Publications by authors named "Bo Chen"

2,273 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of the effect of surgical nursing management in the control of nosocomial infection.

Minerva Surg 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Intravenous Drug Dispensing Center, Liyang People's Hospital, Liyang, China -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5691.21.09033-XDOI Listing
August 2021

Impact of ozone exposure on heart rate variability and stress hormones: A randomized-crossover study.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 26;421:126750. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education and NHC Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, Fudan University, P.O. Box 249,130 Dong-An Road, Shanghai 200032, China; Children's Hospital of Fudan University, National Center for Children's Health, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The biological mechanisms underlying the associations between atmospheric ozone exposure and adverse cardiometabolic outcomes are yet to be identified. Imbalanced autonomic nervous system (ANS) as well as activations of the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes are among possible early biological responses triggered by ozone, and may eventually lead to cardiometabolic abnormalities. To determine whether acute ozone exposure causes ANS imbalance and increases the secretion of neuroendocrine stress hormones, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, under controlled 2-hour exposure to either ozone (200 ppb) or clean air with intermittent exercise among 22 healthy young adults. Here we found that, compared to clean air exposure, acute ozone exposure significantly decreased the high-frequency band of heart rate variability, even after adjusting for heart rate and pre-exposure to ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors. Ozone exposure also significantly increased the serum levels of stress hormones, including corticotrophin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. Metabolomics analysis showed that acute ozone exposure led to alterations in stress hormones, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Our results suggest that acute ozone exposure may trigger ANS imbalance and activate the HPA and SAM axes, offering potential biological explanations for the adverse cardiometabolic effects following acute ozone exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126750DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of dietary inflammatory potential with risk of overall and cause-specific mortality.

Br J Nutr 2021 Aug 2:1-27. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Inflammation is a central mechanism in metabolic disorders associated with morbidity and mortality and dietary factors can modulate inflammation. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between an empirically-developed, food-based dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score and the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality, using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2014. EDIP score was derived by entering 39 predefined commonly consumed food groups into the reduced rank regression models followed by stepwise linear regression, which was most predictive of 2 plasma inflammation biomarkers including C-reactive protein and white blood cell count among 25 500 US adults. This score was further validated in a testing set of 9466 adults. Deaths from baseline until December 31, 2015 were identified through record linkage to the National Death Index. During a median follow-up of 7.8 years among 40 074 participants, we documented 4904 deaths. Compared to participants in the lowest quintile of EDIP score, those in the highest quintile had a higher risk of overall death (HR=1.19, 95%CI: 1.08-1.32, Ptrend= 0.002), and deaths from cancer (HR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.14-1.74, Ptrend= 0.017) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=1.22, 95%CI: 0.98-1.53, Ptrend= 0.211). When stratified by age, the association of EDIP with overall mortality was stronger among individuals under 65 years of age (Pinteraction= 0.001). Diets with a higher inflammatory potential were associated with increased risk of overall and cancer-specific mortality. Interventions to reduce the adverse effect of pro-inflammatory diets may potentially promote health and longevity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521002907DOI Listing
August 2021

Patient-reported outcome measures and clinical outcomes following peri-implant vestibuloplasty with a free gingival graft versus xenogeneic collagen matrix: a comparative prospective clinical study.

Int J Implant Dent 2021 Aug 2;7(1):69. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Oral Implantology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Center of Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology & Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology & Research Center of Engineering and Technology for Computerized Dentistry Ministry of Health & NMPA Key Laboratory for Dental Materials, No.22 Zhongguancun South Avenue, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081, People's Republic of China.

Background: The objective of this study was to compare patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and clinical outcomes after augmentation with xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM) or free gingival graft (FGG) during different postoperative phases.

Methods: Forty-two patients (21 per group) with keratinized mucosa width (KMW) of < 2 mm at buccal implant sites in the posterior mandible were enrolled. All underwent vestibuloplasty and were allocated to either FGG (control) or XCM (test) group. Intraoperative morbidity of pain, stress, nausea, tolerance to time, and acceptance of surgery were evaluated immediately after surgery. The severity and duration of subjective pain, swelling, and bleeding were compared within a 2-week postoperative period. The willingness to retreat and satisfaction were assessed at 6 months. All PROMs were obtained using questionnaires and visual analog scales. The buccal KMW and other peri-implant parameters were also evaluated.

Results: No significant between-group differences were observed in PROMs immediately after surgery, except acceptance of surgery (0, 0-30.0 vs. 30, 0-50.0, p = 0.025). At 2 weeks, pain severity (46.7 ± 25.9 vs 61.9 ± 20.2, p = 0.040) and duration (5.52 ± 3.57 vs 8.48 ± 2.80, p = 0.005) were significantly lower in the test group, and pain perception during speaking and chewing was significantly higher for FGG, with no significant between-group differences in swelling and bleeding. At 6 months, the test group showed a higher willingness to retreat (76% vs 43%, p = 0.021); however, satisfaction with treatment outcomes was similar in both groups. At 6 months, the gain of KMW was significantly higher in FGG than in XCM (XCM: 1.57 ± 1.69 mm, FGG: 2.68 ± 1.80 mm, p = 0.003). Other peri-implant parameters did not show significant differences.

