Publications by authors named "Bo Pan"

480 Publications

Surgical Result and Identification of FGFR2 Variants Using Whole-Exome Sequencing in a Chinese Family With Crouzon Syndrome.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Abstract: Crouzon syndrome is considered as one of the most common craniosynostosis syndromes with a prevalence of 1 in 65,000 individuals, and has a close relationship with variants in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. Here the authors described a Crouzon syndrome case, which was asked for surgery treatment for the symptom of multisuture craniosynostosis. Mild midfacial retrusion, larger head circumference, proptosis, pseudo-prognathism, and dental malposition could also be found obviously. Then fronto-orbital advancement and cranial cavity expansion were performed to the child. After whole-exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing, gene variants in the exons 2 and 3 of FGFR2 were detected. And protein tyrosine 105 replaced by cysteine in the extracellular region of FGFR2 was also detected. After operation, she presented a satisfactory anterior plagiocephaly and scaphocephaly correction, and the result was satisfied by surgeons and her parents. Variants detected using WES have further research prospect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000008153DOI Listing
September 2021

The Disadvantages and Improvement of the Use of Magnetic Disks for Postoperative Compression of Ear Surgery.

Authors:
Pengfei Sun Bo Pan

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Auricular Reconstruction, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Shijingshan District, No.33 Badachu Road, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-021-02555-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Aiduqing formula inhibits breast cancer metastasis by suppressing TAM/CXCL1-induced Treg differentiation and infiltration.

Cell Commun Signal 2021 Aug 30;19(1):89. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

The Research Center of Integrative Cancer Medicine, Discipline of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, The Second Clinical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Metastasis represents the leading cause of death in patients with breast cancer. Traditional Chinese medicine is particularly appreciated for metastatic diseases in Asian countries due to its benefits for survival period prolongation and immune balance modulation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the antimetastatic effect and immunomodulatory function of a clinical formula Aiduqing (ADQ).

Methods: Naive CD4 T cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs), and CD8 T cells were sorted by flow cytometry. Then, breast cancer cells and these immune cells were co-cultured in vitro or co-injected into mice in vivo to simulate their coexistence. Flow cytometry, ELISA, qPCR, double luciferase reporter gene assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were conducted to investigate the immunomodulatory and antimetastatic mechanisms of ADQ.

Results: ADQ treatment by oral gavage significantly suppressed 4T1-Luc xenograft growth and lung metastasis in the orthotopic breast cancer mouse model, without noticeable hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, or hematotoxicity. Meanwhile, ADQ remodeled the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) by increasing the infiltration of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and cytotoxic CD8 T cells, and decreasing the infiltration of Tregs, naive CD4 T cells, and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Molecular mechanism studies revealed that ADQ remarkably inhibited CXCL1 expression and secretion from TAMs and thus suppressed the chemotaxis and differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into Tregs, leading to the enhanced cytotoxic effects of CD8 T cells. Mechanistically, TAM-derived CXCL1 promoted the differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into Tregs by transcriptionally activating the NF-κB/FOXP3 signaling. Lastly, mouse 4T1-Luc xenograft experiments validated that ADQ formula inhibited breast cancer immune escape and lung metastasis by suppressing the TAM/CXCL1/Treg pathway.

Conclusions: This study not only provides preclinical evidence supporting the application of ADQ in inhibiting breast cancer metastasis but also sheds novel insights into TAM/CXCL1/NF-κB/FOXP3 signaling as a promising therapeutic target for Treg modulation and breast cancer immunotherapy. Video Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12964-021-00775-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8404313PMC
August 2021

Melatonin Promotes In Vitro Maturation of Vitrified-Warmed Mouse Germinal Vesicle Oocytes, Potentially by Reducing Oxidative Stress through the Nrf2 Pathway.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Aug 6;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Farm Animal Genetic Resources Exploration and Innovation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Previously it was reported that melatonin could mitigate oxidative stress caused by oocyte cryopreservation; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms which cause this remain unclear. The objective was to explore whether melatonin could reduce oxidative stress during in vitro maturation of vitrified-warmed mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes through the Nrf2 signaling pathway or its receptors. During in vitro maturation of vitrified-warmed mouse GV oocytes, there were decreases ( < 0.05) in the development rates of metaphase I (MI) oocytes and metaphase II (MII) and spindle morphology grades; increases ( < 0.05) in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels; and decreases ( < 0.05) in expressions of Nrf2 signaling pathway-related genes (, ) and proteins (Nrf2, HO-1). However, adding 10 mol/L melatonin to both the warming solution and maturation solutions improved ( < 0.05) these indicators. When the Nrf2 protein was specifically inhibited by Brusatol, melatonin did not increase development rates, spindle morphology grades, genes, or protein expressions, nor did it reduce vitrification-induced intracellular oxidative stress in GV oocytes during in vitro maturation. In addition, when melatonin receptors were inhibited by luzindole, the ability of melatonin to scavenge intracellular ROS was decreased, and the expressions of genes (, ) and proteins (Nrf2, HO-1) were not restored to control levels. Therefore, we concluded that 10 mol/L melatonin acted on the Nrf2 signaling pathway through its receptors to regulate the expression of genes (, ) and proteins (Nrf2, HO-1), and mitigate intracellular oxidative stress, thereby enhancing in vitro development of vitrified-warmed mouse GV oocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11082324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8388487PMC
August 2021

Phenotype Analysis and Genetic Study of Chinese Patients With Treacher Collins Syndrome.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2021 Aug 16:10556656211037509. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Plastic Surgery Hospital, 74698Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to confirm the pathogenic variants, explore the genotype-phenotype correlation and characteristics of Chinese patients with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS).

