Publications by authors named "Blanca Rubi"

15 Publications

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Minireview: new roles for peripheral dopamine on metabolic control and tumor growth: let's seek the balance.

Endocrinology 2010 Dec 3;151(12):5570-81. Epub 2010 Nov 3.

Departamento de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

In peripheral tissues, dopamine is released from neuronal cells and is synthesized within specific parenchyma. Dopamine released from sympathetic nerves predominantly contributes to plasma dopamine levels. Despite growing evidence for peripheral source and action of dopamine and the widespread expression of dopamine receptors in peripheral tissues, most studies have focused on functions of dopamine in the central nervous system. Symptoms of several brain disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and depression, are alleviated by pharmacological modulation of dopamine transmission. Regarding systemic disorders, the role of dopamine is still poorly understood. Here we describe the pioneering and recent evidence for functional roles of peripheral dopamine. Peripheral and central dopamine systems are sensitive to environmental stress, such as a high-fat diet, suggesting a basis of covariance of peripheral and central actions of dopaminergic agents. Given the extended use of such medications, it is crucial to better understand the integrated effects of dopamine in the whole organism. Delineation of peripheral and central dopaminergic mechanisms would facilitate targeted and safer use of drugs modulating dopamine action. We discuss the increasing evidence for a link between peripheral dopamine and obesity. This review also describes the recently uncovered protective actions of dopamine on energy metabolism and proliferation in tumoral cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2010-0745DOI Listing
December 2010

Central and peripheral consequences of the chronic blockade of CB1 cannabinoid receptor with rimonabant or taranabant.

J Neurochem 2010 Mar 17;112(5):1338-13351. Epub 2009 Dec 17.

Laboratori de Neurofarmacologia, Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, PRBB, Barcelona, Spain.

The endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, the clinical use of cannabinoid antagonists has been recently stopped because of its central side-effects. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a chronic treatment with the CB(1) cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant or the CB(1) inverse agonist taranabant in diet-induced obese female rats to clarify the biological consequences of CB(1) blockade at central and peripheral levels. As expected, chronic treatment with rimonabant and taranabant reduced body weight and fat content. Interestingly, a decrease in the number of CB(1) receptors and its functional activity was observed in all the brain areas investigated after chronic taranabant treatment in both lean and obese rats. In contrast, chronic treatment with rimonabant did not modify the density of CB(1) cannabinoid receptor binding, and decreased its functional activity to a lower degree than taranabant. Six weeks after rimonabant and taranabant withdrawal, CB(1) receptor density and activity recovered to basal levels. These results reveal differential adaptive changes in CB(1) cannabinoid receptors after chronic treatment with rimonabant and taranabant that could be related to the central side-effects reported with the use of these cannabinoid antagonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06549.xDOI Listing
March 2010

Silencing of the mitochondrial NADH shuttle component aspartate-glutamate carrier AGC1/Aralar1 in INS-1E cells and rat islets.

Biochem J 2009 Dec 10;424(3):459-66. Epub 2009 Dec 10.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1 rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Transfer of reducing equivalents between cytosolic compartments and the mitochondrial matrix is mediated by NADH shuttles. Among these, the malate-aspartate shuttle has been proposed to play a major role in beta-cells for the control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. AGC1 or Aralar1 (aspartate-glutamate carrier 1) is a key component of the malate-aspartate shuttle. Overexpression of AGC1 increases the capacity of the malate-aspartate shuttle, resulting in enhanced metabolism-secretion coupling, both in INS-1E cells and rat islets. In the present study, knockdown of AGC1 was achieved in the same beta-cell models, using adenovirus-mediated delivery of shRNA (small-hairpin RNA). Compared with control INS-1E cells, down-regulation of AGC1 blunted NADH formation (-57%; P<0.05), increased lactate production (+16%; P<0.001) and inhibited glucose oxidation (-22%; P<0.01). This correlated with a reduced secretory response at 15 mM glucose (-25%; P<0.05), while insulin release was unchanged at intermediate 7.5 mM and basal 2.5 mM glucose. In isolated rat islets, efficient AGC1 knockdown did not alter insulin exocytosis evoked by 16.7 mM glucose. However, 4 mM amino-oxyacetate, commonly used to block transaminases of the malate-aspartate shuttle, inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion to similar extents in INS-1E cells (-66%; P<0.01) and rat islets (-56%; P<0.01). These results show that down-regulation of the key component of the malate-aspartate shuttle AGC1 reduced glucose-induced oxidative metabolism and insulin secretion in INS-1E cells, whereas similar AGC1 knockdown in rat islets did not affect their secretory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20090729DOI Listing
December 2009

