay mice were significantly increased at three time points. MBC, RV and BC were significantly increased; VE was significantly lower at the age of 18 and 25 weeks in KK-Ay mice; MVP was significantly increased at the age of 25 weeks in KK-Ay mice. In DSM strips contractility test, the amplitude of the spontaneous activity in KK-Ay mice significant increased at 12 weeks and 18 weeks, while both the amplitude and frequency were significantly decreased at the age of 25 weeks. The level of Myosin Va, SLC17A9 and M3 receptor significantly decreased in KK-Ay mice at 12 weeks, while Myosin Va markedly increased at 18 weeks; P2X1 and M2 receptors of KK-Ay mice was significantly increased at all three time points.

Conclusion: Taken together, this study demonstrates that KK-Ay mice can be a proper model to investigate DBD whose transformation from compensatory state to decompensated state may ascribe to the time-dependent alternations of Myosin Va, SLC17A9, P2X1, M3 and M2 expression levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110706DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of Multipath Attenuation in the Optical Communication-Based Internet of Underwater Things.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Oct 30;20(21). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Unit of Electrical Engineering, Tampere University, 33720 Tampere, Finland.

The propagation of light underwater is tied closely to the optical properties of water. In particular, the underwater channel imposes attenuation on the optical signal in the form of scattering, absorption, and turbulence. These attenuation factors can lead to severe spatial and temporal dispersion, which restricts communication to a limited range and bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a statistical model to estimate the probability density function of the temporal dispersion in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) based Internet of Underwater Things (IoUTs) using discrete histograms. The underwater optical channel is modeled using Monte Carlo simulations, and the effects of temporal dispersion are presented by measuring the magnitude response of the channel in terms of received power. The temporal response analysis is followed by an extensive performance evaluation in terms of bit error rate (BER). To facilitate in-depth theoretical analysis, we have measured and presented magnitude response and BER of the channel under different field-of-views (FoVs), apertures, and water types. The three main areas under study are (i) BER versus link distance behavior, (ii) temporal response of the channel, and (iii) effect of scattering on photon travel. Our study shows the two main factors that contribute to beam spreading and temporal dispersion are (i) diffusivity of the optical source and (ii) multiple scattering. Furthermore, our results suggest that temporal dispersion caused due to multiple scattering cannot be mitigated completely; however, it can be minimized by optimizing the receiver aperture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20216201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663492PMC
October 2020

Hypoxia-Induced Glioma-Derived Exosomal miRNA-199a-3p Promotes Ischemic Injury of Peritumoral Neurons by Inhibiting the mTOR Pathway.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 13;2020:5609637. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Road (M), Shanghai 200040, China.

The underlying molecular mechanisms that the hypoxic microenvironment could aggravate neuronal injury are still not clear. In this study, we hypothesized that the exosomes, exosomal miRNAs, and the mTOR signaling pathway might be involved in hypoxic peritumoral neuronal injury in glioma. Multimodal radiological images, HE, and HIF-1 staining of high-grade glioma (HGG) samples revealed that the peritumoral hypoxic area overlapped with the cytotoxic edema region and directly contacted with normal neurons. In either direct or indirect coculture system, hypoxia could promote normal mouse hippocampal neuronal cell (HT22) injury, and the growth of HT22 cells was suppressed by C6 glioma cells under hypoxic condition. For administrating hypoxia-induced glioma-derived exosomes (HIGDE) that could aggravate oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/reperfusion neuronal injury, we identified that exosomes may be the communication medium between glioma cells and peritumoral neurons, and we furtherly found that exosomal miR-199a-3p mediated the OGD/reperfusion neuronal injury process by suppressing the mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, the upregulation of miRNA-199a-3p in exosomes from glioma cells was induced by hypoxia-related HIF-1 activation. To sum up, hypoxia-induced glioma-derived exosomal miRNA-199a-3p can be upregulated by the activation of HIF-1 and is able to increase the ischemic injury of peritumoral neurons by inhibiting the mTOR pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5609637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7578720PMC
October 2020

Influences of Multilayer Graphene and Boron Decoration on the Structure and Combustion Heat of AlMg Alloy.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Oct 13;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 13.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China.