Conclusions: Within the limitation of the present nonrandomized study, XCM demonstrated more positive PROMs than FGG during different postoperative phases, mainly for less pain perception during the early healing stage, but was inferior to FGG in terms of gain of KMW. For KMW augmentation in the posterior mandible, XCM may be indicated when patients can bear little pain.

Clinical Trial Registration: ChiCTR1900022575 , date of registration: 17/4/2019, retrospectively registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40729-021-00356-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Abnormal Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients With Depression Symptoms Revealed by Resting-State fMRI.

Front Psychiatry 2021 15;12:533428. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Convergent evidence indicates that individuals with symptoms of depression exhibit altered functional connectivity (FC) of the amygdala, which is a key brain region in processing emotions. At present, the characteristics of amygdala functional circuits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with and without depression are not clear. The current study examined the features of amygdala FC in patients with MCI with depression symptoms (D-MCI) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 16 patients with D-MCI, 18 patients with MCI with no depression (nD-MCI), and 20 healthy controls (HCs) using a 3T scanner and compared the strength of amygdala FC between the three groups. Patients with D-MCI exhibited significant FC differences in the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala-sensorimotor networks. These results suggest that the dysfunction of the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex network and the amygdala-sensorimotor network might be involved in the neural mechanism underlying depression in MCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.533428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319717PMC
July 2021

Effect of Tumor Location on the Risk of Bilateral Central Lymph Node Metastasis in Unilateral 1-4 cm Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 20;13:5803-5812. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Thyroid Surgery, General Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has a high incidence of lymph node metastasis (LNM). Our aim was to determine whether tumor location is a useful feature to predict bilateral central lymph node metastasis (CLNM) in unilateral 1-4 cm PTC.

Patients And Methods: Data on unilateral 1-4 cm PTC patients from 2016 to 2019 were collected retrospectively. The clinical and pathological characteristics of the tumors and lymph nodes were analyzed statistically.

Results: The mean patient age was 49.1±12.3 (23-73) years, and the majority were women (n=1334, 75.4%). A total of 1767 patients were analyzed, and 256 (14.5%) had bilateral CLNM. Tumor location was an independent risk factor in predicting bilateral CLNM (p<0.001). The odds of bilateral CLNM were the highest in the near isthmus (OR 6.452, 95% CI: 3.658-11.379, p<0.001). In a multivariate regression model adjusting for other risk factors, near-isthmus tumors had the highest risk of bilateral CLNM (OR 7.319, 95% CI: 3.844-13.933, p<0.001), followed by lower lobe tumors (OR 2.338, 95% CI: 1.315-4.155, p=0.004) and middle lobe tumors (OR 1.845, 95% CI: 1.035-3.291, p=0.038), compared to upper lobe tumors.

Conclusion: Tumor location is an independent risk factor in predicting the risk of bilateral CLNM. Near-isthmus tumors carry the highest risk of bilateral CLNM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S318076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312608PMC
July 2021

Human CD206+ Macrophages Show Antifibrotic Effects on Human Fibroblasts via an IL-6-Dependent Mechanism In Vitro.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Plastic Surgery Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Beijing, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000008245DOI Listing
July 2021

Mesoscopic Simulation for the Effect of Cross-Linking Reactions on the Drug Diffusion Properties in Microneedles.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, P.R. China.

The drug diffusion issue in microneedles is the focus of its medical application. It will not only affect the distribution of drugs in the needle body but will also have an impact on the drug release performance of the microneedle. The utilization of cross-linked polymer materials to obtain the drug diffusion control has been experimentally verified as a feasible method. However, the mechanism research on the molecular level is still incomplete. In this study, the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation has been applied to study the effect of the cross-linking reaction on drug diffusion in hyaluronic acid microneedles. We have discovered that when the cross-linking degree reaches 90%, the diffusion coefficient of the drug is 6.45 times lower than that of the uncross-linked system. The main reason for the decline in drug diffusion ability is that the cross-linking reaction varies the conformation of the polymer. The amplification in the cross-linking degree makes the polymer coils more compact and approach each other, finally forming a continuously distributed cross-linked network, which reduces its degradation rate in the body. Simultaneously, these cross-linked networks can also hinder the interaction of soluble drugs with water, thereby preventing the premature release of drugs. The simulation results are consistent with the data collected in the previous microneedle experiment. This work will be an extension of DPD simulation in the application of biological materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.1c00444DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical practice guideline for diagnosis and treatment of hyperplasia of the mammary glands: Chinese Society of Breast Surgery (CSBrS) practice guideline 2021.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001, China Department of Breast Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian 350001, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001521DOI Listing
July 2021

Fulvic acid enhances drought resistance in tea plants by regulating the starch and sucrose metabolism and certain secondary metabolism.

