Publications by authors named "Bo Lu"

572 Publications

Stratified Restricted Mean Survival Time Model for Marginal Causal Effect in Observational Survival Data.

Authors:
Ai Ni Zihan Lin Bo Lu

Ann Epidemiol 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

The Ohio State University College of Public Health, Columbus, Ohio, United States. Electronic address:

Time to event outcomes are commonly encountered in epidemiologic research. Multiple papers have discussed the inadequacy of using the hazard ratio as a causal effect measure due to its noncollapsibility and the time-varying nature. In this paper, we further clarified that the hazard ratio might be used as a conditional causal effect measure, but it is generally not a valid marginal effect measure, even under randomized design. We proposed to use the restricted mean survival time (RMST) difference as a causal effect measure, since it essentially measures the mean difference over a specified time horizon and has a simple interpretation as the area under survival curves. For observational studies, propensity score adjustment can be implemented with RMST estimation to remove observed confounding bias. We proposed a propensity score stratified RMST estimation strategy, which performs well in our simulation evaluation and is relatively easy to implement for epidemiologists in practice. Our stratified RMST estimation includes two different versions of implementation, depending on whether researchers want to involve regression modeling adjustment, which provides a powerful tool to examine the marginal causal effect with observational survival data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2021.09.016DOI Listing
October 2021

Anchor-guided online meta adaptation for fast one-Shot instrument segmentation from robotic surgical videos.

Med Image Anal 2021 Sep 20;74:102240. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China; T-Stone Robotics Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China.

The scarcity of annotated surgical data in robot-assisted surgery (RAS) motivates prior works to borrow related domain knowledge to achieve promising segmentation results in surgical images by adaptation. For dense instrument tracking in a robotic surgical video, collecting one initial scene to specify target instruments (or parts of tools) is desirable and feasible during the preoperative preparation. In this paper, we study the challenging one-shot instrument segmentation for robotic surgical videos, in which only the first frame mask of each video is provided at test time, such that the pre-trained model (learned from easily accessible source) can adapt to the target instruments. Straightforward methods transfer the domain knowledge by fine-tuning the model on each given mask. Such one-shot optimization takes hundred of iterations and the test runtime is unfeasible. We present anchor-guided online meta adaptation (AOMA) for this problem. We achieve fast one-shot test time optimization by meta-learning a good model initialization and learning rates from source videos to avoid the laborious and handcrafted fine-tuning. The trainable two components are optimized in a video-specific task space with a matching-aware loss. Furthermore, we design an anchor-guided online adaptation to tackle the performance drop throughout a robotic surgical sequence. The model is continuously adapted on motion-insensitive pseudo-masks supported by anchor matching. AOMA achieves state-of-the-art results on two practical scenarios: (1) general videos to surgical videos, (2) public surgical videos to in-house surgical videos, while reducing the test runtime substantially.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2021.102240DOI Listing
September 2021

Vibrational spectrum and photochemistry of phosphaketene HPCO.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 15;23(35):19237-19243. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai, China.

The vibrational spectra of the simplest phosphaketene HPCO and its isotopologue DPCO in solid Ar-matrices at 12.0 K have been analyzed with the aid of the computations at the CCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pVTZ-F12 level using configuration-selective vibrational configuration interaction (VCI). In addition to the four IR fundamentals, four overtone and ten combination bands have been unambiguously identified. Furthermore, the photochemistry of HPCO in the matrix has been investigated for the first time. Upon UV-light irradiation (365 or 266 nm), CO-elimination occurs by forming the parent phosphinidene HP that can be trapped by ˙NO to yield the elusive phosphinimine--oxyl radical HPNO˙. In contrast, an excimer laser (193 nm) irradiation of HPCO causes additional decomposition to H˙ and ˙PCO with concomitant formation of the long-sought phosphaethyne HOCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp02860jDOI Listing
September 2021

Associations between neighborhood disinvestment and breast cancer outcomes within a populous state registry.

Cancer 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Piscataway, New Jersey.

Background: Breast cancer (BrCa) outcomes vary by social environmental factors, but the role of built-environment factors is understudied. The authors investigated associations between environmental physical disorder-indicators of residential disrepair and disinvestment-and BrCa tumor prognostic factors (stage at diagnosis, tumor grade, triple-negative [negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 receptor] BrCa) and survival within a large state cancer registry linkage.

Methods: Data on sociodemographic, tumor, and vital status were derived from adult women who had invasive BrCa diagnosed from 2008 to 2017 ascertained from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Physical disorder was assessed through virtual neighborhood audits of 23,276 locations across New Jersey, and a personalized measure for the residential address of each woman with BrCa was estimated using universal kriging. Continuous covariates were z scored (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 0 ± 1) to reduce collinearity. Logistic regression models of tumor factors and accelerated failure time models of survival time to BrCa-specific death were built to investigate associations with physical disorder adjusted for covariates (with follow-up through 2019).

Results: There were 3637 BrCa-specific deaths among 40,963 women with a median follow-up of 5.3 years. In adjusted models, a 1-SD increase in physical disorder was associated with higher odds of late-stage BrCa (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.15). Physical disorder was not associated with tumor grade or triple-negative tumors. A 1-SD increase in physical disorder was associated with a 10.5% shorter survival time (95% confidence interval, 6.1%-14.6%) only among women who had early stage BrCa.