Design: Clinical details of 3 TCS family cases and 2 sporadic cases were collected and analyzed. Whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were conducted to detect causative variants.

Setting: Tertiary clinical care.

Patients: This study included 8 patients clinically diagnosed with TCS who were from 3 familial cases and 2 sporadic cases.

Main Outcome Measures: When filtering the database, variants were saved as rare variants if their frequency were less than 0.005 in the 1000 Genomes Project Database, the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) browser, and the Novogene database, or they would be removed as common ones. The pathogenic variants identified were verified by polymerase chain reaction. The sequencing results were analyzed by Chromas 2.1 software.

Results: Two novel pathogenic variants (NM_000356.3: c.537del and NM_000356.3: c.1965_1966dupGG) and 2 known pathogenic variants (NM_000356.3: c.1535del, NM_000356.3: c.4131_4135del) were identified within which are predicted to lead to premature termination codons resulting in a truncated protein. There was a known missense SNP (NM_015972.3: c.139G>A) within . No phenotype-genotype correlation was observed. Instead, these 8 patients demonstrated the high genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity of TCS.

Conclusions: This study expands on the pathogenic gene pool of Chinese patients with TCS. Besides the great variation among patients which is similar to international reports, Chinese patients have their own characteristics in clinical phenotype and pathogenesis mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10556656211037509DOI Listing
August 2021

Apoptotic investigation of brain tissue cells in dogs naturally infected by canine distemper virus.

Virol J 2021 08 12;18(1):165. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

School of Life Science and Basic Medicine, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang, 453003, Henan, China.

Background: Canine distemper caused by canine distemper virus that belongs to the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family is still a global epidemic significant infectious disease, especially in pet dogs in China and serious harm to the development of the dog industry. It has been known that apoptosis caused by the canine distemper virus can show in culture cells, lymphoid tissues, and the cerebellum. However, its occurrence in brain tissue cells remains unclear. To investigate the relationship among canine distemper infecting brain tissues, apoptosis in brain tissue cells, and demyelinating pathogenesis was investigated.

Methods: 16 naturally infected dogs that exhibited clinical signs of CD and tested positive for the anti-CDV monoclonal antibody and six healthy dogs that served as the control, were used in the research. Brain specimens were divided into the cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum embedded in paraffin and made the sections respectively. Approximately 5 µm-thick sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, methyl green pyronin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling technique, and immunohistochemistry. CDV nucleocapsid protein was detected by immune streptavidin-biotinylated peroxidase complex.

Results: Alterations in the brain tissues of CDV-infected dogs involved both various cells and nerve fibers. CDV had varying degrees of cytotropism to all brain tissue cells; apoptosis also occurred in all brain cells, especially in the endothelia of cerebral vessels, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells, the more serious infection, the more obvious apoptosis. Serious infections also involved the pyramidal and Purkinje cells. The nervous fibers exhibited demyelinating lesions (showed small multifocal vacuole), and some axonal neuron atrophy gradually disappeared (formed large vacuole).

Conclusions: Apoptosis in brain tissue cells was mainly related to the propagation path and cytotropism of CDV. The apoptosis of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and some neurons may play a significant role in the demyelinating pathogenesis in dogs with acute canine distemper. A lot of diverse nervous signs shown in the clinic may be related to different neuron apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-021-01635-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8359588PMC
August 2021

Clinical Observations of a Surgical Method Comprising a Combination of Cross Flap and Autologous Auricular Cartilage Transplantation in the Treatment of Type I to III Congenital Concha-Type Microtia.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Aug 4:1455613211038079. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Auricular Reconstruction, Plastic Surgery Hospital, 74698Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Objectives: The present study attempted to investigate the clinical efficacy of a surgical method involving a combination of cross flap with autologous auricular cartilage transplantation in the treatment of type I to III congenital concha-type microtia.

Methods: The present retrospective study was conducted on the clinical and postoperative data of 50 patients with unilateral type I to III concha-type microtia treated with a combination of cross flap and autologous auricular cartilage transplantation at the Plastic Surgery Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2018 to December 2021.

Results: The postoperative perimeters of malformed ears were significantly larger than the preoperative perimeters ( < .05). Of the total, 2 patients exhibited incision dehiscence, 3 patients exhibited incision infection, 2 patients exhibited flap hematoma, and 1 patient exhibited ischemic necrosis at the flap tip. The satisfaction rate of the patients and their families was 100%.

Conclusions: The surgical method involving a combination of cross flap and autogenous auricular cartilage transplantation was effective in treating patients with type I to III congenital concha-type microtia, and therefore, this surgical approach can be applied widely to correct this deformity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01455613211038079DOI Listing
August 2021

The conductivity and redox properties of pyrolyzed carbon mediate methanogenesis in paddy soils with ethanol as substrate.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 7;795:148906. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, United States.