J Proteomics 2021 Jul 21;247:104337. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Tea Research Institute, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Rizhao, Shandong, China; Tea Research Institute, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

The aim of this work was to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of fulvic acid on drought-exposed tea plants. We performed proteomic analysis of fulvic acid-treated tea leaves from the target plants using tandem mass tag quantitative labeling technology and compared the results with those of a previous transcriptomic analysis. We identified 48 and 611 differentially abundant proteins in the leaves of tea plants treated with fulvic acid compared with the control under mild and severe drought, respectively. Comparative analysis showed that, under severe drought, 55 genes had similar expression patterns at the transcriptome and proteome levels, such as PAL, GBE, GBSS and bAS. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that those genes were mainly related to the starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and triterpenoid biosynthesis. SIGNIFICANCE: This study broadens the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the improved drought resistance seen in tea plants in the presence of fulvic acid and provides a basis for further research on the genomics of drought tolerance in these plants. In addition, these findings could be used to develop new guidance strategies for improved drought management systems in tea plantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2021.104337DOI Listing
July 2021

Preservation of vision after CaMKII-mediated protection of retinal ganglion cells.

Cell 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Cell, Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address:

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the sole output neurons that transmit visual information from the retina to the brain. Diverse insults and pathological states cause degeneration of RGC somas and axons leading to irreversible vision loss. A fundamental question is whether manipulation of a key regulator of RGC survival can protect RGCs from diverse insults and pathological states, and ultimately preserve vision. Here, we report that CaMKII-CREB signaling is compromised after excitotoxic injury to RGC somas or optic nerve injury to RGC axons, and reactivation of this pathway robustly protects RGCs from both injuries. CaMKII activity also promotes RGC survival in the normal retina. Further, reactivation of CaMKII protects RGCs in two glaucoma models where RGCs degenerate from elevated intraocular pressure or genetic deficiency. Last, CaMKII reactivation protects long-distance RGC axon projections in vivo and preserves visual function, from the retina to the visual cortex, and visually guided behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.031DOI Listing
July 2021

CD14 Involvement in Third-degree Skin Burn-induced Myocardial Injury via the MAPK Signaling Pathway.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

The Department of Plastic and Burn Surgery, Shenzhen Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, China.

This study investigated the potential genes and related pathways in burn-induced myocardial injury. Rat myocardial injury induced by third-degree burn and the histopathological structures, apoptosis, and cardiac injury markers were then identified using hematoxylin & eosin staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Next, differentially expressed mRNAs were screened through next-generation sequencing (NGS), followed by functional annotation and key gene validation through quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, CD14 was screened out, and small interfering RNAs against CD14 were transfected to H9C2 cells to further verify the role of CD14 in burn-induced injury. The results showed that third-degree burn could markedly damage the structure of myocardial tissue, induce the apoptosis of myocardial cells, and increase the levels of myocardial injury-related markers, suggesting that burns could induce myocardial injury in rats. Besides, NGS data discovered that third-degree burn could result in 416 differentially upregulated mRNAs and 285 differentially downregulated mRNAs in myocardial tissue. It was also disclosed that differentially expressed mRNAs were mainly enriched in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and tumor necrosis factor signaling pathways. Furthermore, cell viability was significantly decreased in H9C2 cells treated with 10% rat burn serum. CD14 was significantly differentially expressed and screened out for further studies. Treatment with burn serum can significantly upregulate the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and downregulate the expression of Bcl2 when compared with those in negative control of small interfering RNA transfected H9C2 cells, whereas interfering with CD14 expression reversed the effects of burn serum. The study demonstrated that burn serum treatment could activate the MAPK signaling pathway to promote cell apoptosis, and it can be reversed by interfering with the expression of CD14.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12013-021-00995-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Frailty Pathogenesis, Assessment, and Management in Older Adults With COVID-19.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 6;8:694367. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Geriatrics, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly contagious and deadly disease. The elderly people are often accompanied by chronic inflammation and immunodeficiency, showing a frail state. The strength, endurance, and physiological function of the elderly are significantly decreased, and the ability to deal with stress response is weakened. They are the high-risk group that suffering from COVID-19, and rapidly developing to critical illness. Several recent studies suggest that the incidence rate of COVID-19 in elderly patients with frailty is high. Early assessment, detection, and effective intervention of frailty in COVID-19 patients are conducive to significantly improve the quality of life and improve prognosis. However, there are insufficient understanding and standards for the current evaluation methods, pathogenesis and intervention measures for COVID-19 combined with frailty. This study reviews the progress of the research on the potential pathogenesis, evaluation methods and intervention measures of the elderly COVID-19 patients with frailty, which provides a reference for scientific and reasonable comprehensive diagnosis and treatment in clinical.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.694367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290059PMC
July 2021