To improve the engine-driven performance of propellants, high-energy alloys such as Al and Mg are usually adopted as annexing agents. However, there is still room for improvement in the potential full utilization of alloy energy. In this study, we investigated how to improve combustion efficiency by decorating AlMg alloy with multilayer graphene and amorphous boron. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman tests showed that decorating with multilayer graphene and amorphous boron promoted the dispersion of AlMg alloy. The results showed that decorating with 1% boron and 2% multilayer graphene improved the combustion heat of AlMg alloy to 32.8 and 30.5 MJ/kg, respectively. The coexistence of two phases improved the combustion efficiency of the matrix AlMg alloy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10102013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601341PMC
October 2020

Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of remdesivir and its metabolites nucleotide monophosphate, nucleotide triphosphate, and nucleoside in mice.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2020 Oct 12. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Remdesivir (RDV) exerts anti-severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 activity following metabolic activation in the target tissues. However, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distributions of the parent drug and its active metabolites have been poorly characterized to date. Blood and tissue levels were evaluated in the current study. After intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg RDV in mice, the concentrations of the parent drug, nucleotide monophosphate (RMP) and triphosphate (RTP), as well as nucleoside (RN), in the blood, heart, liver, lung, kidney, testis, and small intestine were quantified. In blood, RDV was rapidly and completely metabolized and was barely detected at 0.5 h, similar to RTP, while its metabolites RMP and RN exhibited higher blood levels with increased residence times. The area under the concentration versus time curve up to the last measured point in time (AUC) values of RMP and RN were 4558 and 136,572 h∙nM, respectively. The maximum plasma concentration (C) values of RMP and RN were 2896 nM and 35,819 nM, respectively. Moreover, RDV presented an extensive distribution, and the lung, liver and kidney showed high levels of the parent drug and metabolites. The metabolic stabilities of RDV and RMP were also evaluated using lung, liver, and kidney microsomes. RDV showed higher clearances in the liver and kidney than in the lung, with intrinsic clearance (CL) values of 1740, 1253, and 127 mL/(min∙g microsomal protein), respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00537-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548405PMC
October 2020

Incidence and risk factors of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis among the Chinese population: analysis from a nationwide longitudinal study.

BMC Public Health 2020 Oct 1;20(1):1491. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Orthopedics, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, Sichuan, China.

Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease condition associated with aging and a frequent cause of primary care consultations. Few longitudinal studies have been conducted to investigate the incidence of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to identify its risk factors among the Chinese population.

Methods: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationwide longitudinal survey of persons aged ≥45 years. Symptomatic knee OA was diagnosed when both self-reported knee pain and self-reported physician-diagnosis arthritis existed. Using the national survey data collected from the CHARLS, we estimated the incidence of symptomatic knee OA, taking into account the complex survey design and response rate. We applied weighted logistic regression analysis to identify its risk factors.

Results: In the 4-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of symptomatic knee OA among middle-aged and older Chinese adults was 8.5%; the incidence was higher among females (11.2%) than males (5.6%). Female (odds ratio (OR) 1.98 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.65-2.37]), rural area (OR 1.32 [95% CI 1.08-1.60]), and West region (OR 2.33 [95% CI 1.89-2.87]) were associated with a higher risk of incident symptomatic knee OA. Physical activities (OR 0.47 [95% CI 0.29-0.76]) and high education level (OR 0.60 [95% CI 0.41-0.88]) was associated with a lower risk of incident symptomatic knee OA, while histories of heart disease (OR 1.40 [95% CI 1.07-1.82]), kidney disease (OR 1.80 [95% CI 1.35-2.39]), and digestive disease (OR 1.54 [95% CI 1.30-1.82]) were associated with a higher risk of incident symptomatic knee OA.

Conclusion: The cumulative incidence of symptomatic knee OA over 4 years was relatively high, and varied by province and region. Lack of physical activities was confirmed to be risk factors of incident symptomatic knee OA. The presence of heart disease, kidney disease, and digestive disease may be associated with a higher risk of incident symptomatic knee OA, further research need to confirm these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09611-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528331PMC
October 2020

Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Guided Transoral Core Needle Biopsy: A Novel, Safe and Well-Tolerated Procedure for Obtaining High-Quality Tissue in Patients with Oral Cancer.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2020 Dec 28;46(12):3210-3217. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Ultrasound Medical Center, Sichuan Cancer Hospital Institute, Sichuan Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China; North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, China.