Conclusions: Physical disorder is associated with worse tumor prognostic factors and survival among women who have BrCa diagnosed at an early stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33900DOI Listing
September 2021

Reconstruction of volume averaging effect-free continuous photon beam profiles from discrete ionization chamber array measurements using a machine learning technique.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Oct 6;22(10):161-168. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Purpose: The use of the ionization chamber array ICProfiler (ICP) is limited by its relatively poor detector spatial resolution and the inherent volume averaging effect (VAE). The purpose of this work is to study the feasibility of reconstructing VAE-free continuous photon beam profiles from ICP measurements with a machine learning technique.

Methods: In- and cross-plane photon beam profiles of a 6 MV beam from an Elekta linear accelerator, ranging from 2 × 2 to 10 × 10 cm at 1.5 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm depth, were measured with an ICP. The discrete measurements were interpolated with a Makima method to obtain continuous beam profiles. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were trained to restore the penumbra of the beam profiles. Plane-specific (in- and cr-plane) ANNs and a combined ANN were separately trained. The performance of the ANNs was evaluated using the penumbra width difference (PWD, the difference between the penumbra widths of the reconstructed and the reference profile). The plane-specific and the combined ANNs were compared to study the feasibility of using a single ANN for both in- and cross-plane.

Results: The profiles reconstructed with all the ANNs had excellent agreement with the reference. For in-plane, the ANNs reduced the PWD from 1.6 ± 0.7 mm at 1.5 cm depth to 0.1 ± 0.1 mm, from 1.8 ± 0.6 mm at 5.0 cm depth to 0.1 ± 0.1 mm, and from 2.4 ± 0.1 mm at 10.0 cm depth to 0.0 ± 0.0 mm; for cross-plane, the ANNs reduced the PWD from 1.2 ± 0.4 mm at 1.5 cm depth, 1.2 ± 0.3 mm at 5.0 cm depth, and 1.6 ± 0.1 mm at 10.0 cm depth, to 0.1 ± 0.1 mm.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using simple ANNs to reconstruct VAE-free continuous photon beam profiles from discrete ICP measurements. A combined ANN can restore the penumbra of in- and cross-plane beam profiles of various fields at different depths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acm2.13411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504600PMC
October 2021

Passive Tracking of Multiple Underwater Targets in Incomplete Detection and Clutter Environment.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Aug 20;23(8). Epub 2021 Aug 20.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China.

A major advantage of the use of passive sonar in the tracking multiple underwater targets is that they can be kept covert, which reduces the risk of being attacked. However, the nonlinearity of the passive Doppler and bearing measurements, the range unobservability problem, and the complexity of data association between measurements and targets make the problem of underwater passive multiple target tracking challenging. To deal with these problems, the cardinalized probability hypothesis density (CPHD) recursion, which is based on Bayesian information theory, is developed to handle the data association uncertainty, and to acquire existing targets' numbers and states (e.g., position and velocity). The key idea of the CPHD recursion is to simultaneously estimate the targets' intensity and the probability distribution of the number of targets. The CPHD recursion is the first moment approximation of the Bayesian multiple targets filter, which avoids the data association procedure between the targets and measurements including clutter. The Bayesian-filter-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied to deal with the nonlinear bearing and Doppler measurements. The experimental results show that the EKF-based CPHD recursion works well in the underwater passive multiple target tracking system in cluttered and noisy environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e23081082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391381PMC
August 2021

Lipopolysaccharide Alters the m6A Epitranscriptomic Tagging of RNAs in Cardiac Tissue.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 28;8:670160. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

N6-methyladenosine (mA) modification plays important roles in the pathology of a variety of diseases. However, the roles of mA modification in sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction are not well defined. Rats were divided into control and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis group. Global mA levels of left ventricle tissue were measured by LC-MS/MS, and transcriptome-wide mA modifications were profiled using epitranscriptomic microarrays (mRNAs and lncRNAs). Bioinformatics analysis was conducted to understand the functional implications of mA modifications during sepsis. Methylated lncRNAs and mRNAs were measured by mA single-base site qPCR. The global mA levels in left ventricle tissue were significantly decreased in the LPS group. While 27 transcripts (23 mRNAs and four lncRNAs) were hypermethylated, 46 transcripts (39 mRNAs and 7 lncRNAs) were hypomethylated in the LPS group. The mRNA expression of writers and readers was significantly decreased in the LPS group. The mA modification of Clec1b, Stk38l and Tnfrsf26 was associated with platelet activation and apoptotic pathways. Moreover, the decrease in mA modification of lncRNA XR_346,771 may be related to cation import in cardiac tissue. Our data provide novel information regarding changes to mA modifications in cardiac tissue during sepsis, and mA modifications might be promising therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.670160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8355517PMC
July 2021

Huoxue Qianyang Qutan recipe attenuates cardiac fibrosis by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome signalling pathway in obese hypertensive rats.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):1045-1057

Department of Cardiology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Context: HuoXue QianYang QuTan Recipe (HQQR) is used to manage hypertension and cardiac remodelling, but the mechanism is elusive.

Objective: To determine the mechanism of HQQR on obesity hypertension (OBH)-related myocardial fibrosis.