Adenovector GAD65 gene delivery into the rat trigeminal ganglion produces orofacial analgesia.

Mol Pain 2009 Aug 5;5:42. Epub 2009 Aug 5.

Department of Anatomy, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Background: Our goal is to use gene therapy to alleviate pain by targeting glial cells. In an animal model of facial pain we tested the effect of transfecting the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) gene into satellite glial cells (SGCs) of the trigeminal ganglion by using a serotype 5 adenovector with high tropisms for glial cells. We postulated that GABA produced from the expression of GAD would reduce pain behavior by acting on GABA receptors on neurons within the ganglion.

Results: Injection of adenoviral vectors (AdGAD65) directly into the trigeminal ganglion leads to sustained expression of the GAD65 isoform over the 4 weeks observation period. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that adenovirus-mediated GAD65 expression and GABA synthesis were mainly in SGCs. GABAA and GABAB receptors were both seen in sensory neurons, yet only GABAA receptors decorated the neuronal surface. GABA receptors were not found on SGCs. Six days after injection of AdGAD65 into the trigeminal ganglion, there was a statistically significant decrease of pain behavior in the orofacial formalin test, a model of inflammatory pain. Rats injected with control virus (AdGFP or AdLacZ) had no reduction in their pain behavior. AdGAD65-dependent analgesia was blocked by bicuculline, a selective GABAA receptor antagonist, but not by CGP46381, a selective GABAB receptor antagonist.

Conclusion: Transfection of glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion with the GAD gene blocks pain behavior by acting on GABAA receptors on neuronal perikarya.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-8069-5-42DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2734545PMC
August 2009

Mitochondrial glutamate carrier GC1 as a newly identified player in the control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

J Biol Chem 2009 Sep 7;284(37):25004-14. Epub 2009 Jul 7.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

The SLC25 carrier family mediates solute transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane, a process that is still poorly characterized regarding both the mechanisms and proteins implicated. This study investigated mitochondrial glutamate carrier GC1 in insulin-secreting beta-cells. GC1 was cloned from insulin-secreting cells, and sequence analysis revealed hydropathy profile of a six-transmembrane protein, characteristic of mitochondrial solute carriers. GC1 was found to be expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in INS-1E beta-cells and pancreatic rat islets. Immunohistochemistry showed that GC1 was present in mitochondria, and ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy revealed inner mitochondrial membrane localization of the transporter. Silencing of GC1 in INS-1E beta-cells, mediated by adenoviral delivery of short hairpin RNA, reduced mitochondrial glutamate transport by 48% (p < 0.001). Insulin secretion at basal 2.5 mM glucose and stimulated either by intermediate 7.5 mM glucose or non-nutrient 30 mM KCl was not modified by GC1 silencing. Conversely, insulin secretion stimulated with optimal 15 mM glucose was reduced by 23% (p < 0.005) in GC1 knocked down cells compared with controls. Adjunct of cell-permeant glutamate (5 mM dimethyl glutamate) fully restored the secretory response at 15 mM glucose (p < 0.005). Kinetics of insulin secretion were investigated in perifused isolated rat islets. GC1 silencing in islets inhibited the secretory response induced by 16.7 mM glucose, both during first (-25%, p < 0.05) and second (-33%, p < 0.05) phases. This study demonstrates that insulin-secreting cells depend on GC1 for maximal glucose response, thereby assigning a physiological function to this newly identified mitochondrial glutamate carrier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.015495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2757205PMC
September 2009

Deletion of glutamate dehydrogenase in beta-cells abolishes part of the insulin secretory response not required for glucose homeostasis.