The aim of the prospective study described here was to compare the tolerability, safety and diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided transoral core needle biopsy (CEUS-CNB) with that of conventional US-guided transoral CNB (US-CNB) and standard incisional biopsy in patients with oral masses. Between June 2017 and November 2019, consecutive patients with oral masses referred for biopsy were randomly assigned to undergo incisional biopsy, US-CNB or CEUS-CNB. Procedure time, intra‑operative blood loss volume, diagnostic performance and pain level before and after the procedure assessed by visual analogue score (VAS) were recorded and compared among the three procedures. Finally, 238 patients with pathology confirmation were analyzed: 80 patients underwent incisional biopsy, 78 patients US-CNB and 80 patients CEUS-CNB. In this study, no significant difference was found in biopsy time between CEUS-CNB, US-CNB and incisional biopsy (75 ± 11 s vs. 73.6 ± 12 s vs. 77 ± 13 s, p = 0.24). CEUS-CNB achieved the highest sensitivity (CEUS-CNB: 100%, US-CNB: 88.5%, incisional biopsy: 84.3%), negative predictive value (CEUS-CNB: 100%, US-CNB: 81.3%, incisional biopsy: 78.4%) and accuracy (CEUS-CNB: 100%, US-CNB: 92.3%, incisional biopsy: 90%). The VAS score for incision biopsy was higher (p = 0.01) and the amount of bleeding was larger (p < 0.001), yet there was no significant difference between CEUS-CNB and US-CNB. Our results indicate CEUS-guided transoral CNB is an efficient, safe and well-tolerated procedure, with biopsy time comparable to and diagnostic performance better than those of conventional US-guided transoral CNB and incisional biopsy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2020.09.001DOI Listing
December 2020

Correlations between hormone levels and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in menopausal patients with diabetes mellitus.

Pak J Med Sci 2020 Sep-Oct;36(6):1382-1386

Jingqin Liu, Department of Endocrinology, Baoding No.1 Hospital, Baoding, Hebei 071000, P.R. China.

Objective: To discuss the correlation between hormone levels and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in menopausal patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: This clinical research study was conducted at Department of Endocrinology, Baoding No. 1 Hospital from January 2016 to December 2017. In this study a total of 386 menopausal female patients with T2 DM were selected and classified into two groups according to the CAN function test: the CAN group (80 cases) and the DM group (306 cases). The Kupperman score (KI integral) was calculated for all participants in the study, and the following indexes were measured: body mass index (BMI), blood estrogen (E), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT), free triiodothyronine (FT), fasting blood-glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum lipids, uric acid (SUA), hypersensitive c-reactive protein (CRP), etc.

Results: The FBG, HbA1c, TGs, Hs-CRP, SUA, KI score, TSH, FSH and LH of the CAN group were obviously higher than the same parameters in the DM group (P<0.01, P<0.05), while HDL-C, E, FT and FT were significantly lower (Pπ.01, Pπ.05). Pearson correlation analysis indicated that CAN presents a positive correlation with HbA1c, TGs, hs-CRP and SUA and a negative correlation with HDL-C and E, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The multifactor logistic regression analysis results showed that HbA1c (OR=3.980, 95%CI=1.268~10.319) and E2 (OR=3.075, 95%CI=1.167~7.366) are independent risk factors for CAN.

Conclusion: The CAN morbidity of menopausal female patients with T2DM is high, and HbAc and E should be mainly monitored to identify and treat CAN early.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.6.2088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7501038PMC
September 2020

Expression of TNF‑α and IL‑β can be suppressed via the PPAR‑γ/mTOR signaling pathway in BV‑2 microglia: A potential anti‑inflammation mechanism.

Mol Med Rep 2020 Oct 5;22(4):3559-3565. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, P.R. China.