Materials And Methods: OBH models were prepared using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and divided ( = 6) into saline, low-dose (19.35 g/kg/d) HQQR, high-dose (38.7 g/kg/d) HQQR, and valsartan (30 mg/kg/d) groups for 10 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), and Lee's index were measured. Heart tissues were examined by histology. HQQR's effects were examined on cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) stimulated with angiotensin II and treated with HQQR, a caspase-1 inhibitor, siNLRP3, and oeNLRP3.

Results: HQQR(H) reduced SBP (201.67 ± 21.00 169.00 ± 10.00), Lee's index (321.50 ± 3.87 314.58 ± 3.88), and left ventricle mass index (3.26 ± 0.27 2.71 ± 0.12) . HQQR reduced percentage of fibrosis area (18.99 ± 3.90 13.37 ± 3.39), IL-1β (10.07 ± 1.16 5.35 ± 1.29), and inhibited activation of NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β pathway. HQQR also inhibiting the proliferation (1.09 ± 0.02 0.84 ± 0.01), fibroblast to myofibroblast transition (14.74 ± 3.39 3.97 ± 0.53), and collagen deposition (Col I; 0.50 ± 0.02 0.27 ± 0.05 and Col III; 0.48 ± 0.21 0.26 ± 0.11) with different concentrations selected based on IC (all s < 0.05). NLRP3 interference further confirmed HQQR inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome signalling.

Conclusion: HQQR blunted cardiac fibrosis development in OBH and suppressed CFs proliferation by directly interfering with the NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2021.1953541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354174PMC
December 2021

Eigen microstates and their evolution of global ozone at different geopotential heights.

Chaos 2021 Jul;31(7):071102

School of Systems Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Studies on stratospheric ozone have attracted much attention due to its serious impacts on climate changes and its important role as a tracer of Earth's global circulation. Tropospheric ozone as a main atmospheric pollutant damages human health as well as the growth of vegetation. Yet, there is still a lack of a theoretical framework to fully describe the variation of ozone. To understand ozone's spatiotemporal variance, we introduce the eigen microstate method to analyze the global ozone mass mixing ratio between January 1, 1979 and June 30, 2020 at 37 pressure layers. We find that eigen microstates at different geopotential heights can capture different climate phenomena and modes. Without deseasonalization, the first eigen microstates capture the seasonal effect and reveal that the phase of the intra-annual cycle moves with the geopotential heights. After deseasonalization, by contrast, the collective patterns from the overall trend, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), quasi-biennial oscillation, and tropopause pressure are identified by the first few significant eigen microstates. The theoretical framework proposed here can also be applied to other complex Earth systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0058599DOI Listing
July 2021

iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of sperm reveals candidate proteins that affect the quality of spermatozoa from boars on plateaus.

Proteome Sci 2021 Jul 30;19(1). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

College of Animal Science, Tibet Agricultural and Animal Husbandry University, Linzhi, Tibet, 860000, P.R. China.

Background: Tibetan pigs (TP) exhibit heritable adaptations to their hypoxic environments as a result of natural selection. However, candidate proteins that affect the sperm quality of boars on plateaus have not yet been clearly investigated.

Methods: In this study, to reveal the candidate proteins that affect the quality of spermatozoa of boars on plateaus, we analyzed the sperm quality using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. We also compared the proteomes of sperm proteomes between TP and Yorkshire pigs (YP) raised at high altitudes using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) in combination with the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic method, and confirmed the relative expression levels of the four proteins by western blotting.

Results: The sperm quality of the TP was superior to that of the YP on plateaus. Of the 1,555 quantified proteins, 318 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the DEPs were predominantly associated with the sorbitol metabolic process, removal of superoxide radicals, cellular response to superoxide, response to superoxide and regulation of the mitotic spindle assembly. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were mainly enriched in pathways involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, glutathione metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and estrogen signaling. Based on the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis, we identified 8 candidate proteins (FN1, EGF, HSP90B1, CFL1, GPX4, NDUFA6, VDAC2, and CP) that might play important roles and affect the sperm quality of boars on plateaus. Moreover, the relative expression levels of four proteins (CFL1, EGF, FN1, and GPX4) were confirmed by western blot analysis.

Conclusions: Our study revealed 8 candidate proteins (FN1, EGF, HSP90B1, CFL1, GPX4, NDUFA6, VDAC2, and CP) that affect the sperm quality of boar on plateaus and provide a reference for further studies on improving sperm quality and the molecular breeding of boars on plateaus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12953-021-00177-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323236PMC
July 2021

Addition of Metformin to Concurrent Chemoradiation in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The NRG-LU001 Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Sep;7(9):1324-1332

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has relatively poor outcomes. Metformin has significant data supporting its use as an antineoplastic agent.

Objective: To compare chemoradiation alone vs chemoradiation and metformin in stage III NSCLC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The NRG-LU001 randomized clinical trial was an open-label, phase 2 study conducted from August 24, 2014, to December 15, 2016. Patients without diabetes who were diagnosed with unresectable stage III NSCLC were stratified by performance status, histology, and stage. The setting was international and multi-institutional. This study examined prespecified endpoints, and data were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. Data were analyzed from February 25, 2019, to March 6, 2020.

Interventions: Chemoradiation and consolidation chemotherapy with or without metformin.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was 1-year progression-free survival (PFS), designed to detect 15% improvement in 1-year PFS from 50% to 65% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.622). Secondary end points included overall survival, time to local-regional recurrence, time to distant metastasis, and toxicity per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.03.

