Publications by authors named "Bo Li"

4,251 Publications

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Assessing the emission sources and reduction potential of atmospheric ammonia at an urban site in Northeast China.

Environ Res 2021 May 10:111230. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, China. Electronic address:

Atmospheric ammonium and ammonia have brought negative environmental impacts and adverse health effects. However, ammonia emissions are generally less regulated worldwide. This study analyzed ammonium pollution character, quantified the dominant ammonia emission sources, and assessed ammonia reduction potential in urban Harbin (China). The results showed that ammonium recorded low concentration in the non-heating season (1.34 ± 1.57 μg m), and recorded sharply increased concentration (6.50 ± 7.02 μg m) and relative abundance in the heating season. It was closely correlated with vehicle-related pollutants (CO) in non-heating season, while with biomass burning-related pollutants (K, Cl) in the heating season. Bayesian Mixing Model emphasized the increasing contribution of biomass burning and decreasing contribution of fertilizer as the pollution levels escalate. The results from the thermodynamic equilibrium model showed that a 50%-60% ammonium decrease could bring marketable decrements of the aerosol pH, aerosol water content, ammonium nitrate concentration, and inorganic ion mass. The results of this study would provide scientific bases for ammonia emission reduction and haze pollution control in urban Harbin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111230DOI Listing
May 2021

Phytohemagglutinin ameliorates HFD-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure.

J Mol Endocrinol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

X Liu, Institute of Neuroscience and Translational Medicine, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou, China.

Despite all modern advances in medicine, there are few reports of effective and safe drugs to treat obesity. Our objective was to screen anti-obesity natural compounds, and to verify whether they can reduce the body weight gain and investigate their molecular mechanisms. By using drug-screening methods, Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was found to be the most anti-obesity candidate natural compound. Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and intraperitoneally injected with 0.25mg/kg PHA every day for 8 weeks. The body weight, glucose homeostasis, oxygen consumption and physical activity were assessed. We also measured the heat intensity, body temperature and the gene expression of key regulators of energy expenditure. Prevention study results showed PHA treatment not only reduced the body weight gain, but also maintained glucose homeostasis in HFD-fed mice. Further study indicated energy expenditure and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) expression of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) in HFD-fed mice were significantly improved by PHA. In the therapeutic study, the similar effect was observed. PHA inhibited lipid droplet formation and up-regulated mitochondrial related genes expression during adipogenesis in vitro. UCP-1 KO mice displayed no differences in body weight, glucose homeostasis and core body temperature between PHA and control groups. Our results suggest that PHA prevent and treat obesity by increasing energy expenditure though up-regulation of BAT thermogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JME-20-0349DOI Listing
May 2021

Cross-Modal Progressive Comprehension for Referring Segmentation.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 May 13;PP. Epub 2021 May 13.

Recently an emerging task called referring segmentation has gained growing attention owing to its wide application. Given a natural language expression and an image/video, the goal of referring segmentation is to produce the pixel-level masks of the entities described by the subject of the expression. Previous approaches tackle this problem by implicit feature interaction and fusion between visual and linguistic modalities in a one-stage manner. However, human tends to solve the referring problem in a progressive manner based on informative words in the expression, i.e., rst roughly locating candidate entities and then distinguishing the target one. To this end, we propose a novel and effective Cross-Modal Progressive Comprehension (CMPC) scheme to effectively mimic human behaviors and implement it as a CMPC-I (Image) module and a CMPC-V (Video) module to improve referring image and video segmentation models. In addition to the CMPC, we also introduce a simple yet effective Text-Guided Feature Exchange (TGFE) module to integrate the reasoned multimodal features from different levels of the backbone network. Our whole model achieves promising performance on 7 referring image and video benchmarks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3079993DOI Listing
May 2021

Rare Earth Orthoferrite Tuning of Transmitted Waves as Natural Metamaterials.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China.

Metamaterials display many electromagnetic properties, such as the manipulation of electromagnetic waves through the arrangement of small discrete structures. However, complex designs of mechanically or electrically patterned structures are required to modify these properties. We report on the use of rare earth orthoferrites to tune transmitted waves by engineering the thickness, composition, and temperature using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy. The modeling of the process of manipulating the transmitted waves helps to elucidate the manipulated amplitude, transmittance, peak height, and frequency. The effectiveness of thickness engineering in tuning the transmitted waves, which conformed to the Beer-Lambert law, was demonstrated. The transmitted waves were also strongly affected by doping. In addition, a thermal anisotropic energy manipulation approach to tuning transmitted waves was developed by lowering the temperature. Rare earth orthoferrites are a kind of effective medium in the THz range and exhibit the signature of natural metamaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02588DOI Listing
May 2021

[Study on anti-hyperlipidemia effect of Linderae Radix via regulating reverse cholesterol transport].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(7):1795-1802

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University Hangzhou 310053, China.