Currently, microglia are considered as crucial factors in suppressing inflammatory reactions, but the specific molecular mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate whether peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ (PPAR‑γ) can inhibit neuroinflammatory cytokine expression via the mTOR signal pathway, the BV‑2 cell line was incubated with lipopolysaccharide (10 mM/ml) to induce an inflammatory injury. PPAR‑γ was activated by rosiglitazone, and was inhibited by GW9662. The mTOR signal pathway was activated by phosphatidic acid (P.A.), while it was inhibited by rapamycin. Western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR were used to evaluate the expression levels of PPAR‑γ/mTOR signal pathway related proteins and neuroinflammatory cytokines, including NF‑κB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑1β. When treated with P.A., the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)mTOR and p‑ribosomal protein S6 kinase (pS6K) were significantly increased and the expression levels of TNF‑α and IL‑1β were significantly lower. However, the expression of PPAR‑γ was similar in P.A. treated cells and cells treated with rapamycin. When PPAR‑γ was activated, pmTOR and pS6K protein expression levels were significantly decreased, and the mRNA expression levels of TNF‑α and IL‑1β were significantly reduced, but this inhibition could be alleviated by administrating GW9662. Collectively, it was indicated that the mTOR signal pathway may be located downstream of PPAR‑γ. Furthermore, neuroinflammatory reactions could be inhibited via the activation of PPAR‑γ by suppressing the mTOR signal pathway in microglia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11418DOI Listing
October 2020

Corneal Health during Three Months of Scleral Lens Wear.

Optom Vis Sci 2020 09;97(9):676-682

Clinical Research Center, School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California.

Significance: This study evaluated the effects scleral lens wear has on corneal health using fluorometry and in vivo confocal microscopy. No subclinical changes on healthy corneas of young subjects were observed during 3 months of scleral lens wear.

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effects 3 months of scleral lens wear has on the corneal epithelial barrier function, dendritic cell density, and nerve fiber morphology.

Methods: Twenty-seven neophytes (mean [standard deviation] age, 21.4 [3.9] years) wore scleral lenses of a fluorosilicone acrylate material bilaterally (97 Dk, 15.6 to 16.0-mm diameter) for 3 months without overnight wear. Subjects were randomized to use either Addipak (n = 12) or PuriLens Plus (n = 15) during lens insertion. Measurements of corneal epithelial permeability to fluorescein were performed with automated scanning fluorophotometer (Fluorotron Master; Ocumetrics, Mountain View, CA) on the central cornea of the right eye and the temporal corneal periphery of the left eye. Images of the distributions of corneal nerve fibers and dendritic cells and nerve fibers were captured in vivo with a confocal laser scanning microscope (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, Rostock Cornea Module; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) on the central and inferior peripheral cornea of the left eye. Corneal measurements and imaging were performed at baseline and after 1 and 3 months of lens wear.

Results: The corneal permeability values in natural log, dendritic cell densities, and nerve fiber morphology did not significantly change from baseline to 1 and 3 months of lens wear, for both central and peripheral corneal regions (P > .05). Dendritic cell density at the inferior cornea was higher than the central cornea throughout the study (P < .001). No relationships were observed between each outcome measurements and the saline solution groups (P > .05).

Conclusions: Scleral lens wear for 3 months on healthy cornea of young subjects did not affect corneal epithelial barrier function, nerve fiber, and dendritic cell densities. Buffered and nonbuffered saline solutions impacted the corneal health in similar ways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OPX.0000000000001566DOI Listing
September 2020

Emodin Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Activating Autophagy in RAW 264.7 Cells.

Chin J Integr Med 2020 Aug 25. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Research Centre on Application of Classical Prescriptions, Basic Medical College, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of emodin on inflammation and autophagy in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and reveal its underlying mechanism.

Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay was conducted to find the appropriate dose for emodin. RAW264.7 cells pretreated with different concentrations (0-50 μmol/L) of emodin or vehicle for 2 h prior to exposure to LPS for 16 h. Cell morphology was examined and propidium iodide staining was used to examine cell cycle. Expressions of inflammation-related proteins [nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κ B) and I-kappaB (I κ B)α] and autophagy-related proteins [light chain (LC)3, P62/sequestosome 1, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and p-mTOR] were examined using Western blot analysis. Expression of inflammation-related cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Autophagy was examined with LC3B fluorescence intensity and aggregation. The effect of emodin on autophagy was conducted with an autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA).

Results: The expression of NF-κ B in LPS-induced cells was significantly increased (P<0.01) and simultaneously I κ B α decreased compared with the normal cell (P<0.05). The expressions of TNF-α, IL-β, and IL-6 proteins in the LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells were significantly higher than in the normal cell (P<0.05 or P<0.01). LPS increased the percentage of cells in the G/G phase, which was recovered by emodin at different doses (12.5, 25, and 50μ mol/L, P<0.05 or P<0.01). The medium-dose (25 μ ml/L) emodin decreased the expressions of NF-κ B, P62 and p-mTOR (P<0.01) and increased I κ B α expression, LC3B II/I ratio as well as LC3B fluorescence intensity (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Meanwhile, the enhanced autophagic effects of emodin, such as the increment of LC3B II/ratio and the decrement of P62 expression, were suppressed by autophagy inhibitor 3-MA.