Hydrogen-Intercalation-Induced Lattice Expansion of [email protected] Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Electrocatalytic Alcohol Oxidation.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 19;143(29):11262-11270. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Lattice engineering on specific facets of metal catalysts is critically important not only for the enhancement of their catalytic performance but also for deeply understanding the effect of facet-based lattice engineering on catalytic reactions. Here, we develop a facile two-step method for the lattice expansion on specific facets, i.e., Pt(100) and Pt(111), of Pt catalysts. We first prepare the [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles exposed with the Pt(100) and Pt(111) facets, respectively, via the Pd-seeded epitaxial growth, and then convert the Pd core to PdH by hydrogen intercalation. The lattice expansion of the Pd core induces the lattice enlargement of the Pt shell, which can significantly promote the alcohol oxidation reaction (AOR) on both Pt(100) and Pt(111) facets. Impressively, Pt mass specific activities of 32.51 A mg for methanol oxidation and 14.86 A mg for ethanol oxidation, which are 41.15 and 25.19 times those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst, respectively, have been achieved on the Pt(111) facet. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the remarkably improved catalytic performance on both the Pt(100) and the Pt(111) facets through lattice expansion arises from the enhanced OH adsorption. This work not only paves the way for lattice engineering on specific facets of nanomaterials to enhance their electrocatalytic activity but also offers a promising strategy toward the rational design and preparation of highly efficient catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c05856DOI Listing
July 2021

United adversarial learning for liver tumor segmentation and detection of multi-modality non-contrast MRI.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jun 29;73:102154. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Medical Imaging, Western University, London, ON, Canada; Digital Imaging Group of London, London, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Simultaneous segmentation and detection of liver tumors (hemangioma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)) by using multi-modality non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (NCMRI) are crucial for the clinical diagnosis. However, it is still a challenging task due to: (1) the HCC information on NCMRI is insufficient makes extraction of liver tumors feature difficult; (2) diverse imaging characteristics in multi-modality NCMRI causes feature fusion and selection difficult; (3) no specific information between hemangioma and HCC on NCMRI cause liver tumors detection difficult. In this study, we propose a united adversarial learning framework (UAL) for simultaneous liver tumors segmentation and detection using multi-modality NCMRI. The UAL first utilizes a multi-view aware encoder to extract multi-modality NCMRI information for liver tumor segmentation and detection. In this encoder, a novel edge dissimilarity feature pyramid module is designed to facilitate the complementary multi-modality feature extraction. Secondly, the newly designed fusion and selection channel is used to fuse the multi-modality feature and make the decision of the feature selection. Then, the proposed mechanism of coordinate sharing with padding integrates the multi-task of segmentation and detection so that it enables multi-task to perform united adversarial learning in one discriminator. Lastly, an innovative multi-phase radiomics guided discriminator exploits the clear and specific tumor information to improve the multi-task performance via the adversarial learning strategy. The UAL is validated in corresponding multi-modality NCMRI (i.e. T1FS pre-contrast MRI, T2FS MRI, and DWI) and three phases contrast-enhanced MRI of 255 clinical subjects. The experiments show that UAL gains high performance with the dice similarity coefficient of 83.63%, the pixel accuracy of 97.75%, the intersection-over-union of 81.30%, the sensitivity of 92.13%, the specificity of 93.75%, and the detection accuracy of 92.94%, which demonstrate that UAL has great potential in the clinical diagnosis of liver tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2021.102154DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of LIPH as an unfavorable biomarkers correlated with immune suppression or evasion in pancreatic cancer based on RNA-seq.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of General Surgery, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 106 Zhongshan Er Road, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Background: It is widely considered that pancreatic cancer (PC) is an immunosuppressive cancer. Immune-based therapies remain promising therapeutic strategies for PC. Overexpression of lipase H (LIPH) was reported to be related to immunity in cattle and has also been demonstrated to promote tumor progression in several tumors, but its role in pancreatic carcinogenesis remains unclear. Study on LIPH in PC might provide a new insight into the immunosuppression in PC.

Methods: The potential biological and clinical significance of LIPH was evaluated by bioinformatics analysis. We further investigated potential associations between the expression of LIPH and tumor immune infiltration using the CIBERSORT algorithm, the ESTIMAT algorithm, and single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA).

Results: LIPH was significantly overexpressed in tumor tissues compared with normal tissues. LIPH overexpression correlated with tumor recurrence, advanced histologic grade, and poorer overall survival (OS). Four of the most common somatic mutation, including KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4, in PC were all correlated with high LIPH expression. And high LIPH expression was significantly correlated with KRAS activation and SMAD4 inactivation. Besides, LIPH expression was involved in various biological pathways such as negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion, actin cytoskeleton, EMT, angiogenesis, and signaling by MST1. And LIPH overexpression caused high infiltration of TAMs, Treg cells, and Th2/Th1, but reduced the infiltration of CD8 T cells and Th1 cells.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that LIPH correlated with immune suppression or evasion and may function as a novel unfavorable prognostic biomarker in PC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-021-03019-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate renal fibrosis by galectin-3/Akt/GSK3β/Snail signaling pathway in adenine-induced nephropathy rat.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 07 16;12(1):409. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Human Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest Medical University, No.1, Section 1, Lingxiang Road, Matan Long District, Luzhou, Sichuan, People's Republic of China, 646000.

Background: Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is one of the main pathological features of various progressive renal damages and chronic kidney diseases. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been verified with significant improvement in the therapy of fibrosis diseases, but the mechanism is still unclear. We attempted to explore the new mechanism and therapeutic target of MSCs against renal fibrosis based on renal proteomics.