This article aims to investigate the ameliorative effect of Linderae Radix ethanol extract on hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet and to explore its possible mechanism from the perspective of reverse cholesterol transport(RCT). SD rats were divided into normal group, model group, atorvastatin group, Linderae Radix ethanol extract(LREE) of high, medium, low dose groups. Except for the normal group, the other groups were fed with a high-fat diet to establish hyperlipidemia rat models; the normal group and the model group were given pure water, while each administration group was given corresponding drugs by gavage once a day for five weeks. Serum total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) levels were measured by automatic blood biochemistry analyzer; the contents of TC, TG, total bile acid(TBA) in liver and TC and TBA in feces of rats were detected by enzyme colorimetry. HE staining was used to observe the liver tissue lesions; immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ATP-binding cassette G8(ABCG8) in small intestine; Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/aerfa(PPARγ/α), liver X receptor-α(LXRα), ATP-binding cassette A1(ABCA1) pathway protein and scavenger receptor class B type Ⅰ(SR-BⅠ) in liver. The results showed that LREE could effectively reduce serum and liver TC, TG levels, serum LDL-c levels and AST activity, and increase HDL-c levels, but did not significant improve ALT activity and liver index; HE staining results showed that LREE could reduce liver lipid deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, LREE also increased the contents of fecal TC and TBA, and up-regulated the protein expressions of ABCG8 in small intestine and PPARγ/α, SR-BⅠ, LXRα, and ABCA1 in liver. LREE served as a positive role on hyperlipidemia model rats induced by high-fat diet, which might be related to the regulation of RCT, the promotion of the conversion of cholesterol to the liver and bile acids, and the intestinal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids. RCT regulation might be a potential mechanism of LREE against hyperlipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200104.401DOI Listing
April 2021

[Thinking and practice of key links in design of clinical trial scheme for treatment of influenza with traditional Chinese medicine].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(7):1706-1710

Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University Beijing 100010, China.

To sort out the key points in "PICOS" design of clinical trial scheme for influenza, and optimize the clinical trial scheme of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of influenza by strictly following the principle of evidence-based medicine, focusing on the clinical practice of the disease, and highlighting the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine. "The design of a randomized, double-blind, positive parallel control study of a certain herbal preparation for the treatment of non-severe influenza" was taken as an example in this study, and the key points in the clinical trial design of Chinese patent medicine for the treatment of influenza were specifically discussed from six aspects, including the type of study, object of study, intervention measures, control measures, outcome indicators and frequently asked questions in test design. From methodological suggestions, in the design scheme of clinical trial on efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of influenza, the randomized controlled study should be the first choice for type of study; the inclusion criteria should define both the diagnostic criteria of Western medicine and the syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM); the exclusion criteria should include a comprehensive list of confounding factors and special circumstances lea-ding to bias in the study results; the interventions should be based on a well-defined dosing programme; internationally recognized positive drugs or guidelines should be used as control measures, with median antipyretic time as the main outcome indicator. For the evalua-tion of curative effect, disease symptom scale can be set, and the TCM syndrome scoring scale was carefully used in this study, with time nodes set for the efficacy evaluation standard. The full name of the drugs should be written in the regulations on combined drug use and prohibited drug use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200724.501DOI Listing
April 2021

[Expert consensus on key issues of quality control in clinical trials of new drugs of traditional Chinese medicine].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(7):1701-1705

the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine Guangzhou 510407, China.

Since "the implementation of good clinical practice"(GCP), especially after 2015, the overall quality of new drug cli-nical trials in China has made significant progress, but compared with developed countries, there are still some obvious quality problems in clinical trials in China. Clinical trials of new drugs of traditional Chinese medicine are an important part of clinical trials of new drugs in China. In addition to some common problems in all clinical trials, there are also some special quality problems. In terms of security data, such as the collection of human safety data is not standardized, the management and judgment of unexpected serious adverse reactions(SUSAR) were not professional and timely, the relationship between adverse events and trial drug was not fully judged by investigator, In terms of effective data, such as primary efficacy outcome of the scale cannot be traced, TCM syndrome data cannot meet the requirements of "source data" in the revised GCP and the quality of traditional Chinese medicine placebo is not high, in terms of overall quality system construction, the sponsors and research institutions have not established a quality assurance system that conforms to the characteristics of new drug research of traditional Chinese medicine, etc. The quality of clinical trials of new drugs of traditional Chinese medicine is based on the current GCP and ICH-GCP in China, we should also consider the characteristics of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicine drugs, and formulate targeted quality control measures according to the characteristics of these new drugs of traditional Chinese medicine, to improve the overall quality of clinical trials of new drugs of traditional Chinese medicine in China, which has important strategic significance for promoting the research and development of new drugs of traditional Chinese medicine in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210219.501DOI Listing
April 2021

[Consensus on collaborative ethical review of multi-center clinical trials of new drugs of traditional Chinese medicine (version 1.0)].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(7):1696-1700

the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine Guangzhou 510407, China.