Pyrolyzed carbon such as biochar and activated carbon could influence the methanogenesis in paddy soil, which is an important process controlling methane emission. Different electrochemical properties of pyrolyzed carbon may be involved in methanogenesis, such as conductivity and redox activity. However, their different roles have not been thoroughly illustrated before. In this study, we identified the roles of pyrolyzed carbon redox property and electron conductivity in methanogenesis with ethanol as a substrate, by comparing pyrolyzed carbon samples with sequential change of electrochemical properties. Right after the addition, pyrolyzed carbon with highest electron donating capacity (0.85 mmol/g) promoted the methane generation by 33.3%; while, other pyrolyzed carbon with higher electron accepting capacity and lower electron donating capacity than B4 inhibited the methane generation. The relative abundance of electroactive bacteria and certain methanogens increased with the pyrolysis temperature. The strict linear relationship between electroactive bacteria/certain methanogens and cyclic voltammetry peak currents of paddy soil implied that microbial structure was altered due to the improved the electron transfer situation by the electron shuttle ability of pyrolyzed carbon. This study could deepen our understanding about the effect of pyrolyzed carbon on methanogenesis process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148906DOI Listing
November 2021

The Importance of Financial Education as a Plastic Surgery Trainee and Beyond.

Authors:
Pengfei Sun Bo Pan

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Sep;148(3):511e-512e

Department of Auricular Reconstruction, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000008264DOI Listing
September 2021

Associations between endocrine-disrupting heavy metals in maternal hair and gestational diabetes mellitus: A nested case-control study in China.

Environ Int 2021 Jul 24;157:106770. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Peking University/ Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing 100191, PR China; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, PR China.

Background: Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs) may lead to abnormal glucose metabolism and, potentially, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Objective: We investigated the association between five endocrine-disrupting heavy metals (EDHMs), i.e., arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and tin (Sn), in maternal hair and the risk of GDM.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study including 335 GDM cases and 343 controls without GDM based on a prospective birth cohort established in Beijing, China. Concentrations of EDHMs were analyzed in maternal hair. Log-binomial regression and multiple linear regression were used to estimate the associations between the hair concentrations of single metals and the risk of GDM, while weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression for their mixed effects.

Results: The median concentrations of Hg (0.442 vs. 0.403 μg/g) and Sn (0.171 vs. 0.140 μg/g) in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group. No differences were found between the two groups for the other three metals. After adjusting for confounders, the prevalence ratio (PR; highest vs. lowest tertile) of GDM risk for Hg was 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.54), while that for Sn was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.04-1.53). Among women with a body mass index < 24 kg/m, the PR (highest vs. lowest tertile) of GDM for Sn was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.09-1.75). The effect of exposure to the five EDHMs on the risk of GDM was estimated by WQS regression: Sn and Hg made the largest contributions to the WQS index (40.9% and 40.3%, respectively).

Conclusion: High maternal levels of EDHMs, particularly Sn and Hg, may promote the development of GDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106770DOI Listing
July 2021

Heterogeneity of Accompanying Phenotypes and Genomic Variants Involved in Microtia.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Objectives: The symptoms associated with microtia are ever-changing and not to stick to 1 pattern. The symptoms associated with microtia are constantly changing and are not set in stone. The aim of this article was to describe the various phenotypes from multiple systems found in microtitis patients included in the DatabasE of genomiC varIation and Phenotype in Humans using Ensembl Resources database, and to analyze possible pathogenic mutations.

Methods: DatabasE of genomiC varIation and Phenotype in Humans using Ensembl Resources is an interactive web-based database, which incorporates a suite of tools designed to aid the interpretation of genomic variants. The term "microtia" was used as the search term, and the data extracted from the DatabasE of genomiC varIation and Phenotype in Humans using Ensembl Resources for this study was updated until October 2020. Pearson chi-squared test was used to test associations between types of genomic variants and the pathogenicity of variants.

Results: Of the 386 cases enrolled in the study, 99% (n = 382) had 1 or more associated abnormalities. The most frequently detected abnormalities were those of the face and neck (n = 362 [93.8% of all cases]); musculoskeletal system (n = 337 [87.3%]); and nervous system (n = 334 [86.5%]), followed by abnormalities of limbs (n = 252 [65.3%]); the eye (n = 212 [54.9%]); and the integument (n = 200 [51.8%]). Besides, a total of 479 genomic variants were determined, including sequence variants and copy number variants (loss and gain). The pathogenicity of loss-type variants was significantly higher among other types (P < 0.001). Twelve sharing variants had more than 5 repeats, and the repeated fragments were concentrated on chromosome 3, 7, 9, 10, 11, 15, 17, 18, and 22.

Conclusions: Identification of the relation between phenotypes and genotypes will facilitate the uncovering of the mechanism of microtia and the study of potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000008037DOI Listing
July 2021

Melatonin promotes in vitro maturation of vitrified-warmed mouse GV oocytes potentially by modulating MAD2 protein expression of SAC component through MTRs.