Results: A total of 170 patients were enrolled, with 167 eligible patients analyzed after exclusions (median age, 64 years [interquartile range, 58-72 years]; 97 men [58.1%]; 137 White patients [82.0%]), with 81 in the control group and 86 in the metformin group. Median follow-up was 27.7 months (range, 0.03-47.21 months) among living patients. One-year PFS rates were 60.4% (95% CI, 48.5%-70.4%) in the control group and 51.3% (95% CI, 39.8%-61.7%) in the metformin group (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.77-1.73; P = .24). Clinical stage was the only factor significantly associated with PFS on multivariable analysis (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.19-2.69; P = .005). One-year overall survival was 80.2% (95% CI, 69.3%-87.6%) in the control group and 80.8% (95% CI, 70.2%-87.9%) in the metformin group. There were no significant differences in local-regional recurrence or distant metastasis at 1 or 2 years. No significant difference in adverse events was observed between treatment groups.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, the addition of metformin to concurrent chemoradiation was well tolerated but did not improve survival among patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02186847.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.2318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323052PMC
September 2021

Associations between sleep, stress, and cardiovascular health in emergency medical services personnel.

J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2021 Aug 21;2(4):e12516. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians Columbus Ohio USA.

Objective: Our objective was to quantify the associations between sleep duration and perceived and chronic stress with ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) among emergency medical services (EMS) personnel from county-based EMS agencies.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free EMS personnel from 4 US EMS agencies. The questionnaire consisted of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Chronic Burden Scale, and the CVH components (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood glucose, blood pressure, cholesterol, each scored 0-2 points). The components were summed and ideal CVH considered 11-14 points. Mixed effects logistic regression models with a random intercept for agency were used to estimate the odds of ideal CVH for good sleep quality (PSQI < 5 points), recommended sleep duration (7 to < 9h), low perceived stress (PSS < 26 points), and low chronic stress (0 recent stressful events).

Results: We received 379 responses (response rate = 32%). There was low prevalence of good sleep quality (23%) and recommended sleep duration (25%), but 95% reported low perceived stress, and 33% had low chronic stress. Ideal CVH was reported by 30%. No significant associations between ideal CVH and sleep quality, perceived stress, or chronic stress were found. There was a nearly 2-fold increase in the odds of ideal CVH with recommended sleep duration (odds ratio: 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-3.10).

Conclusion: In this sample of EMS personnel, only recommended sleep duration was associated with ideal CVH. Future longitudinal studies are needed to understand the relationship between sleep, stress, and CVD in this understudied occupational group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/emp2.12516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295241PMC
August 2021

Spectroscopic characterization and photochemistry of the vinylsulfinyl radical.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Aug;23(30):16307-16315

Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysts and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

The simplest α,β-unsaturated sulfinyl radical CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)SO˙ has been generated in the gas phase by high-vacuum flash pyrolysis (HVFP) of sulfoxide CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)S(O)CF3 at ca. 800 °C. Two planar cis and trans conformers of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)SO˙ were isolated in cryogenic matrixes (N2, Ne, and Ar) and characterized with IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. In addition to the photo-induced cis ⇋ trans conformational interconversion, CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)SO˙ displays complex photochemistry. Upon irradiation with a purple light LED (400 nm), CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)SO˙ isomerizes to novel radicals CH3SCO˙, ˙CH2SC(O)H, and ˙CH2C(O)SH with concomitant dissociation to a caged molecular complex CH3S˙CO. Subsequent UV-laser (266 nm) irradiation causes fragmentation to ˙CH3/OCS and additional formation of an elusive carbonyl radical CH3C(O)S˙, which rearranges to ˙CH2C(O)SH upon further UV-light irradiation (365 nm). The vibrational data and bonding analysis of the two conformers of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)SO˙ suggest that both are floppy radicals in which the unpaired electron conjugates with the vicinal π(C[double bond, length as m-dash]C) bond, leading to significant contribution of the canonical resonance form of ˙CH2-C(H)SO. The mechanism for the isomerization of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)SO˙ is discussed based on the observed intermediates along with a computed potential energy profile at the CCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp02584hDOI Listing
August 2021

Adaptive Bayesian algorithm for achieving a desired magneto-sensitive transition.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(13):21031-21043

Bayesian methods that utilize Bayes' theorem to update the knowledge of desired parameters after each measurement are used in a wide range of quantum science. For various applications in quantum science, efficiently and accurately achieving a quantum transition frequency is essential. However, the exact relation between a desired transition frequency and the controllable experimental parameters is usually absent. Here, we propose an efficient scheme to search the suitable conditions for a desired magneto-sensitive transition via an adaptive Bayesian algorithm and experimentally demonstrate it by using coherent population trapping in an ensemble of laser-cooled Rb atoms. The transition frequency is controlled by an external magnetic field, which can be tuned in realtime by applying a d.c. voltage. Through an adaptive Bayesian algorithm, the voltage can automatically converge to the desired one from a random initial value only after few iterations (N ≥ 10). The response time is limited by the time of obtaining the spectrum signal, which is about 50 s for 10 iterations in our experiment. In particular, when the relation between the target frequency and the applied voltage is nonlinear (e.g., quadratic), our algorithm shows significant advantages over traditional methods. This work provides a simple and efficient way to determine a transition frequency, which can be widely applied in the fields of precision spectroscopy, such as atomic clocks, magnetometers, and nuclear magnetic resonance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.431334DOI Listing
June 2021