Methods: TIF model was induced by adenine gavage. Bone marrow-derived MSCs was injected by tail vein after modeling. Renal function and fibrosis related parameters were assessed by Masson, Sirius red, immunohistochemistry, and western blot. Renal proteomics was analyzed using iTRAQ-based mass spectrometry. Further possible mechanism was explored by transfected galectin-3 gene for knockdown (Gal-3 KD) and overexpression (Gal-3 OE) in HK-2 cells with lentiviral vector.

Results: MSCs treatment clearly decreased the expression of α-SMA, collagen type I, II, III, TGF-β1, Kim-1, p-Smad2/3, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα compared with model rats, while p38 MAPK increased. Proteomics showed that only 40 proteins exhibited significant differences (30 upregulated, 10 downregulated) compared MSCs group with the model group. Galectin-3 was downregulated significantly in renal tissues and TGF-β1-induced rat tubular epithelial cells and interstitial fibroblasts, consistent with the iTRAQ results. Gal-3 KD notably inhibited the expression of p-Akt, p-GSK3β and snail in TGF-β1-induced HK-2 cells fibrosis. On the contrary, Gal-3 OE obviously increased the expression of p-Akt, p-GSK3β and snail.

Conclusion: The mechanism of MSCs anti-renal fibrosis was probably mediated by galectin-3/Akt/GSK3β/Snail signaling pathway. Galectin-3 may be a valuable target for treating renal fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02429-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283866PMC
July 2021

Two-Target Quantitative PCR To Predict Library Composition for Shallow Shotgun Sequencing.

mSystems 2021 Jul 13:e0055221. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Medicine, University of Torontogrid.17063.33, Toronto, Canada.

When determining human microbiota composition, shotgun sequencing is a powerful tool that can generate high-resolution taxonomic and functional information at once. However, the technique is limited by missing information about host-to-microbe ratios observed in different body compartments. This limitation makes it difficult to plan shotgun sequencing assays, especially in the context of high sample multiplexing and limited sequencing output and is of particular importance for studies employing the recently described shallow shotgun sequencing technique. In this study, we evaluated the use of a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based assay to predict host-to-microbe ratio prior to sequencing. Combining a two-target assay involving the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the human beta-actin gene, we derived a model to predict human-to-microbe ratios from two sample types, including stool samples and oropharyngeal swabs. We then validated it on two independently collected sample types, including rectal swabs and vaginal secretion samples. This assay enabled accurate prediction in the validation set in a range of sample compositions between 4% and 98% nonhuman reads and observed proportions varied between -18.8% and +19.2% from the expected values. We hope that this easy-to-use assay will help researchers to plan their shotgun sequencing experiments in a more efficient way. When determining human microbiota composition, shotgun sequencing is a powerful tool that can generate large amounts of data. However, in sample compositions with low or variable microbial density, shallowing sequencing can negatively affect microbial community metrics. Here, we show that variable sequencing depth decreases measured alpha diversity at differing rates based on community composition. We then derived a model that can determine sample composition prior to sequencing using quantitative PCR (qPCR) data and validated the model using a separate sample set. We have included a tool that uses this model to be available for researchers to use when gauging shallow sequencing viability of samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00552-21DOI Listing
July 2021

A New Prognostic Risk Signature of Eight Ferroptosis-Related Genes in the Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:700084. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common renal cell carcinoma and has poor prognosis in the locally advanced stage. Ferroptosis, a relatively new type of cell death, has gained significant attention in recent years. This study aimed to explore the prognostic value of ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs) in ccRCC. In this study, 50 differentially expressed FRGs between ccRCC and adjacent normal kidney tissues were identified, 26 of them correlated with overall survival (OS) (0.05). Eight optimal FRGs were selected by Lasso regression and multivariate Cox regression analysis, and used to construct a new prognostic risk signature to predict the prognosis of ccRCC patients. In addition, the signature passed the validation of prognostic survival analyses by a significant margin, and the risk score was identified as an independent prognostic marker Cox regression analyses. Further studies indicated that the signature was significantly correlated with immune cell infiltration. Moreover, the levels of eight FRGs were examined in ccRCC. Collectively, the 8-FRG prognostic risk signature helps the clinicians predict the prognosis and OS of the patients, and standardize prognostic assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.700084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267866PMC
June 2021

DWI and IVIM Imaging in a Murine Model of Rhabdomyosarcoma: Correlations with Quantitative Histopathologic Features.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Radiology, The Second Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Background: High cellularity and abnormal interstitial structures are some of the unfavorable factors that affect the treatment outcomes and survival of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) patients.

Purpose: To explore the correlation between diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) with quantitative histopathologic features in a murine model of RMS.

Study Type: Prospective.

Animal Model: Murine model of RMS (31 female BALB/c nude mice).

Field Strength/sequence: 3.0 T; fast spin-echo (FSE) T1-weighted imaging, fast relaxation fast spin-echo (FRFSE) T2-weighted imaging, DWI PROPELLER FSE imaging sequence, and IVIM echo planar imaging sequence; 10 different b-values (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 s/mm ).