Cryobiology 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Farm Animal Genetic Resources Exploration and Innovation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China. Electronic address:

Previous studies have shown that melatonin (MT) can ameliorate vitrification-inflicted damage in mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes, however, the key mechanistic basis of this improvement still remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate whether MT can improve in vitro developmental potential of vitrified-warmed GV oocytes through its receptors. The fresh oocytes were randomly divided into four groups: untreated (control group, F), vitrified by open-pulled straw method (vitrification group, V), vitrification group with 100 nmol/L MT supplementation (vitrification + MT group, VM), and with 100 nmol/L MT plus 100 nmol/L luzindole administration (vitrification + MT + luzindole group, VML) or with 50 nmol/L ramelteon addition (vitrification + ramelteon group; VR). After warming, oocytes were cultured in vitro, and MT receptors (MTRs), MAD2 (mitotic arrest deficient 2), Securin and CyclinB1 protein levels and spindle morphology were evaluated. The ratio of oocytes developed to the metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII) stages was also assessed. The results showed that after vitrification-warming, the in vitro maturation rate of GV oocytes was significantly lower compared to the control (F) group. Vitrification also significantly impaired the spindle morphology, decreased the protein level of MTRs and Securin, and decreased MAD2 levels in MI oocytes. However, when MT or ramelteon (MTRs agonist) were added (group wise) to warming and maturation media, the maturation rate of GV oocytes was significantly increased, the normal proportion of the spindle morphology increased, and the expression level of MAD2 increased in their resulting MI oocytes compared to the vitrification group. However, following addition of both MT and ramelteon, the maturation rate of GV oocyte showed no significant difference between VML and vitrification groups. The spindle morphology and MAD2 levels in MI oocytes were comparable to the vitrification group but differed significantly from the VM group. Taken together, finding of the present study shows that MT (100 nmol/L) can ameliorate the in vitro maturation of vitrified-warmed mouse GV oocytes, potentially by improving the spindle morphology, modulating MAD2 protein level and promoting the development of MI stage oocytes through MTRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2021.07.008DOI Listing
July 2021

Mass Absorption Efficiency of Black Carbon from Residential Solid Fuel Combustion and Its Association with Carbonaceous Fractions.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 08 16;55(15):10662-10671. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Laboratory for Earth Surface Process, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.

Black carbon (BC) emissions, derived primarily from incomplete fuel combustion, significantly affect the global and regional climate. Mass absorption efficiency (MAE) is one important parameter in evaluating the climate impacts of BC. Here, values and variabilities in the MAE of BC (MAE) from real-world residential emissions were investigated from a field campaign covering 163 burning events for different fuel-stove combinations. MAE (average: 12 ± 5 m/g) was normally distributed and varied greatly by 2 orders of magnitude. Statistically significant differences in MAE were found for various fuels, while no significant differences were observed among different stoves. The fuel difference explained 72 ± 7% of the MAE variation. MAE did not correlate with the modified combustion efficiency but positively correlated with the ratio of organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) and negatively correlated with char-EC. The OC/EC ratio was not always lower in coal emissions in comparison to biomass burning emissions. Coal- and biomass-burning emissions had different profiles of carbon fractions. Char-EC, OC, OC/EC, and char-EC/soot-EC can explain 68.7% of the MAE variation, providing the potential for predicting MAE from the carbon fractions, since they are more commonly measured and available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c02689DOI Listing
August 2021

Melatonin improves the first cleavage of parthenogenetic embryos from vitrified-warmed mouse oocytes potentially by promoting cell cycle progression.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Jul 16;12(1):84. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Farm Animal Genetic Resources Exploration and Innovation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

Background: This study investigated the effect of melatonin (MT) on cell cycle (G1/S/G2/M) of parthenogenetic zygotes developed from vitrified-warmed mouse metaphase II (MII) oocytes and elucidated the potential mechanism of MT action in the first cleavage of embryos.

Results: After vitrification and warming, oocytes were parthenogenetically activated (PA) and in vitro cultured (IVC). Then the spindle morphology and chromosome segregation in oocytes, the maternal mRNA levels of genes including Miss, Doc1r, Setd2 and Ythdf2 in activated oocytes, pronuclear formation, the S phase duration in zygotes, mitochondrial function at G1 phase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level at S phase, DNA damage at G2 phase, early apoptosis in 2-cell embryos, cleavage and blastocyst formation rates were evaluated. The results indicated that the vitrification/warming procedures led to following perturbations 1) spindle abnormalities and chromosome misalignment, alteration of maternal mRNAs and delay in pronucleus formation, 2) decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and lower adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, increased ROS production and DNA damage, G1/S and S/G2 phase transition delay, and delayed first cleavage, and 3) increased early apoptosis and lower levels of cleavage and blastocyst formation. Our results further revealed that such negative impacts of oocyte cryopreservation could be alleviated by supplementation of warming, recovery, PA and IVC media with 10 mol/L MT before the embryos moved into the 2-cell stage of development.

Conclusions: MT might promote cell cycle progression via regulation of MMP, ATP, ROS and maternal mRNA levels, potentially increasing the first cleavage of parthenogenetic zygotes developed from vitrified-warmed mouse oocytes and their subsequent development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-021-00605-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283938PMC
July 2021

Environmental persistent free radicals in diesel engine exhaust particles at different altitudes and engine speeds.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 9;796:148963. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, United States.