Conclusion: Emodin could inhibit inflammation of mice RAW264.7 macrophages induced by LPS, possibly through activating autophagy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-020-3477-9DOI Listing
August 2020

Effects of Arf6 downregulation on biological characteristics of human prostate cancer cells.

Int Braz J Urol 2020 Nov-Dec;46(6):950-961

Department of Urology, Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital, Dongying, Shandong Province, China.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of Arf6 downregulation on human prostate cancer cells.

Materials And Methods: The effects of Arf6 downregulation on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis were assessed by MTT, BrdU, scratch, Transwell assays and flow cytometry respectively. AKT, p-AKT, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and Rac1 protein expressions were detected by Western blot.

Results: Downregulating Arf6 by siRNA interference suppressed the mRNA and protein expressions of Arf6. The proliferation capacities of siRNA group at 48h, 72h, and 96h were significantly lower than those of control group (P <0.05). The migration distance of siRNA group at 18h was significantly shorter than that of control group (P <0.01). The number of cells penetrating Transwell chamber membrane significantly decreased in siRNA group compared with that of control group (P <0.01). After 24h, negative control and normal control groups had similar apoptotic rates (P >0.05) which were both significantly lower than that of siRNA group (P <0.01). After Arf6 expression was downregulated, p-ERK1/2 and Rac1 protein expressions were significantly lower than those of control group (P <0.05).

Conclusion: Downregulating Arf6 expression can inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells in vitro, which may be related to ERK1/2 phosphorylation and Rac1 downregulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2019.0499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527080PMC
January 2021

Renal asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibits fibrosis.

FEBS Open Bio 2020 Oct 30;10(10):2003-2009. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Department of Nephrology, TCM Institute of Kidney Disease of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Liver and Kidney Diseases, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Clinical Medicine, Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem that is caused by repeated injuries to the glomerulus or renal tubules. Renal fibrosis commonly accompanies CKD, and it is histologically characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin and collagen I, in interstitial areas. Indirect in vivo experimental data suggest that renal asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) exerts antifibrotic activity in CKD. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that renal ADMA has a direct effect on fibrosis in vivo. Normal saline, ADMA, nonsense control siRNA, Ddah1 siRNA or Ddah2 siRNA was administered into the kidney through the left ureter in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). UUO kidneys were harvested at day 1 or 7. Western blotting was performed to assess the expression of ADMA, DDAH1 and DDAH2 and the expression of fibrotic markers, such as fibronectin, collagen I, α-smooth muscle actin, phosphorylation of Smad3 and connective tissue growth factor. Masson's trichrome staining was used to further evaluate renal fibrosis. We observed that intrarenal administration of ADMA increased the renal accumulation of ADMA and attenuated renal fibrosis at days 1 and 7. Knockdown of Ddah1 or Ddah2 increased the amount of ADMA in UUO kidneys and inhibited the expression of fibrotic proteins at days 1 and 7, which was further confirmed by Masson's staining. Thus, our in vivo data suggest that renal ADMA exerts direct antifibrotic effects in a mouse model of UUO.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.12949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530377PMC
October 2020

Mixture of plant functional groups inhibits the release of multiple metallic elements during litter decomposition in alpine timberline ecotone.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Dec 27;747:141298. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

National Forestry and Grassland Administration Key Laboratory of Forest Resources Conservation and Ecological Safety on the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering on the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Institute of Ecology & Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