Development of measurement system and analysis method for characterization of linear variable bandpass filters.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(14):21386-21399

An automated measurement system was developed to characterize the spatial gradient, linearity of the spatial gradient, bandwidth and transverse uniformity of a linear variable filter (LVF). To demonstrate this, the LVF fabricated in our group has been measured and analyzed. Simulations for beam spot size effects on measurements were performed for various LVF spectral peak profiles with results indicting significant averaging effect due to beam spot size and this is consistent with experiment results. Moreover, to fit the peak profile more accurately, a modified Pearson VII function was proposed and demonstrated high capability to express complex shapes of peaks mathematically. This provides a methodology for deconvoluting the original LVF peak profile from a measured averaged peak profile and has been verified using actual measured data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.431571DOI Listing
July 2021

Molecular Mechanism of Inhibition of Polysialyltransferase Domain (PSTD) by Heparin.

Curr Top Med Chem 2021 ;21(13):1113-1120

National Engineering Research Center for Non-food Biorefinery, State Key Laboratory of Non-food Biomass and Enzyme Technology, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Bio-refinery, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, 98 Daling Road, Nanning, Guangxi 530007, China.

The polysialic acid (polySia) is a unique carbohydrate polymer produced on the surface of Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM) in a number of cancer cells, and strongly correlates with the migration and invasion of tumor cells and with aggressive, metastatic disease and poor clinical prognosis in the clinic. Its synthesis is catalyzed by two polysialyltransferases (polySTs), ST8SiaIV (PST) and ST8SiaII (STX). Selective inhibition of polySTs, therefore, presents a therapeutic opportunity to inhibit tumor invasion and metastasis due to NCAM polysialylation. It has been proposed that NCAM polysialylation could be inhibited by two types of heparin inhibitors, low molecular heparin (LMWH) and heparin tetrasaccharide (DP4). This review summarizes how the interactions between Polysialyltransferase Domain (PSTD) in ST8SiaIV and CMP-Sia, and between the PSTD and polySia take place, and how these interactions are inhibited by LMWH and DP4. Our NMR studies indicate that LMWH is a more effective inhibitor than DP4 for inhibition of NCAM polysialylation. The NMR identification of heparin-binding sites in the PSTD may provide insight into the design of specific inhibitors of polysialylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026621666210713165251DOI Listing
January 2021

Association Between Patient-Clinician Relationships and Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications Among Black Adults: An Observational Study Design.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 07 9;10(14):e019943. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

College of Pharmacy Ohio State University Columbus OH.

Background We assessed the associations between patient-clinician relationships (communication and involvement in shared decision-making [SDM]) and adherence to antihypertensive medications. Methods and Results The 2010 to 2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data were analyzed. A retrospective cohort study design was used to create a cohort of prevalent and new users of antihypertensive medications. We defined constructs of patient-clinician communication and involvement in SDM from patient responses to the standard questionnaires about satisfaction and access to care during the first year of surveys. Verified self-reported medication refill information collected during the second year of surveys was used to calculate medication refill adherence; adherence was defined as medication refill adherence ≥80%. Survey-weighted multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to measure the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI for the association between both patient-clinician constructs and adherence. Our analysis involved 2571 Black adult patients with hypertension (mean age of 58 years; SD, 14 years) who were either persistent (n=1788) or new users (n=783) of antihypertensive medications. Forty-five percent (n=1145) and 43% (n=1016) of the sample reported having high levels of communication and involvement in SDM, respectively. High, versus low, patient-clinician communication (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.14-1.67) and involvement in SDM (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.61) were both associated with adherence to antihypertensives after adjusting for multiple covariates. These associations persisted among a subgroup of new users of antihypertensive medications. Conclusions Patient-clinician communication and involvement in SDM are important predictors of optimal adherence to antihypertensive medication and should be targeted for improving adherence among Black adults with hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8483480PMC
July 2021

Accurate instance segmentation of surgical instruments in robotic surgery: model refinement and cross-dataset evaluation.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 Sep 25;16(9):1607-1614. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Purpose: Automatic segmentation of surgical instruments in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery plays a fundamental role in improving context awareness. In this work, we present an instance segmentation model based on refined Mask R-CNN for accurately segmenting the instruments as well as identifying their types.

Methods: We re-formulate the instrument segmentation task as an instance segmentation task. Then we optimize the Mask R-CNN with anchor optimization and improved Region Proposal Network for instrument segmentation. Moreover, we perform cross-dataset evaluation with different sampling strategies.

Results: We evaluate our model on a public dataset of the MICCAI 2017 Endoscopic Vision Challenge with two segmentation tasks, and both achieve new state-of-the-art performance. Besides, cross-dataset training improved the performance on both segmentation tasks compared with those tested on the public dataset.

Conclusion: Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed instance segmentation network for surgical instruments segmentation. Cross-dataset evaluation shows our instance segmentation model presents certain cross-dataset generalization capability, and cross-dataset training can significantly improve the segmentation performance. Our empirical study also provides guidance on how to allocate the annotation cost for surgeons while labelling a new dataset in practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-021-02438-6DOI Listing
September 2021

Laser frequency stabilization via bichromatic Doppler-free spectroscopy of an Rb D line.