At present, the issues regarding multi-center clinical trials of new drugs of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) remain: the lack of agreement on the content and scope of the ethical review among the ethics committee members of the center and the participating units results in repeated review, which leads to a time-consuming ethical review process. Moreover, the review capabilities of the ethics committees of various research centers are uneven, which is not necessarily beneficial to the protection of subjects' rights and safety. In view of the existing problems, to improve the efficiency of ethical review of multi-center clinical trials of new drugs of TCM and avoid repeated reviews, the TCM Clinical Evaluation Professional Committee of Chinese Pharmaceutical Association organized experts to formulate the "Consensus on collaborative ethical review of multi-center clinical trials of new drugs of TCM(version 1.0)"(hereinafter referred to as "Consensus"). The "Consensus" is formulated in accordance with the requirements of relevant documents such as but not limited to "the opinions on deepening the reform of the evaluation and approval system to encourage the innovation of pharmaceutical medical devices", "the regulations of ethical review of biomedical research involving human subjects". The "Consensus" covers the scope of application, formulation principles, conditions for the ethics committee of the center, sharing of ethical review resources, scope and procedure of collaborative review, rights and obligations, etc. The aims of the "Consensus" is to preliminarily explore and establish a scientific and operable ethical review procedure. Additionally, on the basis of fully protecting the rights and interests of the subjects, a collaborative ethical review agreement needs to be signed to clarify the ethical review responsibilities of all parties, to avoid repeated review, and to improve the efficiency and quality of ethical review in multi-center clinical trials of new drugs of TCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210304.501DOI Listing
April 2021

[Theoretical thinking on guiding research and development of new drugs of traditional Chinese medicine].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(7):1686-1690

Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Shanghai 201203, China.

This article proposes that the research and development of new Chinese medicines should be based on the clinical values of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), and expounds the multiple clinical values of new Chinese medicines such as therapeutic effects, adjuvant treatment effects, improvement of disease symptoms, improvement of quality of life, prevention of diseases, etc., so as to broaden the clinical indications of new Chinese medicines. It is pointed out that the clinical value of TCM determines the clinical efficacy evaluation method of new Chinese medicines, so as to construct a clinical evaluation system of new Chinese medicines with the characteristics of TCM. It is proposed that the clinical value of new Chinese medicines should be found under the guidance of TCM theo-ry and clinical practice, and the theoretical innovation of TCM should be emphasized. There is no difference in the clinical value of drugs, and the key is to meet the clinical needs of patients. The research and development of new Chinese medicines ignores the theoretical guidance of Chinese medicine, and relying solely on animal experiment data may lead to failure of clinical trials. Different from the individualized treatment of TCM clinical syndrome differentiation, summarizing the core pathogenesis of TCM is the basis for the development of new Chinese medicines. It is necessary to summarize the pathogenesis of the disease under the guidance of TCM theory and encourage the application of modern medical methods to clarify the diagnosis of the disease. In view of the characteristics of new Chinese medicine research and development, it is proposed that the supporting role of human experience should be emphasized, and the technical points of clinical trials of new syndrome-type Chinese medicines should be explained.The use of objective indicators for syndrome evaluation, the selection of appropriate scales, and the formulation of reasonable treatment courses are advocated. During the research and development of new Chinese medicines, it is not only necessary to pay attention to modern medical safety indicators, but also to observe the evolution of TCM syndromes and specific TCM symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210213.501DOI Listing
April 2021

[Data collection, quality and evidence formation for human use experience of traditional Chinese medicine].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(7):1681-1685

the First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Changsha 410007, China.

Collecting and summarizing human use experience(HUE) data, forming high-quality data and evidences that can be used for evaluation are the key links of HUE research on traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). The collection, collation and summary of human experience data were discussed in this paper. It is pointed out that the collection of HUE should be focus on the source of prescription of new traditional Chinese medicines, and be summarized based on dialectical thinking, experience in medication, characte-ristics of prescription and clinical application. The collected contents include prescription, process, clinical location and applicable population, efficacy data and safety data, etc. The methods include interview, clinical data summary and data mining. When the data formed based on HUE information is used as drug registration information, it is necessary to ensure that the data source is legal and compliant, and the ownership of intellectual property is clear.Data sources should meet the requirements of medical ethics. To avoid conflict of interest, data analysis should be conducted by an independent third party. It is necessary to develop the quality control measures of HUE data to ensure the data traceability, integrity, consistency and accuracy, and avoid data bias.The data of HUE should include the key data such as accurate clinical location and applicable population, recognized clinical efficacy and safety.After the formation of HUE, the statistical analysis plan of empirical data of human use should be formulated. Through strict data processing, statistical analysis and clinical interpretation, HUE can be produced for evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210122.501DOI Listing
April 2021

The association between carotenoids and subjects with overweight or obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Food Funct 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, P. R. China.