J Biol Chem 2009 Jan 17;284(2):921-9. Epub 2008 Nov 17.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Geneva, Switzerland.

Insulin exocytosis is regulated in pancreatic ss-cells by a cascade of intracellular signals translating glucose levels into corresponding secretory responses. The mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is regarded as a major player in this process, although its abrogation has not been tested yet in animal models. Here, we generated transgenic mice, named betaGlud1(-/-), with ss-cell-specific GDH deletion. Our results show that GDH plays an essential role in the full development of the insulin secretory response. In situ pancreatic perfusion revealed that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was reduced by 37% in betaGlud1(-/-). Furthermore, isolated islets with either constitutive or acute adenovirus-mediated knock-out of GDH showed a 49 and 38% reduction in glucose-induced insulin release, respectively. Adenovirus-mediated re-expression of GDH in betaGlud1(-/-) islets fully restored glucose-induced insulin release. Thus, GDH appears to account for about 40% of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and to lack redundant mechanisms. In betaGlud1(-/-) mice, the reduced secretory capacity resulted in lower plasma insulin levels in response to both feeding and glucose load, while body weight gain was preserved. The results demonstrate that GDH is essential for the full development of the secretory response in beta-cells. However, maximal secretory capacity is not required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis in normo-caloric conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M806295200DOI Listing
January 2009

In beta-cells, mitochondria integrate and generate metabolic signals controlling insulin secretion.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2006 6;38(5-6):696-709. Epub 2006 Jan 6.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University Medical Centre, Geneva, Switzerland.

Pancreatic beta-cells are unique neuroendocrine cells displaying the peculiar feature of responding to nutrients, principally glucose, as primary stimulus. This requires translation of a metabolic substrate into intracellular messengers recognized by the exocytotic machinery. Central to this signal transduction mechanism, mitochondria integrate and generate metabolic signals, thereby coupling glucose recognition to insulin secretion. In response to a glucose rise, nucleotides and metabolites are generated by mitochondria and participate, together with cytosolic calcium, to the stimulation of insulin exocytosis. This review describes the mitochondrion-dependent pathways of regulated insulin secretion. In particular, importance of cataplerotic and anaplerotic processes is discussed, with special attention to the mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. Mitochondrial defects, such as mutations and reactive oxygen species production, are presented in the context of beta-cell failure in the course of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2005.12.006DOI Listing
May 2006

Dopamine D2-like receptors are expressed in pancreatic beta cells and mediate inhibition of insulin secretion.

J Biol Chem 2005 Nov 29;280(44):36824-32. Epub 2005 Aug 29.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University Medical Center, Geneva University Hospitals, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Dopamine signaling is mediated by five cloned receptors, grouped into D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) families. We identified by reverse transcription-PCR the presence of dopamine receptors from both families in INS-1E insulin-secreting cells as well as in rodent and human isolated islets. D2 receptor expression was confirmed by immunodetection revealing localization on insulin secretory granules of INS-1E and primary rodent and human beta cells. We then tested potential effects mediated by the identified receptors on beta cell function. Dopamine (10 microM) and the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole (5 microM) inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion tested in several models, i.e. INS-1E beta cells, fluorescence-activated cell-sorted primary rat beta cells, and pancreatic islets of rat, mouse, and human origin. Insulin exocytosis is controlled by metabolism coupled to cytosolic calcium changes. Measurements of glucose-induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and ATP generation showed that dopamine and D2-like agonists did not inhibit glucose metabolism. On the other hand, dopamine decreased cell membrane depolarization as well as cytosolic calcium increases evoked by glucose stimulation in INS-1E beta cells. These results show for the first time that dopamine receptors are expressed in pancreatic beta cells. Dopamine inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, an effect that could be ascribed to D2-like receptors. Regarding the molecular mechanisms implicated in dopamine-mediated inhibition of insulin release, our results point to distal steps in metabolism-secretion coupling. Thus, the role played by dopamine in glucose homeostasis might involve dopamine receptors, expressed in pancreatic beta cells, modulating insulin release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M505560200DOI Listing
November 2005

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) potentiates, whereas PPARgamma attenuates, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells.