The occurrence of environmental persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the environment has attracted a great deal of research attention. Although the major sources of EPFRs in the environment is diesel engine exhaust, the study on the emission characteristics of EPFRs at different working conditions is still very limited. An integrated engine system was adopted to simulate different working conditions of various altitudes and engine speeds, and to examine the emission process of a diesel engine. The results suggested that low engine speed and high altitude are generally associated with high PM emission with more stable and ordered structures. Based on the analysis of PAHs on solid and gas phases, PM generated from diesel engine at altitude higher than 2000 m may contain substantial amounts of PAHs embedded inside particles, but not adsorbed on the surface. EPFRs signal up to 1.66 × 10 spins/g were detected in PM of the diesel exhaust. Higher engine speed and lower altitude were associated with stronger EPR signals on PM. However, the accumulated EPR signal intensities after consuming 1 L of diesel were higher at lower engine speed and higher altitude, suggesting higher overall risks. A positive correlation between R value (signal strength ratio of D and G peaks on the Raman spectra) and EPFRs intensity indicated that the EPR signals were associated with the defects of carbon structure. EPFRs intensity in particles showed no significant change in dark, and over 70% of the EPR signals survived under UV light in a one-month aging simulation. The strong persistence of these EPFRs suggested their potential long lasting and widespread risks, which should be investigated extensively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148963DOI Listing
November 2021

Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line (PSHi002-A) from a Treacher-Collins syndrome patient carrying a TCOF1 gene mutation (c.1966_1969dup).

Stem Cell Res 2021 Aug 30;55:102437. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Auricular Reconstruction, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100144, China.

Mutations of the Treacle Ribosome Biogenesis Factor 1 (TCOF1) gene can lead to Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). In present study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a 33-year-old male TCS patient with the heterozygous TCOF1 mutation c.1966_1969dup (p.Ser657Trpfs*25) were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) named PSHi002-A through episomal plasmids encoding hOCT4, hSOX2, hNANOG, hLIN28, hKLF4, and hL-MYC. The established iPSC line expressed pluripotent markers, had a normal karyotype (46, XY), and can be differentiated into the three germ layers in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2021.102437DOI Listing
August 2021

MicroRNA 195-5p Targets Promoter Region to Regulate Its Expression in Granulosa Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 23;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Animal BioSciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Forkhead box O3 (Foxo3) is a member of the FOXO subfamily within the forkhead box (FOX) family, which has been shown to be essential for ovarian follicular development and maturation. Previous studies have shown the abundant expression of miR-195-5p in the nuclei of porcine granulosa cells (GCs), suggesting its potential role during ovarian follicle growth. In this study, a conditional immortalized porcine granulosa cell (CIPGC) line was used to determine whether the expression of Foxo3 could be regulated by the nuclear-enriched miR-195-5p. Through silico target prediction, we identified a potential binding site of miR-195-5p within the promoter. The over-expression of miR-195-5p increased Foxo3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, while the knockdown of miR-195-5p decreased the expression of Foxo3. Furthermore, driven by the promoter, luciferase reporter activity was increased in response to miR-195-5p, while the mutation of the miR-195-5p binding site in the promoter region abolished this effect. In addition, the siRNA knockdown of Argonaute (AGO) 2, but not AGO1, significantly decreased transcript level. However, miR-195-5p failed to upregulate expression when AGO2 was knocked down. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay showed that anti-AGO2 antibody pulled down both AGO2 and the promoter sequence, suggesting that AGO2 may be required for miR-195-5p to regulate expression in the nucleus. Additionally, expression was significantly increased by valproic acid (VPA), the inhibitor of deacetylase, as well as by methyltransferase inhibitor BIX-01294, indicating the involvement of histone modification. These effects were further enhanced in the presence of miR-195-5p and were decreased when miR-195-5p was knocked down. Overall, our results suggest that nuclear-enriched miR-195-5p regulates expression, which may be associated with AGO2 recruitment, as well as histone demethylation and acetylation in ovarian granulosa cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267755PMC
June 2021

The value of AGR2 and KRT5 as an immunomarker combination in distinguishing lung squamous cell carcinoma from adenocarcinoma.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):4464-4476. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Medical Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital Harbin, China.

With the advancement of tumor subtype-specific treatments, precise histopathologic distinction between adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is of significant clinical importance. Nevertheless, the current markers are insufficiently precise in poorly differentiated tissue. This study aimed to establish a histology-specific immunomarker combination to subclassify non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens. Based on previous work, we assessed the differential expression of anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) and keratin 5 (KRT5) in ADC and SCC by analyzing public datasets and postoperative specimens. Subsequently, we established a train set (n = 188) and a validation set (n = 42) comprised of NSCLC surgical specimens for training and verifying the subtype-identification capabilities of the two biomarkers separately and in combination, and contrasted the diagnostic utility of AGR2-KRT5 with that of the classic immunomarker combination, TTF1-P40. Differential expression of the two genes was statistically significant in ADC and SCC samples, both at the mRNA and protein levels. The specificity and sensitivity of AGR2 to detect ADC in the training set were 97.0% and 94.4%, while the sensitivity and specificity of KRT5 to determine SCC were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. The accuracies of AGR2-KRT5 in ADC, SCC, and across all samples were 93.3%, 92.0% and 92.6% respectively. In the validation cohort, the predictive accuracy of AGR2-KRT5 was up to 100% for ADC and 86.7% for SCC. Compared with TTF1-P40 in ADC samples, AGR2-KRT5 had 8.4% higher accuracy. In summary, the AGR2-KRT5 immunomarker combination reliably distinguished SCC from ADC, and was more accurate than TTF1-P40 in ADC.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205719PMC
May 2021

Protegrin-1 Regulates Porcine Granulosa Cell Proliferation the EGFR-ERK1/2/p38 Signaling Pathway .