Mixed litter decomposition is a common phenomenon in nature and is very important for the circulation of material through an ecosystem. Different plant functional groups (PFGs) are likely to interact during decomposition. It is unclear how mixed decomposition influences the release of multiple metallic elements, and the biogeochemical circulation mechanism in the alpine ecosystem remains elusive. In this study, a two-year experiment on decomposition of mixed litter from six dominant PFGs was conducted at two elevations in an alpine timberline ecotone using the litterbag method. First, the results suggested that PFG identity had greater impacts on the release of all metallic elements than elevation. The release rates of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and copper (Cu) in graminoid, deciduous shrub and forb litter were significantly higher than those in evergreen conifer, evergreen shrub and mixed litter. Second, the release of metallic elements showed non-additive effects during mixed litter decomposition. K, Ca, Mg, sodium (Na), Cu, and aluminium (Al) exhibited antagonistic effects, while Fe exhibited a synergistic effect. The antagonistic effects on Na, K, Ca and Cu release increased with increasing elevation, while the antagonistic effects on Mg, Al and Mn release decreased with increasing elevation. Third, Al and Fe showed high levels of accumulation. The K release rate decreased while Al and Fe accumulation increased with plant litter upward shift. In conclusion, mixtures of PFGs inhibits the release of multiple metallic elements during litter decomposition in the alpine timberline ecotone. We speculate that an upward shift in PFGs in response to climate warming will slow the release of K and accelerate the enrichment of Fe and Al in alpine timberline ecotones.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141298DOI Listing
December 2020

Network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis on molecular targets and mechanisms of Huashi Baidu formula in the treatment of COVID-19.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2020 Aug 8;46(8):1345-1353. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Basic Medical Science, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: Huashi Baidu formula (HSBDF) was developed to treat the patients with severe COVID-19 in China. The purpose of this study was to explore its active compounds and demonstrate its mechanisms against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through network pharmacology and molecular docking.

Methods: All the components of HSBDF were retrieved from the pharmacology database of TCM system. The genes corresponding to the targets were retrieved using UniProt and GeneCards database. The herb-compound-target network was constructed by Cytoscape. The target protein-protein interaction network was built using STRING database. The core targets of HSBDF were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The main active compounds of HSBDF were docked with SARS-CoV-2 and angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2).

Results: Compound-target network mainly contained 178 compounds and 272 corresponding targets. Key targets contained MAPK3, MAPK8, TP53, CASP3, IL6, TNF, MAPK1, CCL2, PTGS2, etc. There were 522 GO items in GO enrichment analysis ( < .05) and 168 signaling pathways ( < .05) in KEGG, mainly including TNF signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, and HIF-1 signaling pathway. The results of molecular docking showed that baicalein and quercetin were the top two compounds of HSBDF, which had high affinity with ACE2.

Conclusion: Baicalein and quercetin in HSBDF may regulate multiple signaling pathways through ACE2, which might play a therapeutic role on COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639045.2020.1788070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7441778PMC
August 2020

Research on the technology of detection and risk assessment of fire areas in gangue hills.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Nov 6;27(31):38776-38787. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Faculty of Emergency Management and Safety Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing, China.

Coal gangue hills are prone to spontaneous combustion, thereby polluting the environment of mining areas such as the soil, groundwater, and atmosphere, and the frequent occurrence of gangue hill collapses, landslides, explosions, and other accidents can even endanger the lives and property of residents. To realize the safety management of coal gangue spontaneous combustion and evaluate its present risks, this paper selects the Dongzhou Kiln gangue hill in Zuoyun County, Datong City, China, as the research object to conduct a risk assessment study. The Dongzhou gangue hill fire area is relatively large, with a total area of 183,039 m. Smoke emission commonly occurs at the site, and the surface temperature reaches 50 °C, while the CO concentration exceeds 10. A radon detection scheme for concealed fire zones verified with borehole temperature measurements is applied. The high-temperature area is delineated with relevant data obtained by infrared thermal imaging, radon concentration, and borehole temperature detection technologies, and a coal gangue spontaneous combustion risk assessment method is established, while the gas toxicity and explosion risks of the construction area and fire trends are analyzed. The research results indicate that there are 6 likely high-temperature regions in the test area, 4 high-toxicity areas in the drilling construction area, 1 area with a high explosion risk, and 3 areas with a high risk of spontaneous combustion. Among these areas, platform 2 is a high-risk area and needs to be carefully considered. The construction of the entire area is at high risk, including toxicity, gas explosion, and spontaneous combustion risks, and measures must be implemented to reduce the overall risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09847-1DOI Listing
November 2020

Short-term effects of snow cover manipulation on soil bacterial diversity and community composition.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 23;741:140454. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901-83 Umeå, Sweden.