Assessment: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed after 30-45 days of implantation. The following MRI parameters were calculated: apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f). Histopathologic features, which contained nuclear, cytoplasmic, and stromal fractions, and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio within the tumor were measured using image-based segmentation.

Statistical Tests: Pearson's correlation, multiple linear regression analysis, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The ADC value showed moderate negative correlation with nuclear fraction (r = -0.540), and moderate positive correlation with stroma fraction (r = 0.474). The D value showed moderate negative correlation with nuclear fraction (r = -0.491), and moderate positive correlation with stroma fraction (r = 0.421). The f value showed a moderate negative correlation with stroma fraction (r = -0.423). The D value showed the best diagnostic ability. The optimal cut-off D value of 0.460 was associated with 77.8% sensitivity and 68.2% specificity (area under the curve, 0.747).

Data Conclusion: The ADC, D, and f values obtained from DWI and IVIM images showed moderate correlation with the quantitative histopathologic features in a murine model of RMS.

Level Of Evidence: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27828DOI Listing
July 2021

Neurite Extension and Orientation of Spiral Ganglion Neurons Can Be Directed by Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in a Magnetic Field.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 2;16:4515-4526. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Jiangsu Province High-Tech Key Laboratory for Bio-Medical Research, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Neuroregeneration is a major challenge in neuroscience for treating degenerative diseases and for repairing injured nerves. Numerous studies have shown the importance of physical stimulation for neuronal growth and development, and here we report an approach for the physical guidance of neuron orientation and neurite growth using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and magnetic fields (MFs).

Methods: SPIO nanoparticles were synthesized by classic chemical co-precipitation methods and then characterized by transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The cytotoxicity of the prepared SPIO nanoparticles and MF was determined using CCK-8 assay and LIVE/DEAD assay. The immunofluorescence images were captured by a laser scanning confocal microscopy. Cell migration was evaluated using the wound healing assay.

Results: The prepared SPIO nanoparticles showed a narrow size distribution, low cytotoxicity, and superparamagnetism. SPIO nanoparticles coated with poly-L-lysine could be internalized by spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and showed no cytotoxicity at concentrations less than 300 µg/mL. The neurite extension of SGNs was promoted after internalizing SPIO nanoparticles with or without an external MF, and this might be due to the promotion of growth cone development. It was also confirmed that SPIO can regulate cell migration and can direct neurite outgrowth in SGNs preferentially along the direction imposed by an external MF.

Conclusion: Our results provide a fundamental understanding of the regulation of cell behaviors under physical cues and suggest alternative treatments for sensorineural hearing loss caused by the degeneration of SGNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S313673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259836PMC
July 2021

Giant Enhancement of Continuous Wave Second Harmonic Generation from Few-Layer GaSe Coupled to High- Quasi Bound States in the Continuum.

Nano Lett 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials such as GaSe recently have emerged as novel nonlinear optical materials with exceptional properties. Although exhibiting large nonlinear susceptibilities, the nonlinear responses of 2D materials are generally limited by the short interaction lengths with light, thus further enhancement via resonant photonic nanostructures is highly desired for building high-efficiency nonlinear devices. Here, we demonstrate a giant second-harmonic generation (SHG) enhancement by coupling 2D GaSe flakes to silicon metasurfaces supporting quasi-bound states in the continuum (quasi-BICs) under continuous-wave (CW) operation. Taking advantage of both high-quality factors and large mode areas of quasi-BICs, SHG from a GaSe flake is uniformly enhanced by nearly 4 orders of magnitude, which is promising for high-power coherent light sources. Our work provides an effective approach for enhancing nonlinear optical processes in 2D materials within the framework of silicon photonics, which also brings second-order nonlinearity associated with 2D materials to silicon photonic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01975DOI Listing
July 2021

[Simultaneous determination of three quaternary ammonium muscle relaxants in blood by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

Se Pu 2021 Jul;39(7):695-701

State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian, Beijing 102205, China.

Vecuronium, rocuronium, and pancuronium are widely used as non-depolarizing muscle relaxants. There have been occasional cases of allergic reactions and even death when using such muscle relaxants. Rapid determination of the concentration of these muscle relaxants in blood can provide valuable information for early clinical diagnosis. As quaternary ammonium compounds, these muscle relaxants are highly polar. Hence, they cannot be retained effectively on reversed-phase chromatographic columns with conventional mobile phases. These quaternary ammonium muscle relaxants are mainly separated by ion-pair chromatography. Using an ion-pairing reagent can help improve the retention capabilities of quaternary ammonium muscle relaxants. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of MS detection is significantly decreased because of ionic inhibition caused by the ion-pairing reagent in the mobile phase. Furthermore, ion-pairing reagents can pollute the MS system. A method based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of the three quaternary ammonium muscle relaxants in blood. The blood samples were diluted and subjected to high-speed centrifugation. The supernatant was purified on a Bond Elut AL-N solid phase extraction column and then filtered through a 0.45 μm microporous membrane. The quaternary ammonium muscle relaxants were separated on a ZIC-cHILIC analytical column (50 mm×2.1 mm, 3.0 μm) with gradient elution. Acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution were used as mobile phases. The separated compounds were analyzed by tandem MS with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. The matrix effects of vecuronium, rocuronium, and pancuronium in blood were 88.1% to 95.4%. The calibration curves for vecuronium, rocuronium, and pancuronium showed good linear relationships in each range, and all correlation coefficients () were > 0.996. The limits of detection of vecuronium, rocuronium, and pancuronium were 0.2-0.8 ng/mL, with the corresponding limits of quantification being 0.5-2.0 ng/mL. The recoveries of vecuronium, rocuronium, and pancuronium were 92.8% to 110.6%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.2%-9.4%. This method is sensitive, accurate, and easy to operate, and it can be used to rapidly determine vecuronium, rocuronium, and pancuronium in blood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2020.09020DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinicopathological and prognostic study of IgA-dominant postinfectious glomerulonephritis.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Jul 5;22(1):248. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Nanbaixiang, Ouhai District, Zhejiang, 325000, Wenzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: The clinicopathological and prognostic features of IgA-dominant postinfectious glomerulonephritis and its difference from the primary IgA nephropathy remains to be investigated.