Front Physiol 2021 21;12:673777. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Animal BioSciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are traditionally known to be essential components in host defense their broad activities against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Their immunomodulatory properties have also recently received considerable attention in mammalian somatic tissues of various species. However, little is known regarding the role of AMPs in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles. Protegrin-1 (PG-1) is an antimicrobial peptide which is known to have potent antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and negative bacteria. Here we report that the PG-1 is present in the porcine ovarian follicular fluid. Treatment of granulosa cell with PG-1 enhanced granulosa cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. This is accompanied by increased expression of cell-cycle progression-related genes such as cyclin D1(), cyclin D2 (), and cyclin B1(). Additionally, Western blot analysis showed that PG-1 increased phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and the phosphorylated-/total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 ratio. Pretreatment with either U0126, a specific ERK1/2 phosphorylation inhibitor, or EGFR kinase inhibitor, AG1478, blocked the PG-1 induced proliferation. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay revealed that ETS domain-containing protein-1 (Elk1) C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and the transcription activators downstream of the MAPK pathway, were activated by PG-1. These data collectively suggest that PG-1 may regulate pig granulosa cell proliferation via EGFR-MAPK pathway., Hence, our finding offers insights into the role of antimicrobial peptides on follicular development regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.673777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176212PMC
May 2021

Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from a congenital microtia patient with 4p16.1 microduplication involving the long-range enhancer of HMX1.

Stem Cell Res 2021 05 21;53:102357. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Plastic Surgery Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China. Electronic address:

Congenital microtia is a malformation of the middle and external ear. Duplications involving the ECR, an ear-specific long-range enhancer of HMX1, lead to ear malformation in different species. Use of electroporation of episomal plasmids encodes OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, KLF4, and LMYC into peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) line of a microtia patient carrying the duplication involving ECR. The iPSCs express pluripotency markers, have the potential to differentiate into three germ layers, and show the normal karyotype. This patient-specific iPSC will be used for modeling the pathophysiology of ear malformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2021.102357DOI Listing
May 2021

Experimental and Numerical Study of Fracture Behavior of Rock-Like Material Specimens with Single Pre-Set Joint under Dynamic Loading.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 20;14(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870, China.

The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) is an apparatus for testing the dynamic stress-strain response of the cement mortar specimen with pre-set joints at different angles to explore the influence of joint attitudes of underground rock engineering on the failure characteristics of rock mass structure. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has also been used to measure the pore distribution and internal cracks of the specimen before and after the testing. In combination with numerical analysis, the paper systematically discusses the influence of joint angles on the failure mode of rock-like materials from three aspects of energy dissipation, microscopic damage, and stress field characteristics. The result indicates that the impact energy structure of the SHPB is greatly affected by the pre-set joint angle of the specimen. With the joint angle increasing, the proportion of reflected energy moves in fluctuation, while the ratio of transmitted energy to dissipated energy varies from one to the other. NMR analysis reveals the structural variation of the pores in those cement specimens before and after the impact. Crack propagation direction is correlated with pre-set joint angles of the specimens. With the increase of the pre-set joint angles, the crack initiation angle decreases gradually. When the joint angles are around 30°-75°, the specimens develop obvious cracks. The crushing process of the specimens is simulated by LS-DYNA software. It is concluded that the stresses at the crack initiation time are concentrated between 20 and 40 MPa. The instantaneous stress curve first increases and then decreases with crack propagation, peaking at different times under various joint angles; but most of them occur when the crack penetration ratio reaches 80-90%. With the increment of joint angles in specimens through the simulation software, the changing trend of peak stress is consistent with the test results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14102690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160656PMC
May 2021

Case Study of the Response of N-Methyladenine DNA Modification to Environmental Stressors in the Unicellular Eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila.

mSphere 2021 06 28;6(3):e0120820. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Evolution & Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Rediscovered as a potential epigenetic mark, N-methyladenine DNA modification (6mA) was recently reported to be sensitive to environmental stressors in several multicellular eukaryotes. As 6mA distribution and function differ significantly in multicellular and unicellular organisms, whether and how 6mA in unicellular eukaryotes responds to environmental stress remains elusive. Here, we characterized the dynamic changes of 6mA under starvation in the unicellular model organism Tetrahymena thermophila. Single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing reveals that DNA 6mA levels in starved cells are significantly reduced, especially symmetric 6mA, compared to those in vegetatively growing cells. Despite a global 6mA reduction, the fraction of asymmetric 6mA with a high methylation level was increased, which might be the driving force for stronger nucleosome positioning in starved cells. Starvation affects expression of many metabolism-related genes, the expression level change of which is associated with the amount of 6mA change, thereby linking 6mA with global transcription and starvation adaptation. The reduction of symmetric 6mA and the increase of asymmetric 6mA coincide with the downregulation of AMT1 and upregulation of AMT2 and AMT5, which are supposedly the MT-A70 methyltransferases required for symmetric and asymmetric 6mA, respectively. These results demonstrated that a regulated 6mA response to environmental cues is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. Increasing evidence indicated that 6mA could respond to environmental stressors in multicellular eukaryotes. As 6mA distribution and function differ significantly in multicellular and unicellular organisms, whether and how 6mA in unicellular eukaryotes responds to environmental stress remains elusive. In the present work, we characterized the dynamic changes of 6mA under starvation in the unicellular model organism Tetrahymena thermophila. Our results provide insights into how fine-tunes its 6mA level and composition upon starvation, suggesting that a regulated 6mA response to environmental cues is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.01208-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265677PMC
June 2021

Spatially explicit analysis identifies significant potential for bioenergy with carbon capture and storage in China.