Background: Excess body weight, including overweight and obesity, is one of the major factors influencing human health, and plays an important role in the global burden of disease. Carotenoids serve as precursors of vitamin A-related retinoids, and are considered to have potential effects on many diseases. However, the influence of carotenoids on people with excess body weight is unclear.

Methods: This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of carotenoids on overweight or obese subjects utilizing the available evidence. We searched PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and EMBASE databases up to September 2020. Random effects models were used to calculate the standard mean differences (SMDs) and odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

Results: A total of seven randomized controlled trials and eight observational studies met the inclusion criteria and contained 28 944 subjects and data on multiple carotenoid subgroups, including lycopene, astaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene. In all included Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT), the intervention duration was 20 days at the shortest and 16 weeks at the longest, and the range of intervention doses was 1.2-60 mg d-1. Our study found that the insufficiency of serum carotenoids was a risk factor for overweight and obesity (OR = 1.73, 95% CI [1.57, 1.91], p < 0.001). Moreover, carotenoid supplementation was significantly associated with body weight reductions (SMD = -2.34 kg, 95% CI [-3.80, -0.87] kg, p < 0.001), body mass index decrease (BMI, SMD = -0.95 kg cm-2, 95% CI [-1.88, -0.01] kg cm-2, p < 0.001) and waist circumference losses (WC, SMD = -1.84 cm, 95% CI [-3.14, -0.54]cm, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: In summary, the carotenoids show promising effects in overweight or obese subjects. Additional data from large clinical trials are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00004gDOI Listing
May 2021

A SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody with extensive Spike binding coverage and modified for optimal therapeutic outcomes.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2623. Epub 2021 May 11.

Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 constitutes a global public health crisis with enormous economic consequences. Monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can provide an important treatment option to fight COVID-19, especially for the most vulnerable populations. In this work, potent antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein were identified from COVID-19 convalescent patients. Among them, P4A1 interacts directly with and covers majority of the Receptor Binding Motif of the Spike Receptor-Binding Domain, shown by high-resolution complex structure analysis. We further demonstrate the binding and neutralizing activities of P4A1 against wild type and mutant Spike proteins or pseudoviruses. P4A1 was subsequently engineered to reduce the potential risk for Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of infection and to extend its half-life. The engineered antibody exhibits an optimized pharmacokinetic and safety profile, and it results in complete viral clearance in a rhesus monkey model of COVID-19 following a single injection. These data suggest its potential against SARS-CoV-2 related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22926-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Does laparoscopic hepatectomy offer benefits for patients with COPD? A propensity score analysis.

HPB (Oxford) 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Liver Surgery, Center of Liver Transplantation, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: To date, it remains unclear whether laparoscopic hepatectomy (LH) is safe and feasible for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thus, we compared the perioperative outcomes of LH versus open hepatectomy (OH) in this special cohort of patients.

Methods: Between February 2014 and October 2020, 162 patients who underwent hepatectomy met the inclusion and exclusion criteria of this study. Perioperative data were compared between the two groups by propensity score matching (PSM) analysis.

Results: After PSM, 55 patients with well-balanced baseline data were included in each group. Intraoperative blood loss, overall postoperative complications, and postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) were significantly lower in the LH group than in the OH group (P < 0.001, P = 0.047, and P = 0.020 after PSM, respectively). However, major complications, early readmission, and early mortality were comparable between the two groups. According to multivariate analysis, high stage of COPD, preoperative tobacco use, and long operative time were independent risk factors for PPCs, whereas treatment with LH was a protective factor.

Conclusion: LH is safe and feasible for selected patients with COPD when performed by experienced surgeons, and it has superior perioperative outcomes (especially regarding PPCs) when compared to OH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2021.04.007DOI Listing
April 2021

Large-Scale Bio-Inspired Flexible Antireflective Film with Scale-Insensitivity Arrays.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China.

Natural creatures can always provide perfect strategies for excellent antireflection (AR), which is valuable for photovoltaic industry, optical devices, and flexible displays. However, limited by precision, it is still difficult to guarantee the consistency between the artificial structures and the original biological structures. Here, a novel large-scale flexible AR film is inspired by the cicada wings and successfully fabricated with a recycled template. On the one hand, the adjustable structures on porous templates make it possible to optimize the design of AR structure parameters toward the practical demand. On the other hand, it breaks the limitation of the biological organism size, accomplishing the replication of AR nanostructure units in a large scale. Interestingly, even if the film is covered by enlarged dome cone arrays, it still maintains almost perfect AR property, achieving excellent scale-insensitivity AR performance. This work numerically and experimentally investigates its scale-insensitivity AR performance in detail. Compared with subwavelength nanocones, enlarged cones change the original optical behaviors, and the proportion of transmitted light is reduced while scattering and absorption increase. Based on this, these bio-inspired scale-insensitivity AR arrays could be used in flexible displays, photothermic conversion, solar cells, and so on.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02046DOI Listing
May 2021

Activation of CD137 signaling promotes macrophage apoptosis dependent on p38 MAPK pathway-mediated mitochondrial fission.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 May 7:106003. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. Electronic address:

Background: CD137 signaling is an essential factor in cell fate and atherosclerosis. An increase in the number of apoptotic macrophages accelerates atherosclerotic development involving mitochondrial dynamics.However, the role of CD137 signaling in macrophage apoptosis and changes in mitochondria has not been demonstrated clearly.