Winter snow cover is a major driver of soil microbial processes in high-latitude and high-altitude ecosystems. Warming-induced reduction in snow cover as predicted under future climate scenarios may shift soil bacterial communities with consequences for soil carbon and nutrient cycling. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain elusive. In the present study, we conducted a snow manipulation experiment in a Tibetan spruce forest to explore the immediate and intra-annual legacy effects of snow exclusion on soil bacterial communities. We analyzed bacterial diversity and community composition in the winter (i.e., the deep snow season), in the transitional thawing period, and in the middle of the growing season. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were dominant phyla across the seasons and snow regimes. Bacterial diversity was generally not particularly sensitive to the absence of snow cover. However, snow exclusion positively affected Simpson diversity in the winter but not in the thawing period and the growing season. Bacterial diversity further tended to be higher in winter than in the growing season. In the winter, the taxonomic composition shifted in response to snow exclusion, while composition did not differ between exclusion and control plots in the thawing period and the growing season. Soil bacterial communities strongly varied across seasons, and the variations differed in specific groups. Both soil climatic factors (i.e., temperature and moisture) and soil biochemical variables partly accounted for the seasonal dynamics of bacterial communities. Taken together, our study indicates that soil bacterial communities in Tibetan forests are rather resilient to change in snow cover, at least at an intra-annual scale.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140454DOI Listing
November 2020

Influence of Zuojin Pill on the Metabolism of Venlafaxine in Vitro and in Rats and Associated Herb-Drug Interaction.

Drug Metab Dispos 2020 10 19;48(10):1044-1052. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China (Y.L., J.L., D.Y., Q.W., J.J., B.T., F.Q.) and Department of Pharmacy, Pudong New Area People's Hospital, Shanghai, China (J.L.)

Venlafaxine (VEN), a first-line antidepressant, and Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a common Chinese herbal medicine consisting of and , have a high likelihood of combination usage in patients with depression with gastrointestinal complications. ZJP exhibits inhibitory effects on recombinant human cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (rhP450s), especially on CYP2D6, whereas VEN undergoes extensive metabolism by CYP2D6. From this perspective, we investigated the influence of ZJP on the metabolism of VEN in vitro and in rats for the first time. In this study, ZJP significantly inhibited the metabolism of VEN in both rat liver microsomes (RLM) and human liver microsomes (HLM); meanwhile, it inhibited the -demethylation catalytic activity of RLM, HLM, rhCYP2D6*1/*1, and rhCYP2D6*10/*10, primarily through CYP2D6, with IC values of 129.9, 30.5, 15.4, and 2.3 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of ZJP on hepatic metabolism and pharmacokinetics of VEN could also be observed in the pharmacokinetic study of rats. The area under drug concentration-time curve- of VEN and its major metabolite -desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) increased by 39.6% and 22.8%, respectively. The hepatic exposure of ODV decreased by 57.2% 2 hours after administration ( = 0.014). In conclusion, ZJP displayed inhibitory effects on hepatic metabolism and pharmacokinetics of VEN in vitro and in rats mainly through inhibition of CYP2D6 activity. The human pharmacokinetic interaction between ZJP and VEN and its associated clinical significance needed to be seriously considered. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Zuojin Pill, a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine, demonstrates significant inhibitory effects on hepatic metabolism and pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine in vitro and in rats mainly through suppression of CYP2D6 activity. The human pharmacokinetic interaction between Zuojin Pill and venlafaxine and its associated clinical significance needs to be seriously considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.120.000048DOI Listing
October 2020

Isolation and Culture of Primary Neurons and Glia from Adult Rat Urinary Bladder.

J Vis Exp 2020 05 23(159). Epub 2020 May 23.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine; Dongguan & Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine Cooperative Academy of Mathematical Engineering for Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine;

The lower urinary tract has two main functions, namely, periodic urine storage and micturition; these functions are mediated through central and peripheral neuroregulation. Although extensive research on the lower urinary tract nervous system has been conducted, most studies have focused on primary culture. This protocol introduces a method for the isolation and culture of bladder neurons and glia from Sprague-Dawley rats. In this method, the neurons and glia were incubated in a 37 °C, 5% CO2 incubator for 5-7 days. As a result, they grew into mature shapes suitable for related subsequent immunofluorescence experiments. Cells were morphologically observed using an optical microscope. Neurons, synaptic vesicles, and glia were identified by β-III-tubulin and MAP-2, Synapsin-1, and GFAP staining, respectively. Meanwhile, immunocytochemistry was performed on several neurotransmitter-related proteins, such as choline acetyltransferase, DYNLL2, and SLC17A9.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61177DOI Listing
May 2020