Appl Opt 2021 Jun;60(17):5203-5207

We demonstrate a bichromatic Doppler-free spectroscopy of an line by using a dual-frequency, counterpropagating laser field with orthogonal linear polarizations. A reversed Doppler-free resonance dip is observed in the dual-frequency scheme, and a significant improvement of frequency discrimination curve is acquired due to the coherent population trapping (CPT) effect. The influence of the static magnetic field and laser intensity on the spectroscopy is studied in both single- and dual-frequency schemes. After locking the laser frequency to the line in the dual-frequency stabilization scheme, the beat note fractional frequency stability is at the level of 7×10 at 1 s integration time. This technique can be used in various applications, such as CPT atomic clocks, laser spectroscopy, quantum optics, and laser-cooling experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.425694DOI Listing
June 2021

Triple-mode tunable long-persistent luminescence in a 3D zinc-organic hybrid.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul;57(54):6684-6687

Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, P. R. China. and Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals, Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, People's Republic of China and College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China.

A 3D zinc-organic hybrid [Zn3(D-Cam)3(tib)2]·2H2O (1) exhibits triple-mode dependent (including excitation wavelength, time and temperature) long-persistent luminescence. Experimental and theoretical calculations support that the long lifetime and color-tunable afterglow may be due to the dispersive electronic state distribution. Furthermore, the hybrid is also used for optical anti-counterfeiting and information encryption applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02389fDOI Listing
July 2021

Tyrosine Kinase ROR1 as a Target for Anti-Cancer Therapies.

Front Oncol 2021 28;11:680834. Epub 2021 May 28.

Edmond H. Fischer Translational Medical Research Laboratory, Scientific Research Center, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen, China.

Receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1 plays an essential role in embryogenesis and is overexpressed in many types of malignant tumors. Studies have demonstrated that it plays an important role in oncogenesis by activating cell survival signaling events, particularly the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway. Antibody-based immunotherapies targeting ROR1 have been developed and evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies with promising outcomes. However, small molecule inhibitors targeting ROR1 are underappreciated because of the initial characterization of ROR1 as a peusdokinase. The function of ROR1 as a tyrosine kinase remains poorly understood, although accumulating evidence have demonstrated its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. In this review, we analyzed the structural and functional features of ROR1 and discussed therapeutic strategies targeting this kinase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.680834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193947PMC
May 2021

Application of virtual touch tissue imaging quantification in diagnosis of supraspinatus tendon injury.

J Xray Sci Technol 2021 ;29(5):881-890

Department of Ultrasonography, Hebei Medical Universitiy Third Affiliated Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

Objective: To explore the value of virtual touch imaging and quantification (VTIQ) shear wave elastography (SWE) in diagnosis of supraspinatus tendon tear.

Methods: Eighty patients with unilateral supraspinatus tendon tear underwent shoulder arthroscopy were prospective studied. Tendinopathy, partial-thickness tear or full-thickness tear of supraspinatus tendon were diagnosed according 2D ultrasound examination. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonic diagnosis of supraspinatus tendon tear were calculated by arthroscopy as the gold standard. VTIQ was applied to measure the shear-wave velocity (SWV) of both normal and affected supraspinatus tendon. The differences of SWV in three types of supraspinatus tendon tear and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed.

Results: Among 80 patients, there were 20 tendinopathy, 31 partial tears and 29 full-thickness tears diagnosed by shoulder arthroscopy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 2D ultrasound in diagnosis of tendinopathy, partial tear and full-thickness tear groups were 78%, 90%and 83%; 71%, 86%and 73%; 86%, 88%and 88%, respectively. SWV of 80 supraspinatus tendon tears was 4.59±1.00 m/s, which was lower than that of normal supraspinatus tendon (4.59±1.00 m/s vs. 6.68±1.05 m/s, P < 0.01). SWV of supraspinatus tendon in tendinopathy, partial tear and full-thickness tear groups respectively were 5.66±0.97, 4.66±1.00, and 3.78±0.55 m/s, all lower than that of the contralateral normal supraspinatus tendon (all P < 0.05). In addition, the analysis of variance and pairwise comparison showed that SWV of supraspinatus tendon among three different degree of injury was statistically significant (all P < 0.001). The cutoff thresholds of SWV was 4.83 m/s to identify tendinopathy tear from partial tear and was 4.08 m/s to identify full-thickness tear from partial-thickness tear.

Conclusion: VTIQ SWE with SWV might identify degree of supraspinatus tendon tear and improve the value of ultrasonography, which should be further evaluated in large multicenter studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/XST-210865DOI Listing
January 2021

A New Stochastic Model Updating Method Based on Improved Cross-Model Cross-Mode Technique.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 10;21(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Civil Engineering & Architecture, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

This paper proposes a new stochastic model updating method to update structural models based on the improved cross-model cross-mode (ICMCM) technique. This new method combines the stochastic hybrid perturbation-Galerkin method with the ICMCM method to solve the model updating problems with limited measurement data and uncertain measurement errors. First, using the ICMCM technique, a new stochastic model updating equation with an updated coefficient vector is established by considering the uncertain measured modal data. Then, the stochastic model updating equation is solved by the stochastic hybrid perturbation-Galerkin method so as to obtain the random updated coefficient vector. Following that, the statistical characteristics of the updated coefficients can be determined. Numerical results of a continuous beam show that the proposed method can effectively cope with relatively large uncertainty in measured data, and the computational efficiency of this new method is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the Monte Carlo simulation method. When considering the rank deficiency, the proposed stochastic ICMCM method can achieve more accurate updating results compared with the cross-model cross-mode (CMCM) method. An experimental example shows that the new method can effectively update the structural stiffness and mass, and the statistics of the frequencies of the updated model are consistent with the measured results, which ensures that the updated coefficients are of practical significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21093290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126121PMC
May 2021

RRG-GAN Restoring Network for Simple Lens Imaging System.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 11;21(10). Epub 2021 May 11.

Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033, China.

The simple lens computational imaging method provides an alternative way to achieve high-quality photography. It simplifies the design of the optical-front-end to a single-convex-lens and delivers the correction of optical aberration to a dedicated computational restoring algorithm. Traditional single-convex-lens image restoration is based on optimization theory, which has some shortcomings in efficiency and efficacy. In this paper, we propose a novel Recursive Residual Groups network under Generative Adversarial Network framework (RRG-GAN) to generate a clear image from the aberrations-degraded blurry image. The RRG-GAN network includes dual attention module, selective kernel network module, and residual resizing module to make it more suitable for the non-uniform deblurring task. To validate the evaluation algorithm, we collect sharp/aberration-degraded datasets by CODE V simulation. To test the practical application performance, we built a display-capture lab setup and reconstruct a manual registering dataset. Relevant experimental comparisons and actual tests verify the effectiveness of our proposed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21103317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150399PMC
May 2021

Mechanical Properties of Al Matrix Composite Enhanced by In Situ Formed SiC, MgAlO and MgO via Casting Process.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;14(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Green Preparation and Functionalization for Inorganic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi'an 710021, China.

Al matrix composite, reinforced with the in situ synthesized 3C-SiC, MgAlO and MgO grains, was produced via the casting process using phenolic resin pyrolysis products in flash mode. The contents and microstructure of the composites' fracture characteristics were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties were tested by universal testing machine. Owing to the strong propulsion formed in turbulent flow in the pyrolysis process, nano-ceramic grains were formed in the resin pyrolysis process and simultaneously were homogeneously scattered in the alloy matrix. Thermodynamic calculation supported that the gas products, as carbon and oxygen sources, had a different chemical activity on in situ growth. In addition, ceramic (3C-SiC, MgAlO and MgO) grains have discrepant contents. Resin pyrolysis in the molten alloy decreased oxide slag but increased pores in the alloy matrix. Tensile strength (142.6 ± 3.5 MPa) had no change due to the cooperative action of increased pores and fine grains; the bending and compression strength was increasing under increased contents of ceramic grains; the maximum bending strength was 378.2 MPa in 1.5% resin-added samples; and the maximum compression strength was 299.4 MPa. Lath-shaped Si was the primary effect factor of mechanical properties. The failure mechanism was controlled by transcrystalline rupture mechanism. We explain that the effects of the ceramic grains formed in the hot process at the condition of the resin exist in mold or other accessory materials. Meanwhile, a novel ceramic-reinforced Al matrix was provided. The organic gas was an excellent source of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen to in situ ceramic grains in Al alloy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14071767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038336PMC
April 2021

NBTXR3 Radiotherapy-Activated Functionalized Hafnium Oxide Nanoparticles Show Efficient Antitumor Effects Across a Large Panel of Human Cancer Models.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 12;16:2761-2773. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Nanobiotix, Paris, France.

Purpose: The side effects of radiotherapy induced on healthy tissue limit its use. To overcome this issue and fully exploit the potential of radiotherapy to treat cancers, the first-in-class radioenhancer NBTXR3 (functionalized hafnium oxide nanoparticles) has been designed to amplify the effects of radiotherapy.

Patients And Methods: Thanks to its physical mode of action, NBTXR3 has the potential to be used to treat any type of solid tumor. Here we demonstrate that NBTXR3 can be used to treat a wide variety of solid cancers. For this, we evaluated different parameters on a large panel of human cancer models, such as nanoparticle endocytosis, in vitro cell death induction, dispersion, and retention of NBTXR3 in the tumor tissue and tumor growth control.

Results: Whatever the model considered, we show that NBTXR3 was internalized by cancer cells and persisted within the tumors throughout radiotherapy treatment. NBTXR3 activated by radiotherapy was also more effective in destroying cancer cells and in controlling tumor growth than radiotherapy alone. Beyond the effects of NBTXR3 as single agent, we show that the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy treatment was improved when combined with NBTXR3.

Conclusion: These data support that NBTXR3 could be universally used to treat solid cancers when radiotherapy is indicated, opening promising new therapeutic perspectives of treatment for the benefit of many patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S301182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052129PMC
May 2021

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer is applicable to more tumors than sublobar resection.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Mar;13(3):1576-1583

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Virtually all patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can receive stereotactic body radiation therapy. However, the percentage of such patients in whom sublobar resection is technically feasible is unknown. This discrepancy can confound clinical trial eligibility and designs comparing stereotactic body radiation therapy . sublobar resection.

Methods: A total of 137 patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung lesions (3/2013-11/2017) underwent retrospective review. Diagnostic CT chest and PET/CT images, stereotactic body radiation therapy dates, and demographic data were collected on 100 of 137 patients. Two experienced board-certified thoracic surgeons independently reviewed anonymized patients' pre-stereotactic body radiation therapy diagnostic imaging and completed a custom survey about the technical feasibility of sublobar resection for each patient. Interrater agreement was measured using Cohen's kappa coefficient by bootstrap methodology. Summary statistics were performed for baseline demographics and tumor characteristics.