Methods And Results: Here, we used ApoE mice as a model of atherosclerotic plaques. Mouse agonist anti-CD137 L and inhibitory anti-CD137 antibody were used to activate or block the CD137 signaling, respectively. Treatment of ApoE mice with agonist anti-CD137 L promoted the formation of necrotic cores and macrophage apoptosis in plaques. Further, activation of CD137 signaling caused macrophage apoptosis in vitro, with upregulation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression and an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Meanwhile, CD137 signaling promoted mitochondrial fission observed by mitochondrial fragmentation. Interestingly, inhibition of mitochondrial dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) using Mdivi-1 reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and the amounts of apoptotic macrophages induced by CD137 signaling. Finally, we also found that the p38 MAPK pathway activated by CD137 signaling increased the expression of Drp1 expression and number of mitochondrial fragmented structures. Inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway by SB203580 attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction through reducing mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.

Conclusions: Overall, we identify a novel mechanism whereby CD137 signaling induces macrophage apoptosis through promoting mitochondrial fission dependent on the p38 MAPK pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2021.106003DOI Listing
May 2021

Complete Genome Sequence Data of strain C72, a Candidate Biological Control Agent, from China.

Plant Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Plant Protection, 243827, State Key Laboratory of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Beijing, Beijing, China;

strain C72 isolated from the entomopathogenic nematode of possesses excellent biocontrol effect to southern corn leaf blight. However, its genomic information is lacking. Here, we report a high-quality complete and annotated genome sequence of strain C72. Fifteen secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters are identified in the genome, which are responsible for the production of a diverse group of antimicrobial compounds to help host plants against agricultural pathogenic diseases. This genome sequence could contribute to investigations of the molecular basis underlying the biocontrol activity of this strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-21-0701-ADOI Listing
May 2021

Investigation of the Dynamic Breakdown of a Dielectric Elastomer Actuator Under Cyclic Voltage Excitation.

Front Robot AI 2021 21;8:672154. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robots, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

The dielectric elastomer (DE) is a new kind of functional polymer that can be used as a smart actuator due to the large deformation induced by voltage excitation. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are usually excited by dynamic voltages to generate alternating motions. DEAs are prone to premature breakdown failure during the dynamic excitation, while the research on the breakdown of DEAs under cyclic voltage excitation is still not fully revealed. In this paper, the dynamic breakdown behaviors of DEAs made from VHB4910 film were experimentally investigated. The factors affecting the breakdown behavior of DEAs under dynamic voltages were determined, and the relevant changing laws were summarized accordingly. The experimental results show that under dynamic voltage excitation, the critical breakdown voltage of DEAs were augmented slowly with voltage frequency and showed a substantial dispersion. In addition, the maximum cycle numbers before breakdown were significantly affected by voltage parameters (such as frequency, amplitude, waveform). Finally, the underlying mechanisms of breakdown under cyclic voltages were discussed qualitatively, a power-law equation was proposed to characterize the maximum cycle number for the dynamic breakdown of DEAs, and related parameters were fitted. This study provides a new path to predict the service life of DEAs under dynamic voltage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2021.672154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097154PMC
April 2021

A Combined Prediction Model for Lymph Node Metastasis Based on a Molecular Panel and Clinicopathological Factors in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:660615. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck Oncology, Beijing Stomatological Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: Lymph node metastasis is the most important factor influencing the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. However, there is no proper method for predicting lymph node metastasis. This study aimed to construct and validate a preoperative prediction model for lymph node metastasis and guide personalized neck management based on the gene expression profile and clinicopathological parameters of OSCC.

Methods: Based on a previous study of related genes in OSCC, the mRNA expression of candidate genes was evaluated by real-time PCR in OSCC specimens. In this retrospective study, the gene expression profile and clinicopathological parameters of 112 OSCC patients were combined to construct the best prediction model for lymph node metastasis of OSCC. The model was validated with 95 OSCC samples in this study. Logistic regression analysis was used. The area under the curve (AUC) ultimately determined the diagnostic value of the prediction model.

Results: The two genes CDKN2A + PLAU were closely related to lymph node metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The model with the combination of CDKN2A, PLAU, T stage and pathological grade was the best in predicting lymph node metastasis (AUC = 0.807, 95% CI: 0.713-0.881, P=0.0001). The prediction model had a specificity of 96% and sensitivity of 72.73% for stage T1 and T2 OSCC (AUC = 0.855, 95% CI: 0.697-0.949, P=0.0001).