Nat Commun 2021 05 26;12(1):3159. Epub 2021 May 26.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

As China ramped-up coal power capacities rapidly while CO emissions need to decline, these capacities would turn into stranded assets. To deal with this risk, a promising option is to retrofit these capacities to co-fire with biomass and eventually upgrade to CCS operation (BECCS), but the feasibility is debated with respect to negative impacts on broader sustainability issues. Here we present a data-rich spatially explicit approach to estimate the marginal cost curve for decarbonizing the power sector in China with BECCS. We identify a potential of 222 GW of power capacities in 2836 counties generated by co-firing 0.9 Gt of biomass from the same county, with half being agricultural residues. Our spatially explicit method helps to reduce uncertainty in the economic costs and emissions of BECCS, identify the best opportunities for bioenergy and show the limitations by logistical challenges to achieve carbon neutrality in the power sector with large-scale BECCS in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23282-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154910PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of respiratory system anomalies associated with microtia in a Chinese specialty clinic population.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jul 11;146:110762. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Auricular Reconstruction, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100043, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Microtia is a congenital malformation of the external ear often with one or more associated congenital anomalies. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics and prevalence of respiratory anomalies in patients with microtia, and clarify the importance of this association in the perioperative period of patients' external ear reconstruction surgery.

Methods: Data were collected from 923 microtia patients between August 2017 and December 2020 in the Department of Auricular Reconstruction at the Plastic Surgery Hospital of Peking Union Medical College. Co-occurring respiratory anomalies were detected using chest computed tomography plus three-dimensional reconstruction and Chest X-ray. Physical examination was performed to assess the severity and type of microtia by trained clinicians. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the relation between laterality of pulmonary underdevelopment and microtia type.

Results: Among the 923 participants enrolled in the study, we identified 21 cases (2.3%) having respiratory system anomalies, consisting of 6 cases with pulmonary underdevelopment (28.6% of all anomalies of respiratory system detected), 2 cases with tracheal bronchus (9.5%), 1 case with tracheal diverticula (4.8%), 11 cases with lung bullae(52.4%), and 1 case with pulmonary azygos lobe (4.8%). The laterality of pulmonary underdevelopment was related to the type of microtia (difference between types, p < 0.05), as patients with concha-type remnant ear had pulmonary underdevelopment ipsilaterally.

Conclusions: This study represents the first detailed and thematic study of a association featured by microtia and respiratory anomalies. Characteristics and prevalence of respiratory anomalies was observed in a Chinese clinical microtia population. Early diagnosis of associated respiratory malformations had practical clinical significance for microtia patients, plastic surgeons and anesthesiologists. Future studies are required to improve understanding of this association and its cause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2021.110762DOI Listing
July 2021

Nicotinamide Riboside will Play an Important Role in Anti-aging Therapy in Humans, Especially in the Face Skin Anti-aging Treatment.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No.33 Bada road, Shijingshan district, Beijing, 100144, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-021-02335-yDOI Listing
May 2021

(Urticaceae), a new species from limestone karst in Guangxi, China.

PeerJ 2021 19;9:e11148. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Restoration Ecology in Karst Terrain, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, China.

L.F. Fu, A.K. Monro & Y.G. Wei, a new species from Guangxi, China is described and illustrated. Morphologically, is most similar to from which it differs by having smaller size of leaf laminae, fewer and smaller staminate peduncle bracts, longer pistillate peduncle bracts and a larger achene. This result is supported by the molecular evidence. The phylogenetic position of the new species within is evaluated using three DNA regions, ITS, and , for 107 taxa of s.l. (including ). Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses each recovered the same strongly supported tree topologies, indicating that is a member of the core clade and sister to . Along with the phylogenetic studies, plastid genome and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences of the new species are assembled and annotated. The plastid genome is 150,398 bp in length and comprises two inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,688 bp separated by a large single-copy of 83,919 bp and a small single-copy of 17,103 bp. A total of 113 functional genes are recovered, comprising 79 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes. The rDNA is 5,804 bp in length and comprised the 18S ribosomal RNA partial sequence (1,809 bp), internal transcribed spacer 1 (213 bp), 5.8S ribosomal RNA (164 bp), internal transcribed spacer 2 (248 bp) and 26S ribosomal RNA partial sequence (3,370 bp). In addition, the chromosome number of is observed to be 2 = 26, suggesting that the species is diploid. Given a consistent relationship between ploidy level and reproductive system in , the new species is also considered to be sexually reproducing. Our assessment of the extinction threat for is that it is Endangered (EN) according to the criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061576PMC
April 2021

[Expression and Prognostic Value of Cripto-1 in Pancreatic Cancer].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2021 Apr;43(2):173-179

Department of General Surgery,PUMC Hospital,CAMS and PUMC,Beijing 100730,China.

