Publications by authors named "Blazena Caganova"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Variation of drugs involved in acute drug toxicity presentations based on age and sex: an epidemiological approach based on European emergency departments.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Mar 16:1-13. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Emergency Department, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To analyse the relative percentage of acute recreational drug toxicity emergency department (ED) presentations involving the main drug groups according to age and sex and investigate different patterns based on sex and age strata.

Methods: We analysed all patients with acute recreational drug toxicity included by the Euro-DEN Plus dataset (22 EDs in 14 European countries) between October 2013 and December 2016 (39 months). Drugs were grouped as: opioids, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), hallucinogens, new psychoactive substances (NPS), benzodiazepines and ketamine. Descriptive data by age and sex are presented and compared among age/sex categories and among drug families.

Results: Of 17,371 patients were included during the 39-month period, 17,198 (99.0%) had taken at least one of the investigated drugs (median age: 31 years; 23.9% female; ethanol co-ingestion recorded in 41.5%, unknown in 31.2%; multiple drug use in 37.9%). Opioids (in 31.4% of patients) and amphetamines (23.3%) were the most frequently involved and hallucinogens (1.9%) and ketamine (1.7%) the least. Overall, female patients were younger than males, both in the whole cohort (median age 29 vs. 32 years;  < 0.001) and in all drug groups except benzodiazepines (median age 36 vs. 36 years;  = 0.83). The relative proportion of each drug group was different at every age strata and some patterns could be clearly described: cannabis, NPS and hallucinogens were the most common in patients <20 years; amphetamines, ketamine and cocaine in the 20- to 39-year group; GHB/GBL in the 30- to 39-year group; and opioids and benzodiazepines in patients ≥40 years. Ethanol and other drug co-ingestion was more frequent at middle-ages, and multidrug co-ingestion was more common in females than males.

Conclusion: Differences in the drugs involved in acute drug toxicity presentations according to age and sex may be relevant for developing drug-prevention and education programs for some particular subgroups of the population based on the increased risk of adverse events in specific sex and/or age strata.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2021.1884693DOI Listing
March 2021

Eye hazard classification according to UN GHS / EU CLP and the severity of eye symptoms caused by accidental exposures to detergents and cleaning products.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Jul 9;105:69-76. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Toxicological Information Centre, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital Prague, Czech Republic.

The use of lower cut-off values/concentration limits for the calculation of mixture classification in UN GHS/EU CLP versus the previous regulatory scheme (EU Dangerous Preparations Directive, DPD), has resulted in an increased number of classifications in the highest eye hazard category. Herein, a semi-quantitative categorisation of severity of eye effects, following accidental human exposures to detergents, was compared to the classification category of the products. Three schemes were evaluated: EU DPD; EU CLP (based on all available data and information, including weight of evidence); and EU CLP (based entirely on the calculation method). As reported by four EU Poison Centres, the vast majority of exposures had caused minor or no symptoms. Classification was a poor predictor of effects in man subjected to accidental exposure. Note however that this is also because effects are not only driven by the intrinsic hazard (as reflected in the classification), but also by the exposure conditions and mitigation (i.e. rinsing). EU CLP classification using all available data and information was more predictive of medically relevant symptoms than the EU CLP calculation method. The latter led to a poorer differentiation between irritating products versus products potentially causing serious eye damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2019.04.004DOI Listing
July 2019

Emergencies related to recreational drug abuse in Spain compared to emergencies attended in 3 European areas.

Emergencias 2018 Dic;30(6):385-394

Área de Urgencias, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona; Grupo de Investigación "Urgencias: Procesos y Patologías", IDIBAPS, Barcelona, España.

Objectives: To analyze epidemiologic, clinical, and care characteristics in cases in which patients came to 2 Spanish emergency departments (EDs) with symptoms caused by recreational drug abuse. To compare the characteristics with those reported for other areas of Europe.

Material And Methods: Secondary analysis of the registry of the European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN Plus), which collects cases in 14 European countries and 20 EDs. The registry included all patients attending EDs with symptoms of recreational drug abuse (excepting cases involving alcohol alone) over a period of 39 consecutive months (October 2013 to December 2016). We compared the cases from the 2 Spanish EDs (in Barcelona and Palma de Mallorca) to those from the 5 EDs in Ireland and the UK, 6 in northern Europe, and 7 in central Europe.

Results: A total of 17 104 patients' cases were included: Spain, 1186; UK and Ireland, 6653; northern Europe, 6097; and central Europe, 3168. Spain saw more emergencies related to cocaine (48.4%) and fewer related to opioids (12.4%) than the other areas. The Spanish patients were younger (32.2 years) on average than those in northern Europe and older than those in the UK and Ireland and central Europe. Fewer patients were women in Spain (21.9%) than in northern or central Europe. Fewer arrived in ambulances in Spain (70.0%) than in the UK and Ireland or northern Europe. The Spanish EDs recorded the temperature and respiratory frequency of fewer patients (29.8% and 30.3%, respectively). Clinical signs differed between geographical areas attributable to differences in drug-use patterns. In Spain, naloxone was used by fewer patients (9.6%) than in the UK and Ireland and northern Europe, and flumazenil was used by more patients (5.6%) than in other areas. Spain saw lower percentages of admissions (4.6%) and patients who left without an ED discharge (6.2%) in comparison with other areas. Mortality rates in the Spanish EDs (0.4%) and after discharge from them (0.7%) were higher than in northern Europe.

Conclusion: The characteristics of emergencies related to recreational drug abuse registered by the Spanish EDs were differed from those registered in other parts of Europe due to different patterns of drug use. We also detected differences between the Spanish and other European EDs with respect to examinations or tests performed, treatment given, and discharge disposition.
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July 2019

Caustic Ingestion in the Elderly: Influence of Age on Clinical Outcome.