Endocrinology 2005 Aug 5;146(8):3266-76. Epub 2005 May 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark.

Fatty acids (FAs) are known to be important regulators of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. FA-coenzyme A esters have been shown to directly stimulate the secretion process, whereas long-term exposure of beta-cells to FAs compromises glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by mechanisms unknown to date. It has been speculated that some of these long-term effects are mediated by members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family via an induction of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2). In this study we show that adenoviral coexpression of PPARalpha and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) in INS-1E beta-cells synergistically and in a dose- and ligand-dependent manner increases the expression of known PPARalpha target genes and enhances FA uptake and beta-oxidation. In contrast, ectopic expression of PPARgamma/RXRalpha increases FA uptake and deposition as triacylglycerides. Although the expression of PPARalpha/RXRalpha leads to the induction of UCP2 mRNA and protein, this is not accompanied by reduced hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, indicating that under these conditions, increased UCP2 expression is insufficient for dissipation of the mitochondrial proton gradient. Importantly, whereas expression of PPARgamma/RXRalpha attenuates GSIS, the expression of PPARalpha/RXRalpha potentiates GSIS in rat islets and INS-1E cells without affecting the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results show a strong subtype specificity of the two PPAR subtypes alpha and gamma on lipid partitioning and insulin secretion when systematically compared in a beta-cell context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2004-1430DOI Listing
August 2005

Alteration of the malonyl-CoA/carnitine palmitoyltransferase I interaction in the beta-cell impairs glucose-induced insulin secretion.

Diabetes 2005 Feb;54(2):462-71

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 643, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, which is expressed in the pancreas as the liver isoform (LCPTI), catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria for their oxidation. Malonyl-CoA derived from glucose metabolism regulates fatty acid oxidation by inhibiting LCPTI. To examine directly whether the availability of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LC-CoA) affects the regulation of insulin secretion in the beta-cell and whether malonyl-CoA may act as a metabolic coupling factor in the beta-cell, we infected INS(832/13) cells and rat islets with an adenovirus encoding a mutant form of LCPTI (Ad-LCPTI M593S) that is insensitive to malonyl-CoA. In Ad-LCPTI M593S-infected INS(832/13) cells, LCPTI activity increased sixfold. This was associated with enhanced fatty acid oxidation, at any glucose concentration, and a 60% suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In isolated rat islets in which LCPTI M593S was overexpressed, GSIS decreased 40%. The impairment of GSIS in Ad-LCPTI M593S-infected INS(832/13) cells was not recovered when cells were incubated with 0.25 mmol/l palmitate, indicating the deep metabolic influence of a nonregulated fatty acid oxidation system. At high glucose concentration, overexpression of a malonyl-CoA-insensitive form of LCPTI reduced partitioning of exogenous palmitate into lipid esterification products and decreased protein kinase C activation. Moreover, LCPTI M593S expression impaired K(ATP) channel-independent GSIS in INS(832/13) cells. The LCPTI M593S mutant caused more pronounced alterations in GSIS and lipid partitioning (fat oxidation, esterification, and the level of nonesterified palmitate) than LCPTI wt in INS(832/13) cells that were transduced with these constructs. The results provide direct support for the hypothesis that the malonyl-CoA/CPTI interaction is a component of a metabolic signaling network that controls insulin secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.54.2.462DOI Listing
February 2005

New insights into amino acid metabolism, beta-cell function and diabetes.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2005 Mar;108(3):185-94

