Publications by authors named "Blair Hammond"

4 Publications

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Evaluating the Keystones of Development - An Online Curriculum for Residents to Promote Positive Parenting in Primary Care.

Acad Pediatr 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Mount Sinai Parenting Center, 207 East 94th Street, 2nd Floor New York, NY 10128. USA; Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave Levy Place, Box 1198, New York, NY 10029. USA. Electronic address:

Objective: This pilot outcome evaluation assesses the effectiveness of an online curriculum, the Keystones of Development, aimed at improving residents' knowledge, attitudes, and reported behaviors around promoting positive parenting and childhood development in well-child visits.

Methods: We used an explanatory mixed-methods approach, including a single-arm pre-posttest of intervention effects on self-reported behavioral outcomes (discussing, modeling, and praising) and secondary outcomes (knowledge, perceived barriers, attitudes, and self-efficacy). Following this, a subset of residents participated in in-depth interviews to describe participant responses to the intervention.

Results: The study was conducted at 8 pediatric residency programs across the United States with 67 pediatric residents (mean age=29; 79% female; 57% PGY1). Within one month post-intervention, there was a statistically significant increase in the behaviors that promote positive parenting: discussing (p<0.01;d=0.73) and modeling (p<0.01;d=0.61) but not praising (p=0.05; d=0.3). Significant changes in the secondary outcomes: knowledge (p<0.01), perceived barriers, (p<0.01), and retrospective self-efficacy (p<0.01) were seen. Interviews revealed that integration of curriculum content into clinical practice was due to the relevance of the material to primary care and the modeling of how to apply in the clinical setting. Curriculum format, content, and clinical application helped participants weave recommendations into the well-child visit.

Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated that the online curriculum, Keystones of Development, increased resident behaviors, knowledge, and self-efficacy, and decreased perceived barriers to promote parenting behaviors associated with improved child development outcomes in well-child visits. These findings were observed across participants demonstrating equal success regardless of demographic characteristics or study site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2021.06.005DOI Listing
June 2021

Assessing the effectiveness of a pediatrician-led newborn parenting class on maternal newborn-care knowledge, confidence and anxiety: A quasi-randomized controlled trial.

Early Hum Dev 2020 08 23;147:105082. Epub 2020 May 23.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Pediatrics, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, United States; Columbia University Irving Medical Center, Departments of Pediatrics and Psychiatry, Pardes Rm 4932, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, United States. Electronic address:

Background: The postpartum hospital stay is a unique opportunity for clinicians to educate parents on the importance of promoting early child development. Pediatricians are well-positioned to address both medical and developmental concerns during critical periods of development, yet very few parenting interventions are led by pediatricians.

Aims: To assess the impact of a novel one-hour long pediatrician-led Newborn Class on maternal knowledge, confidence, and anxiety.

Methods: We conducted a quasi-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Newborn Class. First-time mothers who delivered a full-term singleton vaginally with no major complications and attended the class were recruited. Mothers who expressed a desire to attend the class but were discharged before a class was offered served as controls.

Outcome Measures: Maternal self-perceived parental confidence and anxiety were measured using standardized scales [Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale (KPCS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults (STAI-AD)]. Knowledge on newborn care was assessed using a novel scale.

Results: A total of 84 participants (intervention n = 36, control n = 48) were included in the study. Mothers who attended the class showed significantly higher levels of knowledge compared to the control group (Knowledge test, Two-tailed t-test, mean [SD], 8.08 [1.06] vs 6.78 [1.25]; P<0.001) as well as significantly higher parenting confidence levels (KPCS, Two-tailed t-test, mean [SD], 39.31 [3.88] vs 35.20 [3.99]; P<0.001). No change was observed in the overall level of anxiety (STAI-AD, Two-tailed t-test, mean [SD], 35.50 [8.73] vs 38.5 [9.53]; P=0.164).

Conclusions: A short pediatrician-led parenting intervention may be an effective tool in improving maternal confidence and newborn care knowledge. Given the importance of the newborn period in establishing healthy developmental trajectories, there is a crucial need for cost- and time-effective intervention that can be widely implemented to promote parental knowledge and confidence with the ultimate goal of fostering healthy development in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.105082DOI Listing
August 2020

Educating Pediatric Residents About Parenting: A Survey of Residency Program Leaders.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2020 06 28;59(7):699-705. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

The American Academic of Pediatrics guides pediatricians to counsel parents about how to promote their children's cognitive, emotional, and self-regulatory development, but the extent to which pediatricians receive the training needed to do so is unknown. An online survey was distributed to members of the Association of Pediatric Program Directors. Although most respondents agreed that it was "very important" to educate residents about parenting skills, only 11% rated their program as doing so "very well." The most frequently reported reason for not doing very well was lack of a curriculum. Residents currently learn about parenting most commonly in continuity clinic talks, are educated via lectures, and are taught most frequently by clinic preceptors. Nearly half of the respondents reported that their residents relied on self-learning about parenting behaviors. When asked which topics respondents would like covered by an evidence-based parenting curriculum, the most commonly endorsed topic was positive discipline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009922820908584DOI Listing
June 2020

Transient, transverse melanonychia associated with Graves disease and acute hepatitis.

Pediatr Dermatol 2012 Mar-Apr;29(2):220-2. Epub 2011 Nov 2.

Department of Medical Education, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Melanonychia is a black, tan, or brown streak within the nail plate subsequent to activation of melanocytes in the nail matrix. We present a case of a Haitian girl who presented with transverse melanonychia involving all 10 fingernails in the setting of hyperthyroidism and acute liver injury. Melanonychia has been described only one time in the literature in the setting of hyperthyroidism though this patient also underwent radium treatment which could have led to nail changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1470.2011.01574.xDOI Listing
July 2012