Molecules 2017 Oct 14;22(10). Epub 2017 Oct 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava 81499, Slovak.

Caustic poisonings are still associated with many fatalities. Studies focusing on the elderly are rare. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical outcomes of caustic ingestion injury in elderly and non-elderly adults with regard to gender, intent of exposure, substance ingested, severity of mucosal injury, complications, and mortality. Caustic substance exposures reported to the National Toxicological Information Centre in Slovakia during 1998-2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups: the non-elderly (<60 years) and elderly adults (≥60 years). The mortality rate in the elderly was significantly higher (elderly 23.0% vs. non-elderly 11.3%; = 0.041). The risk of fatal outcome in the elderly was increased by acid ingestion (OR = 7.822; = 0.002), particularly hydrochloric acid (OR = 5.714, = 0.006). The incidence of respiratory complications was almost two times higher in the elderly was 31.1% vs. 17.4% for the non-elderly ( = 0.037). Respiratory complications significantly correlated with an increased mortality rate ( = 0.001) in the elderly whereas there was no association between GI complications and mortality in the elderly ( = 0.480). Elderly patients with respiratory complications had the poorest clinical outcomes. The highest risk of complications and fatalities was observed in patients after hydrochloric acid ingestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151719PMC
October 2017

Acute Methanol Poisoning: Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Haemorrhagic and Non-Haemorrhagic Brain Lesions.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2016 Aug 10;119(2):228-38. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

First Faculty of Medicine, Department of Occupational Medicine, Toxicological Information Center, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

The purpose was to study the prevalence and predisposing factors of brain lesions in survivors of acute methanol poisoning. Clinical data on 106 patients with methanol poisoning were collected during the Czech mass poisoning outbreak. Of 83 survivors, in 46 (55%) patients, follow-up examinations including magnetic resonance imaging of brain (MR) were performed 3-8 and 24-28 months after discharge from the hospital. Of 46 patients with a median age of 49 (interquartile range, 35-57) years, 24 (52%) patients had a total of 40 abnormal brain findings with haemorrhagic lesions detected in 15 (33%) and non-haemorrhagic lesions found in 9 (19%) patients. The patients with haemorrhagic brain lesions were more acidemic (lower arterial blood pH, higher base deficit) and had higher glycaemia and lactacidaemia on admission than those without haemorrhages (all p < 0.05). Thirteen of 32 (41%) of patients with systemic anticoagulation and 2 of 14 (14%) of patients without it had haemorrhagic lesions (p = 0.080). Bleeding complications during the treatment occurred in 4 of 15 (27%) patients, and 5 of 15 (33%) patients had conditions predisposing to haemorrhage in the group with haemorrhagic lesions. In three cases with a series of computer tomography (CT)/MR performed during hospitalization, the necrotic lesions in the brain remained non-haemorrhagic during hospitalization and haemorrhagic lesions were detected on the follow-up MR examinations only. No association between brain haemorrhages and systemic anticoagulation during dialysis was found: brain haemorrhages might occur in severely poisoned patients treated without systemic anticoagulation, whereas treatment with high doses of heparin might not lead to brain haemorrhages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.12559DOI Listing
August 2016

Paracetamol poisonings in the Czech and Slovak Republic and N-acetylcysteine treatment. Data analysis.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2014 ;35 Suppl 2:180-5

Objectives: Paracetamol overdose belongs to frequent calls to Toxicological Information Centre (TIC) in the Czech Republic and to the National Toxicological Information Centre (NTIC) in Slovakia. The aim of the study was to evaluate outcomes and side effects of paracetamol overdose in both countries.

Methods: Data concerning paracetamol poisoning extracted from TIC and NTIC databases 2000-2013 and discharge reports were analysed. Numbers and outcomes in patients presenting within 24 hours of a single paracetamol overdose were compared in relation to 3 paracetamol concentration bands (≤ 100 mg/l, 100-149 mg/l, and 150 mg/l).

Results: 5397 inquiries concerning paracetamol were recorded in TIS and NTIC. Data from 196 discharge reports with plasma level were studied. Median age of the patients was 18 (0.2-86) years. Eight/196 (4.1%) patients developed side effects after N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration. 120 cases fulfilled time criteria of the study and were divided into 3 groups, where 55.7%, 73.1% and 96.9% patients have been treated with NAC. Among these 120 patients, favourable outcome was seen in 100%, 100%, and 92.8%, respectively. One death due to suicidal attempt with plasma level 407 mg/l presenting at 20 hours has been recorded among 120 patients. No patient without NAC treatment died due to acute overdose and plasma concentration ≤ 150 mg/I at 4 hours.

Conclusions: These data support the opinion that NAC should not be used in patients with < 149 mg/l levels in absence of higher risk factors because of very low risk of hepatotoxicity on one side, and side effects on the other side.
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August 2015

Drug abuse in Slovak Republic.

Przegl Lek 2005 ;62(6):357-60

Toxicological Information Centre, University Hospital, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

The drug abusing structure has dramatically changed since 1989. While in 1989 the sniffing of the fluid drugs represented 98% of the global drug abuse, the most abused drugs were: heroin, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine and its derivatives. During last 10 years situation with drug abuse has changed. Currently the most abused drugs: cannabinoides, amphetamines. The plant drugs (Datura stramonium, hallucinogenic mushrooms Psilocybe semilanceata, nutmeg--the seed of Myristica fragrans) combined with the alcohol are popular among the young abusers. According to an analysis of the phone consultations in our Toxicological Information Centre (TIC) we found out, that the number of intoxications with the plant drugs has increased five times during the last year (comparing with the year 2000), because of their easy availability, low price and quick spreading of information.
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December 2005