Conclusions: High expression of CDKN2A and PLAU was associated with lymph node metastasis in OSCC. The prediction model including CDKN2A, PLAU, T stage and pathological grade can be used as the best diagnostic model for lymph node metastasis in OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.660615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100439PMC
April 2021

Preliminary application of indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in postoperative gastrointestinal fistula.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 May 6:102336. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of General Surgery (Hepatobiliary Surgery), The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 646000, China; Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, 646000, China; Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, 646000, China. Electronic address:

We describe a case of using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging diagnosis for postoperative gastrointestinal fistula. When the fistula is very large, both indocyanine green and methylene blue can be found in the postoperative drainage. After treatment, when the leak became small, only ICG fluorescence imaging continued to be demonstrated. ICG fluorescence imaging is likely to prove to be a safe and effective alternative method of examination, and one that is very practical and easy to execute in the diagnosis of postoperative gastrointestinal fistula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102336DOI Listing
May 2021

Ectopic expression of MELK in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its correlation with epithelial mesenchymal transition.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 7;13. Epub 2021 May 7.

Xiangya School of Stomatology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, PR China.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely correlated to metastasis formation generation and maintenance of cancer stem cells, nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK) in EMT regulation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We found that there was overexpression of MELK in human OSCC tissues, and high MELK expression was correlated with lymphatic metastasis and led to poor prognosis in patients with OSCC. We also confirmed that MELK is closely correlated to the EMT process using a human OSCC tissue microarray. Additionally, MELK expression was observed to be regulated in several OSCC cell lines, and knockdown of MELK genes inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and EMT of OSCC cells . Furthermore, silencing of MELK suppressed tumour growth , and experimental research verified that MELK may augment OSCC development via mediating the Wnt/Notch signalling pathway. Our findings suggest that MELK serves as an oncogene to improve malignant development of OSCC via enhancing EMT, and MELK might be a potential target for anticancer therapeutic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202986DOI Listing
May 2021

Structural basis for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies with novel binding epitopes.

PLoS Biol 2021 May 7;19(5):e3001209. Epub 2021 May 7.

MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science & Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health and economy unprecedentedly, requiring accelerating development of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Molecular understanding of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) would greatly help advance the development of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy, as well as the design of next generation recombinant vaccines. Here, we applied H2L2 transgenic mice encoding the human immunoglobulin variable regions, together with a state-of-the-art antibody discovery platform to immunize and isolate NAbs. From a large panel of isolated antibodies, 25 antibodies showed potent neutralizing activities at sub-nanomolar levels by engaging the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). Importantly, one human NAb, termed PR1077, from the H2L2 platform and 2 humanized NAb, including PR953 and PR961, were further characterized and subjected for subsequent structural analysis. High-resolution X-ray crystallography structures unveiled novel epitopes on the receptor-binding motif (RBM) for PR1077 and PR953, which directly compete with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) for binding, and a novel non-blocking epitope on the neighboring site near RBM for PR961. Moreover, we further tested the antiviral efficiency of PR1077 in the Ad5-hACE2 transduction mouse model of COVID-19. A single injection provided potent protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in either prophylactic or treatment groups. Taken together, these results shed light on the development of mAb-related therapeutic interventions for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001209DOI Listing
May 2021

Therapeutic Strategies by Regulating Interleukin Family to Suppress Inflammation in Hypertrophic Scar and Keloid.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:667763. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Hypertrophic scar (HS) and keloid are fibroproliferative disorders (FPDs) of the skin due to aberrant wound healing, which cause disfigured appearance, discomfort, dysfunction, psychological stress, and patient frustration. The unclear pathogenesis behind HS and keloid is partially responsible for the clinical treatment stagnancy. However, there are now increasing evidences suggesting that inflammation is the initiator of HS and keloid formation. Interleukins are known to participate in inflammatory and immune responses, and play a critical role in wound healing and scar formation. In this review, we summarize the function of related interleukins, and focus on their potentials as the therapeutic target for the treatment of HS and keloid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.667763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093926PMC
April 2021

Enhancing fluorescence of benzimidazole derivative via solvent-regulated ESIPT and TICT process: A TDDFT study.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Apr 21;258:119862. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China. Electronic address:

In this work, we use density functional theory and time dependent density functional theory to explore the ESIPT and TICT process of 6-(1H-Benzoimidazol-2-yl)-2,3-dimethoxy-phenol (BIDOP) in cyclohexane (CHX) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent, respectively. It reveals that ESIPT process of BIDOP can occur in both CHX and THF solvent at the first excited state with similar reaction barrier. Remarkably, compared to barrierless from keto (K*) to TICT state of BIDOP in THF solvent, the reaction barrier between K* and TICT state is up to 20.28 kcal/mol for in CHX that TICT process is inhibited in CHX solvent. The absence of nonradiative decay TICT state of BIDOP in CHX solvent induces higher fluorescence in CHX compared to in THF solvent. These findings indicate that CHX solvent can effectively enhance fluorescence of BIDOP. Our study highlights a convenient approach for enhancing fluorescence and is significant for photophysics and photobiology field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119862DOI Listing
April 2021

Synthesis and Structural Elucidation of Bisdibenzocorannulene at Redox States.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Hunan University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics,, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, P. R. China, 410082, Changsha, CHINA.