Department of Biochemistry, Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Specific amino acids are now known to acutely and chronically regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells in vivo and in vitro. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which amino acids regulate insulin secretion may identify novel targets for future diabetes therapies. Mitochondrial metabolism is crucial for the coupling of amino acid and glucose recognition to the exocytosis of the insulin granules. This is illustrated by in vitro and in vivo observations discussed in the present review. Mitochondria generate ATP, which is the main coupling factor in insulin secretion; however, the subsequent Ca2+ signal in the cytosol is necessary, but not sufficient, for full development of sustained insulin secretion. Hence mitochondria generate ATP and other coupling factors serving as fuel sensors for the control of the exocytotic process. Numerous studies have sought to identify the factors that mediate the amplifying pathway over the Ca2+ signal in nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. Predominantly, these factors are nucleotides (GTP, ATP, cAMP and NADPH), although metabolites have also been proposed, such as long-chain acyl-CoA derivatives and the key amino acid glutamate. This scenario highlights further the importance of the key enzymes or transporters, glutamate dehydrogenase, the aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and the malate/aspartate shuttle, in the control of insulin secretion. Therefore amino acids may play a direct or indirect (via generation of putative messengers of mitochondrial origin) role in insulin secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20040290DOI Listing
March 2005

The malate-aspartate NADH shuttle member Aralar1 determines glucose metabolic fate, mitochondrial activity, and insulin secretion in beta cells.

J Biol Chem 2004 Dec 19;279(53):55659-66. Epub 2004 Oct 19.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University Medical Centre, 1 rue Michel-Servet, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

The NADH shuttle system, which transports reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the mitochondria, is essential for the coupling of glucose metabolism to insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Aralar1 and citrin are two isoforms of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier, one key constituent of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle. Here, the effects of Aralar1 overexpression in INS-1E beta cells and isolated rat islets were investigated for the first time. We prepared a recombinant adenovirus encoding for human Aralar1 (AdCA-Aralar1), tagged with the small FLAG epitope. Transduction of INS-1E cells and isolated rat islets with AdCA-Aralar1 increased aralar1 protein levels and immunostaining revealed mitochondrial localization. Compared with control INS-1E cells, overexpression of Aralar1 potentiated metabolism secretion coupling stimulated by 15 mm glucose. In particular, there was an increase of NAD(P)H generation, of mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization, ATP levels, glucose oxidation, and insulin secretion (+45%, p < 0.01). Remarkably, this was accompanied by reduced lactate production. Rat islets overexpressing Aralar1 secreted more insulin at 16.7 mm glucose (+65%, p < 0.05) compared with controls. These results show that aspartate-glutamate carrier capacity limits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and that Aralar1 overexpression enhances mitochondrial metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M409303200DOI Listing
December 2004

Glucose sensitivity and metabolism-secretion coupling studied during two-year continuous culture in INS-1E insulinoma cells.

Endocrinology 2004 Feb 30;145(2):667-78. Epub 2003 Oct 30.

Division of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Internal Medicine, DBC-9100, University Medical Center, 1 rue Michel-Servet, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Rat insulinoma-derived INS-1 cells constitute a widely used beta-cell surrogate. However, due to their nonclonal nature, INS-1 cells are heterogeneous and are not stable over extended culture periods. We have isolated clonal INS-1E cells from parental INS-1 based on both their insulin content and their secretory responses to glucose. Here we describe the stable differentiated INS-1E beta-cell phenotype over 116 passages (no. 27-142) representing a 2.2-yr continuous follow-up. INS-1E cells can be safely cultured and used within passages 40-100 with average insulin contents of 2.30 +/- 0.11 microg/million cells. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was dose-related and similar to rat islet responses. Secretion saturated with a 6.2-fold increase at 15 mm glucose, showing a 50% effective concentration of 10.4 mm. Secretory responses to amino acids and sulfonylurea were similar to those of islets. Moreover, INS-1E cells retained the amplifying pathway, as judged by glucose-evoked augmentation of insulin release in a depolarized state. Regarding metabolic parameters, INS-1E cells exhibited glucose dose-dependent elevations of NAD(P)H, cytosolic Ca(2+), and mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels. In contrast, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels, and cell membrane potential were all fully activated by 7.5 mm glucose. Using the perforated patch clamp technique, 7.5 and 15 mm glucose elicited electrical activity to a similar degree. A K(ATP) current was identified in whole cell voltage clamp using diazoxide and tolbutamide. As in native beta-cells, tolbutamide induced electrical activity, indicating that the K(ATP)conductance is important in setting the resting potential. Therefore, INS-1E cells represent a stable and valuable beta-cell model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2003-1099DOI Listing
February 2004

Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in INS1E cells: effects on cell metabolism and insulin secretion.