Objective To investigate the expression of Cripto-1 in pancreatic cancer and to analyze its clinical significance. Methods Cripto-1 expression in normal pancreas,pancreatic cancer and adjacent non-tumor tissues,chronic pancreatitis tissues and other related tissues was evaluated using immunohistochemistry.The association of Cripto-1 expression with the clinicopathological characteristics and the prognostic value of Cripto-1 in patients with pancreatic cancer were analyzed. Results The expression of Cripto-1 was higher in chronic pancreatitis tissues,pancreatic cancer and its metastases than in normal pancreas(P=0.019,P=0.025,and P=0.018,respectively).Cripto-1 overexpression was correlated with poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer.The patients with Cripto-1 upregulation had shorter median survival time(8 months vs.16 months,χ =4.787,P=0.029).However,multivariate analysis failed to demonstrate overexpression of Cripto-1 an independent prognostic indicator in patients with pancreatic cancer(HR=1.341,95% CI=0.800-2.248,P=0.266).Conclusions Cripto-1 may play an important role in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer.It can be a potential prognostic biomarker for patients with pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.12734DOI Listing
April 2021

The antiandrogenic effect of neferine, liensinine, and isoliensinine by inhibiting 5-α-reductase and androgen receptor expression via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in prostate cancer.

Pharmazie 2021 05;76(5):225-231

School of Medicine, Yichun University, Yichun, China.

Neferine, liensinine, and isoliensinine are bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids extracted from seed-embryos of Gaertn. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer activities and mechanism of action of these natural products in prostate cancer cells by MTT, wound healing, ELISA and Western blotting. Neferine, liensinine, and isoliensinine showed growth inhibition and displayed a significant anti-migration activity in prostate cancer cells. They induced apoptosis and autophagy by activating cleaved caspase-9, cleaved PAPR, Bax, LC3B-II, but decreased Bcl-2 and PARP protein expression in LNCaP cells 24 h after treatments. The apoptotic and cytotoxic effects of neferine, liensinine, and isoliensinine were significantly attenuated in the presence of the caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. However, the effects were enhanced in the presence of Akt inhibitor (MK2206) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002). Moreover, neferine, liensinine, and isoliensinine also downregulated the protein expression of androgen receptor, prostate-specific antigen, and type II 5-α-reductase. These results demonstrated that these bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids have the potential as promising therapeutics agents. They induced apoptosis inactivation with the PI3K/AKT signal pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1691/ph.2021.1301DOI Listing
May 2021

Breast cancer organoids from malignant pleural effusion-derived tumor cells as an individualized medicine platform.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2021 May 5;57(5):510-518. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Oncology & Department of Breast Surgery, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116023, China.

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) presents a severe medical condition in patients with advanced breast cancer (BC). We applied organoid culture technology to culture preoperative puncture specimen and corresponding surgical specimen-derived tumor cells from early BC patients and pleural effusion-derived tumor cells from advanced BC patients with MPE to study whether in vitro models could predict therapies of clinical patients. We successfully expanded pleural effusion-derived tumor organoids from 1 advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patient with MPE which had been continuously propagated for more than 3 months. The organoids matched the histological characteristics of primary BC and metastatic supraclavicular lymph nodes by H&E staining and retained negative expression of TNBC biomarkers: estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and positive expression of antigen Ki-67. Multiple mutations were detected from this advanced TNBC patient with MPE by high-throughput sequencing of metastatic supraclavicular lymph node and the plasma sample. We performed the 3D drug screening tests combined with the clinical medication situation of this patient. The pleural effusion-derived tumor organoids were sensitive to capecitabine (IC 1.580 μmol) and everolimus (IC 4.008 μmol) single-agent treatments. The sensitivity to capecitabine was consistent with the clinical treatment response of this patient for capecitabine and with the sequencing results that reported MTHFR gene polymorphism mutation and TYMS -6bp/-6bp polymorphism mutation indicating effectiveness to fluorouracil. Our results suggested that an effective platform for ex vivo pleural effusion-derived tumor organoids from advanced TNBC patients with MPE could be used to identify treatment options and explore the clinicopathological characteristics of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-021-00563-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Emission factors of environmentally persistent free radicals in PM from rural residential solid fuels combusted in a traditional stove.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 6;773:145151. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, United States.

Emission factors (EFs) are crucial for establishing emission inventory and subsequent health risk assessment of pollutants. However, the EFs of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in PM have not been well investigated. We measured EPFRs in PM from burning of different solid fuels in a traditional stove widely used in rural China and calculated the EFs of EPFRs (EF). The characteristics of EPFRs varied greatly with PM depending on the feedstock, and the EF of crop residue, firewood and bitumite was 2.13 ± 1.04, 1.40 ± 0.76 and 1.08 ± 0.39 (10 spins·kg), respectively. The estimated results of EPFRs emission associated with PM showed that the crop residue was the main contributor to the top four provinces with high EPFRs emissions in China in 2010. A wide range (0.03-4.89 cig·person·day) of equivalent cigarette number converted by inhaling EPFRs in PM was observed. Provinces with higher equivalent cigarette number were mainly agricultural provinces, because the rural residents tend to use readily available fuels. Additionally, EPFRs in collected PM during 2 - month photoaging were more stable in particles with higher organic carbon contents. Our findings provided a new insight into the risk assessment of PM from different sources by taking EPFRs into consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145151DOI Listing
June 2021
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