π-Extended curved polycyclic hydrocarbons have attracted widespread attention in not only chemistry but also materials science. We now report an anti -folded bowl-shaped bisdibenzocorannulene ( BDBC ), featuring a new chair-cyclohexane-like hexagon as a bridge of two dibenzocorannulene moieties. The neutral compound showed a multiple redox active property, and would be converted to the corresponding redox states through chemical reduction or oxidation. Chemical reduction of BDBC by stoichiometric addition of metallic potassium in the presence of [18]crown-6 ether, provided a radical anion BDBC •- and a dianion BDBC 2- , respectively; while chemical oxidation by silver hexafluoroantimonate (V), invariably converted neutral compound to an open-shell singlet diradical dication (BDBC •• ) 2+ . Our results revealed that structural consequence of both electron-reduction and oxidation, were closely related to release of ring-strain of bowl-shaped π-scaffold and imposed steric hindrance of the hexagonal bridge. In addition, the unusual open-shell nature of the dication could mainly be attributed to the changing of localized antiaromaticity in closed-shell structure to delocalized character in biradical, and thus emerging of weakly bonded π-electrons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202104520DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Sweet Orange Petiole Provides Insights Into the Development of Huanglongbing Symptoms.

Front Plant Sci 2021 19;12:656997. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

The State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. This is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Liberibacter, and the typical symptom is leaf blotchy mottle. To better understand the biological processes involved in the establishment of HLB disease symptoms, the comparative proteomic analysis was performed to reveal the global protein accumulation profiles in leaf petiole, where there are massive HLB pathogens of L. asiaticus-infected Newhall sweet orange () plants at the asymptomatic and symptomatic stages compared to their healthy counterpart. Photosynthesis, especially the pathway involved in the photosystem I and II light reactions, was shown to be suppressed throughout the whole L. asiaticus infection cycle. Also, starch biosynthesis was induced after the symptom-free prodromal period. Many defense-associated proteins were more extensively regulated in the petiole with the symptoms than the ones from healthy plants. The change of salicylic and jasmonic acid levels in different disease stages had a positive correlation with the abundance of phytohormone biosynthesis-related proteins. Moreover, the protein-protein interaction network analysis indicated that an F-type ATPase and an alpha-1,4 glucan phosphorylase were the core nodes in the interactions of differentially accumulated proteins. Our study indicated that the infected citrus plants probably activated the non-unified and lagging enhancement of defense responses against L. asiaticus at the expense of photosynthesis and contribute to find out the key L. asiaticus-responsive genes for tolerance and resistance breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.656997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092123PMC
April 2021

An Engineered Protein Adhesive with Properties of Tissue Integration and Controlled Release for Efficient Cartilage Repair.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 May 5:e2100109. Epub 2021 May 5.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022, China.

Cartilage damage is a prevalent health concern among humans. The inertness of cartilage, the absence of self-healing properties, and the lack of appropriate repair materials that integrate into the tissue pose a significant challenge for cartilage repair. Thus, it is important to develop novel soft biomaterials with strong tissue adhesion and chondrogenic capabilities for cartilage repair. Herein, a new type of protein adhesive is reported that exhibits superior cartilage repair performance. The material is fabricated by the electrostatic combination of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and positively charged elastin-like protein, which is derived from natural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The adhesive showed robust adhesion properties on different tissue substrates, offering a favorable environment for cartilage tissue integration. Noncovalent bonding between CS molecules in the glue allows for its controlled release, which is required for efficient chondrogenic differentiation. When implanted into a rat model of cartilage defect, this protein adhesive exhibited beneficial healing effects, as evidenced by enhanced chondrogenesis, sufficient ECM production, and lateral integration. Therefore, this engineered protein complex is a promising candidate for translational application in the field of cartilage repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202100109DOI Listing
May 2021

Identification of an immune subtype predicting survival risk and immune activity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 3;13. Epub 2021 May 3.