Biochem J 2002 May;364(Pt 1):219-26

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, School of Pharmacy, Diagonal 643, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Lipid metabolism in the beta-cell is critical for the regulation of insulin secretion. Pancreatic beta-cells chronically exposed to fatty acids show higher carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) protein levels, higher palmitate oxidation rates and an altered insulin response to glucose. We examined the effect of increasing CPT I levels on insulin secretion in cultured beta-cells. We prepared a recombinant adenovirus containing the cDNA for the rat liver isoform of CPT I. The overexpression of CPT I in INS1E cells caused a more than a 5-fold increase in the levels of CPT I protein (detected by Western blotting), a 6-fold increase in the CPT activity, and an increase in fatty acid oxidation at 2.5 mM glucose (1.7-fold) and 15 mM glucose (3.1-fold). Insulin secretion was stimulated in control cells by 15 mM glucose or 30 mM KCl. INS1E cells overexpressing CPT I showed lower insulin secretion on stimulation with 15 mM glucose (-40%; P<0.05). This decrease depended on CPT I activity, since the presence of etomoxir, a specific inhibitor of CPT I, in the preincubation medium normalized the CPT I activity, the fatty-acid oxidation rate and the insulin secretion in response to glucose. Exogenous palmitate (0.25 mM) rescued glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in CPT I-overexpressing cells, indicating that the mechanism of impaired GSIS was through the depletion of a critical lipid. Depolarizing the cells with KCl or intermediary glucose concentrations (7.5 mM) elicited similar insulin secretion in control cells and cells overexpressing CPT I. Glucose-induced ATP increase, glucose metabolism and the triacylglycerol content remained unchanged. These results provide further evidence that CPT I activity regulates insulin secretion in the beta-cell. They also indicate that up-regulation of CPT I contributes to the loss of response to high glucose in beta-cells exposed to fatty acids.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1222564PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/bj3640219DOI Listing
May 2002

Structural model of a malonyl-CoA-binding site of carnitine octanoyltransferase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I: mutational analysis of a malonyl-CoA affinity domain.

J Biol Chem 2002 Mar 14;277(13):11473-80. Epub 2002 Jan 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Carnitine octanoyltransferase (COT) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I, which facilitate the transport of medium- and long-chain fatty acids through the peroxisomal and mitochondrial membranes, are physiologically inhibited by malonyl-CoA. Using an "in silico" macromolecular docking approach, we built a model in which malonyl-CoA could be attached near the catalytic core. This disrupts the positioning of the acyl-CoA substrate in the channel in the model reported for both proteins (Morillas, M., Gómez-Puertas, P., Roca, R., Serra, D., Asins, G., Valencia, A., and Hegardt, F. G. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 45001-45008). The putative malonyl-CoA domain contained His(340), implicated together with His(131) in COT malonyl-CoA sensitivity (Morillas, M., Clotet, J., Rubi, B., Serra, D., Asins, G., Ariño, J., and Hegardt F. G. (2000) FEBS Lett. 466, 183-186). When we mutated COT His(131) the IC(50) increased, and malonyl-CoA competed with the substrate decanoyl-CoA. Mutation of COT Ala(332), present in the domain 8 amino acids away from His(340), decreased the malonyl-CoA sensitivity of COT. The homologous histidine and alanine residues of L-CPT I, His(277), His(483), and Ala(478) were also mutated, which decreased malonyl-CoA sensitivity. Natural mutation of Pro(479), which is also located in the malonyl-CoA predicted site, to Leu in a patient with human L-CPT I hereditary deficiency, modified malonyl-CoA sensitivity. We conclude that this malonyl-CoA domain is present in both COT and L-CPT I proteins and might be the site at which malonyl-CoA interacts with the substrate acyl-CoA. Other malonyl-CoA non-inhibitable members of the family, CPT II and carnitine acetyltransferase, do not contain this domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111628200DOI Listing
March 2002