Methods: The clinical and pathological data of 6542 patients who underwent renal biopsy from 2009 to 2020 in our hospital were reviewed and 50 patients who met the selection criteria of IgA-dominant postinfectious glomerulonephritis were enrolled to conduct a retrospective and observational single-center study. The selection criteria were: meet the characteristics of IgA dominance or codominance in immunofluorescence, and conform to 3 of the following 5 criteria: 1.Clinical or laboratory evidence show that there is infection before or at the onset of glomerulonephritis; 2.The level of serum complement decreased; 3.Renal pathology is consistent with endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis; 4. Glomerular immunofluorescence staining showed complement C3 dominance or codominance; 5. Hump-like subepithelial immune complex deposition was observed under electron microscopy. According to age, sex, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) and follow-up time, the control group was constructed with 1:3 matched cases of primary IgA nephropathy. The clinicopathological and prognostic differences between the two groups were analyzed.

Results: The most common histological pattern of IgA-dominant postinfectious glomerulonephritis was acute endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis and exudative glomerulonephritis. Immunofluorescence showed mainly IgA deposition or IgA deposition only, mainly deposited in the mesangial area (deposition rate 100 %), with typical C3 high-intensity staining (intensity++~+++), mainly deposited in the mesangial area (deposition rate 92.0 %). The fluorescence intensity of kappa is usually not weaker than lambda. The probability of the appearance of typical hump-like electron deposition under electron microscopy is low. Compared to primary IgA nephropathy, patients with IgA-dominant postinfectious glomerulonephritis had higher proportion of crescents (p = 0. 005) and endocapillary hypercellularity (p < 0.001) in pathological manifestations. Using serum creatinine level doubled of the baseline or reached end-stage renal disease as the endpoint, the prognosis of IgA-dominant postinfectious glomerulonephritis patients was worse than that of primary IgA nephropathy patients (p = 0.013).

Conclusions: The clinicopathological features of patients with IgA-dominant postinfectious glomerulonephritis was different from that of primary IgA nephropathy, and the prognosis was worse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-021-02462-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256496PMC
July 2021

The X factor: A robust and powerful approach to X-chromosome-inclusive whole-genome association studies.

Genet Epidemiol 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The X-chromosome is often excluded from genome-wide association studies because of analytical challenges. Some of the problems, such as the random, skewed, or no X-inactivation model uncertainty, have been investigated. Other considerations have received little to no attention, such as the value in considering nonadditive and gene-sex interaction effects, and the inferential consequence of choosing different baseline alleles (i.e., the reference vs. the alternative allele). Here we propose a unified and flexible regression-based association test for X-chromosomal variants. We provide theoretical justifications for its robustness in the presence of various model uncertainties, as well as for its improved power when compared with the existing approaches under certain scenarios. For completeness, we also revisit the autosomes and show that the proposed framework leads to a more robust approach than the standard method. Finally, we provide supporting evidence by revisiting several published association studies. Supporting Information for this article are available online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22422DOI Listing
July 2021

Prognostic Nomogram for Patients With Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma of Pancreatic Head After Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Clin Med Insights Oncol 2021 18;15:11795549211024149. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of General Surgery, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The prognosis of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) of pancreatic head remains poor, even after potentially curative R0 resection. The aim of this study was to develop an accurate model to predict patients' prognosis for PDAC of pancreatic head following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 112 patients with PDAC of pancreatic head after pancreaticoduodenectomy in Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital between 2014 and 2018.

Results: Five prognostic factors were identified using univariate Cox regression analysis, including age, histologic grade, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage 8th, total bilirubin (TBIL), CA19-9. Using all subset analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis, we developed a nomogram consisted of age, AJCC Stage 8th, perineural invasion, TBIL, and CA19-9, which had higher C-indexes for OS (0.73) and RFS (0.69) compared with AJCC Stage 8th alone (OS: 0.66; RFS: 0.67). The area under the curve (AUC) values of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the nomogram for OS and RFS were significantly higher than other single parameter, which are AJCC Stage 8th, age, perineural invasion, TBIL, and CA19-9. Importantly, our nomogram displayed higher C-index for OS than previous reported models, indicating a better predictive value of our model.