Toxicology and Functional Laboratory, Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan 250014, Shandong, China.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) prolong the survival for advanced/metastatic patients with lung cancer or melanoma; however, for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, a durable response has not been reported. Herein, we used a total of 719 HCC patients with public genomic data to determine potential prognostic and immunogenic subtypes. The non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) method was applied to identify the immune classes and potential subtypes. The proportion of tumor infiltration immune cells was estimated using the CIBERSORT algorithm. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was utilized to calculate the dysregulated pathways. By using NMF analysis for the gene expression profile of the top immune genes, one HCC subtype with better survival (i.e., low-risk subtype) and another with worse survival (i.e., high-risk subtype) were identified in 3 HCC cohorts (all < 0.05). Better immune cell infiltration, increased enrichment of immune signatures, higher expression of checkpoints, and elevated tumor mutation load (TML) were significantly enriched in the low-risk subtype (all < 0.05). Higher mutation rates of immune response genes (e.g., and ) were also observed in the low-risk subtype (both < 0.05). Discovery of the HCC low-risk subtype might provide clues for HCC prognosis and immunotherapy prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202953DOI Listing
May 2021

Moiré superlattices and related moiré excitons in twisted van der Waals heterostructures.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Two-Dimensional Materials, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, China.

Recent advances in moiré superlattices and moiré excitons, such as quantum emission arrays, low-energy flat bands, and Mott insulators, have rapidly attracted attention in the fields of optoelectronics, materials, and energy research. The interlayer twist turns into a degree of freedom that alters the properties of the systems of materials, and the realization of moiré excitons also offers the feasibility of making artificial exciton crystals. Moreover, moiré excitons exhibit many exciting properties under the regulation of various external conditions, including spatial polarisation, alternating dipolar to alternating dipolar moments and gate-dependence to gate voltage dependence; all are pertinent to their applications in nano-photonics and quantum information. But the lag in theoretical development and the low-efficiency of processing technologies significantly limit the potential of moiré superlattice applications. In this review, we systematically summarise and discuss the recent progress in moiré superlattices and moiré excitons, and analyze the current challenges, and put forward relevant recommendations. There is no doubt that further research will lead to breakthroughs in their application and promote reforms and innovations in traditional solid-state physics and materials science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs01002bDOI Listing
May 2021

The role of biomechanical forces and MALAT1/miR-329-5p/PRIP signalling on glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Orthopedics, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, China.

Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (GIONFH) is a common orthopaedic disease. GIONFH primarily manifests clinically as hip pain in the early stages, followed by the collapse of the femoral head, narrowing of the hip joint space and damage to the acetabulum, resulting in severely impaired mobility. However, the pathogenesis of GIONFH is not clearly understood. Recently, biomechanical forces and non-coding RNAs have been suggested to play important roles in the pathogenesis of GIONFH. This study aimed to evaluate the role of biomechanical forced and non-coding RNAs in GIONFH. We utilized an in vivo, rat model of GIONFH and used MRI, μCT, GIONFH-TST (tail suspension test), GIONFH-treadmill, haematoxylin and eosin staining, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis to analyse the roles of biomechanical forces and non-coding RNAs in GIONFH. We used RAW264.7 cells and MC3T3E1 cells to verify the role of MALAT1/miR-329-5p/PRIP signalling using a dual luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that MALAT1 and PRIP were up-regulated in the femoral head tissues of GIONFH rats, RAW264.7 cells, and MC3T3E1 cells exposed to dexamethasone (Dex). Knockdown of MALAT1 decreased PRIP expression in rats and cultured cells and rescued glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head in rats. The dual luciferase reporter gene assay revealed a targeting relationship for MALAT1/miR-329-5p and miR-329-5p/PRIP in MC3T3E1 and RAW264.7 cells. In conclusion, MALAT1 played a vital role in the pathogenesis of GIONFH by binding to ('sponging') miR-329-5p to up-regulate PRIP. Also, biomechanical forces aggravated the pathogenesis of GIONFH through MALAT1/miR-329-5p/PRIP signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16510DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular Characterization of MHC Class I Genes in Four Species of the Family to Assess Genetic Diversity and Selection.

Biomed Res Int 2021 10;2021:5585687. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

In vertebrate animals, the molecules encoded by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play an essential role in the adaptive immunity. MHC class I deals with intracellular pathogens (virus) in birds. MHC class I diversity depends on the consequence of local and global environment selective pressure and gene flow. Here, we evaluated the MHC class I gene in four species of the family from a broad geographical area of northeast China. We isolated 77 MHC class I sequences, including 47 putatively functional sequences and 30 pseudosequences from 80 individuals. Using the method based on analysis of cloned amplicons ( = 25) for each species, we found two and seven MHC I sequences per individual indicating more than one MHC I locus identified in all sampled species. Results revealed an overall elevated genetic diversity at MHC class I, evidence of different selection patterns among the domains of PBR and non-PBR. Alleles are found to be divergent with overall polymorphic sites per species ranging between 58 and 70 (out of 291 sites). Moreover, transspecies alleles were evident due to convergent evolution or recent speciation for the genus. Phylogenetic relationships among MHC I show an intermingling of alleles clustering among the family rather than between other passerines. Pronounced MHC I gene diversity is essential for the existence of species. Our study signifies a valuable tool for the characterization of evolutionary relevant difference across a population of birds with high conservational concerns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5585687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055405PMC
April 2021