Results: Of the 100 patients, 57% were female, with median age of 75 years (range, 52-95 years) and Karnofsky Performance Status of 80 (range, 40-100). Most patients (61%) had Stage IA1, T1a tumors. For interrater agreement analysis, one patient was removed from each cohort due to inability to locate tumor on images, leaving 98 patients analyzed. Comparing Surgeon #1 . Surgeon #2, 64 (65.3%) . 69 (70.3%) of tumors were thought eligible for sublobar resection, respectively (κ=0.414).

Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for stage I NSCLC is applicable to more tumors than sublobar resection, with ~30-35% of stereotactic body radiation therapy patients unable to undergo sublobar resection assessed by pretreatment diagnostic imaging based on technical grounds. This study illustrates that clinical trials comparing stereotactic body radiation therapy . sublobar resection are limited to only a subpopulation of patients with stage I NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-2001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024817PMC
March 2021

Integrated characterization of SARS-CoV-2 genome, microbiome, antibiotic resistance and host response from single throat swabs.

Cell Discov 2021 Mar 30;7(1):19. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, poses a severe threat to humanity. Rapid and comprehensive analysis of both pathogen and host sequencing data is critical to track infection and inform therapies. In this study, we performed unbiased metatranscriptomic analysis of clinical samples from COVID-19 patients using a recently developed RNA-seq library construction method (TRACE-seq), which utilizes tagmentation activity of Tn5 on RNA/DNA hybrids. This approach avoids the laborious and time-consuming steps in traditional RNA-seq procedure, and hence is fast, sensitive, and convenient. We demonstrated that TRACE-seq allowed integrated characterization of full genome information of SARS-CoV-2, putative pathogens causing coinfection, antibiotic resistance, and host response from single throat swabs. We believe that the integrated information will deepen our understanding of pathogenesis and improve diagnostic accuracy for infectious diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-021-00248-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008776PMC
March 2021

JMJD3-regulated expression of IL-6 is involved in the proliferation and chemosensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia cells.

Biol Chem 2021 06 22;402(7):815-824. Epub 2020 Mar 22.

Department of Hematology, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen518107, China.

Emerging evidence shows that histone modification and its related regulators are involved in the progression and chemoresistance of multiple tumors including acute myeloid leukemia cells (AML). Our present study found that the expression of histone lysine demethylase Jumonji domain containing-3 (JMJD3) was increased in AML cells as compared with that in human primary bone marrow (HPBM) cells. Knockdown of JMJD3 can decrease the proliferation of AML cells and increase the chemosensitivity of daunorubicin (DNR) and cytarabine (Ara-C). By screening the expression of cytokines involved in AML progression, we found that knockdown of JMJD3 can inhibit the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6) can attenuate si-JMJD3-suppressed proliferation of AML cells. Mechanistically, JMJD3 can positively regulate the promoter activity and transcription of IL-6 mRNA, while had no effect on its mRNA stability. Further, JMJD3 can regulate the expression of p65, which can directly bind with promoter of IL-6 to increase its transcription. Over expression of p65 significantly attenuated si-JMJD3-suppressed expression of IL-6. Collectively, we revealed that JMJD3 can regulate the proliferation and chemosensitivity of AML cells via upregulation of IL-6. It suggested that JMJD3 might be a potential therapy target for AML treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hsz-2020-0345DOI Listing
June 2021

Influence of the "Inverted U Method" Nd: YAG Laser Posterior Capsulotomy on Anterior Segment Parameters, Decentration and Tilt of Intraocular Lens in Patients after Phaco-vitrectomy.

Semin Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 18;36(3):88-93. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Eye Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province China.

Purpose: To investigate the effects of the "inverted U method" Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy on anterior segment parameters, decentration and tilt of intraocular lens (IOLs) and visual acuity in posterior capsular opacification (PCO) patients after combined phaco-vitrectomy.

Methods: Seventy-six patients (76 eyes) were enrolled in this study, who were diagnosed as PCO and underwent "inverted U method" Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. All patients had undergone previous combined phaco-vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. The parameters including IOL decentration, angle of IOL tilt, anterior chamber angle (ACA), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), central corneal thickness (CCT), keratometry, pupil size, axial length (AL), intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive status, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), objective scattering index (OSI) and Chinese version of Visual Function 14 (VF-14) index were obtained before and 3 months after capsulotomy.

Results: After capsulotomy, the tilt angle and decentration of the IOLs at both vertical (tilt: = .004, decentration: = .029) and horizontal meridian (tilt: = .001, decentration: = .017) were significantly decreased, ACA increased ( = .015), CDVA (.000), VF-14 score (.000) and OSI ( = .000) were significantly improved. There were a significant decrease in cylindrical error ( = .001) and a myopic shift in spherical error ( = .001) after the capsulotomy. No significant differences in ACD, ACV, CCT, keratometry, pupil size, AL and IOP were detected ( > .05 for all).

Conclusion: The "inverted U method" Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy decreases tilt and decentration of the IOL, increases ACA and causes no change in ACD, ACV, CCT and IOP in patients after phaco-vitrectomy. These changes make a decrease in cylindrical error and a myopic shift in spherical error. Laser capsulotomy significantly improves visual acuity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820538.2021.1884267DOI Listing
April 2021
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