Conclusions: A simple and practical nomogram for patient prognosis in PDAC of pancreatic head following pancreaticoduodenectomy was established, which shows satisfactory predictive efficacy and deserves further evaluation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11795549211024149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216341PMC
June 2021

Association between Mobile Phone Addiction Index and Sugar-Sweetened Food Intake in Medical College Students Stratified by Sex from Shanghai, China.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 30;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

This study's objective was to depict sugar-sweetened food (SSF) consumption in medical college students stratified by sex from Shanghai, China, and to explore the association between the Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) and SSF intake. The data were obtained from 1121 medical college students from the Fudan University, Shanghai, China, who took an online questionnaire investigation in December 2020. Data included demographics, the MPAI, the Nutrition Literacy Assessment Questionnaire (NLAQ), total and food expenditure per month, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and a food frequency questionnaire (carbonated beverages (CB), other sugar-based beverages (OSBB), sugar/chocolate). We evaluated the association between the MPAI and three types of SSF intake according to multivariate logistic regression analysis stratified by sex. The mean CB, OSBB, and sugar/chocolate intakes were, respectively, 65.66 mL/d, 74.20 mL/d, and 4.96 g/d in men and 30.42 mL/d, 71.48 mL/d, and 4.99 g/d in women. The MPAI was positively associated with SSF intake, regardless of sex. In men, the CB and OSBB odds ratios (ORs) were, respectively, 1.023 (95% CI: 1.004-1.042), 1.019 (95% CI: 1.001-1.038); and in women, the CB, OSBB, and sugar/chocolate ORs were, respectively, 1.026 (95% CI: 1.013-1.039), 1.020 (95% CI: 1.007-1.033), and 1.019 (95% CI: 1.006-1.032). Age, NLAQ, total expenditure, food expenditure, and total physical activity also were related to SSF intake. Age and the application capacity of the NLAQ were negatively associated with SSF intake, whereas comprehension capacity of the NLAQ, total and food expenditure, and total physical activity were positively associated with SSF intake. This study confirmed that SSF intake is widespread among medical college students from Shanghai, China, even if they have relatively high nutrition health literacy. From a public health perspective, it is necessary to reduce SSF intake in medical college students by decreasing the MPAI, controlling the total and food expenditure per month in high-consumption areas, and improving the application ability of the NLAQ. Further studies are needed to explore the MPAI and other potential factors that may influence SSF intake of college students by expanding the sample size of college students throughout China, and the causal association between them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13072256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308374PMC
June 2021

Ultra-Structural Imaging Provides 3D Organization of 46 Chromosomes of a Human Lymphocyte Prophase Nucleus.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 1;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Centre for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Aga Khan University, Karachi 74800, Pakistan.

Three dimensional (3D) ultra-structural imaging is an important tool for unraveling the organizational structure of individual chromosomes at various stages of the cell cycle. Performing hitherto uninvestigated ultra-structural analysis of the human genome at prophase, we used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) to understand chromosomal architectural organization within 3D nuclear space. Acquired images allowed us to segment, reconstruct, and extract quantitative 3D structural information about the prophase nucleus and the preserved, intact individual chromosomes within it. Our data demonstrate that each chromosome can be identified with its homolog and classified into respective cytogenetic groups. Thereby, we present the first 3D karyotype built from the compact axial structure seen on the core of all prophase chromosomes. The chromosomes display parallel-aligned sister chromatids with familiar chromosome morphologies with no crossovers. Furthermore, the spatial positions of all 46 chromosomes revealed a pattern showing a gene density-based correlation and a neighborhood map of individual chromosomes based on their relative spatial positioning. A comprehensive picture of 3D chromosomal organization at the nanometer level in a single human lymphocyte cell is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198510PMC
June 2021

Spatio-temporal evolution and mechanism of regional innovation efficiency: Evidence from Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration of China.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(7):e0253598. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, Institute of Urban Development, School of Urban & Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Regional innovation is an important research topic in economic geography, the spatio-temporal evolution and mechanism of regional innovation efficiency have recently become a hot for economic geographers. From the perspective of input and output efficiency, this paper constructs evaluation indicator of regional innovation, with the help of Constant Returns to Scale (CRS) and Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) models, and Malmquist indicator method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), to analyze regional innovation performance, evolution trend, spatial differentiation, and evolution mechanism of Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) of China. The results show that: (i) Innovation efficiency of YRDUA is generally low, most of which is less than 80 percent of optimal efficiency; however, it kept rising from 2000 to 2015. (ii) Spatial inequality of regional innovation in YRDUA is significant, with a spatial pattern in the shape of "Z", composed by Hefei, Nanjing, Shanghai, Hangzhou and Ningbo, innovation efficiency of Shanghai is higher than Zhejiang, Anhui and Jiangsu. (iii) Technology progress is the most important influencing factor, all kinds of changing indicator show a trend of rise, and the total factor productivity is changing significantly. This research can provide theoretical reference for the YRDUA to achieve high-quality integration.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253598PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248968PMC
July 2021
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