Publications by authors named "Bizuneh Wakuma"

17 Publications

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Medication Errors Among Hospitalized Adults in Medical Wards of Nekemte Specialized Hospital, West Ethiopia: A Prospective Observational Study.

Drug Healthc Patient Saf 2021 8;13:221-228. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.

Purpose: A high prevalence of medication errors in older adults are due to a combination of different factors such as polypharmacy, polymorbidity, enrolment in several disease-management programs, and fragmentation of care that causes medication errors in all age groups. This study aims to assess the incidence and determinants of medication errors among hospitalized adults in medical wards of Nekemte Specialized Hospital (NSH), West Ethiopia.

Patients And Methods: A prospective observational study design was conducted at Nekemte Specialized Hospital among hospitalized adults from October 30, 2018 to January 30, 2019. Data were collected by using checklist-guided observation and review of medication order sheets, medication administration records, and patient charts. To identify the independent predictors of medication errors, logistic regression analysis was used. Statistical significance was considered at a -value <0.05.

Results: A total of 351 patients were included in the present study. The mean age of the patients was 40.67+15.78 years. A total of 813 medication errors were recorded. The most common stage for medication errors was physician ordering 263 (32.4%). In the multivariable analysis, age ≥65 years (AOR: 2.54, 95%CI: 1.12-5.75, =0.025), hospital stay ≥7 days (AOR: 2.16, 95%CI: 1.17-3.98, =0.014), number of medication taken (AOR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.13-2.73, =0.013) and presence of comorbidity (AOR: 1.57, 95%CI: 1.01-2.46, =0.049) had shown statistical significance in predicting medication errors.

Conclusion: Medication errors are common at Nekemte Specialized Hospital with an incidence of 48.3 per 100 orders, 231.6 per 100 admissions, and 433.4 per 1000 patient days. In particular, adults with older age, increased hospital stay, a greater number of medications, and presence of comorbidities were at greater risk for medication errors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S328824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8593339PMC
November 2021

Burden and Determinants of Chronic Kidney Disease Among Diabetic Patients in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Public Health Rev 2021 9;42:1603969. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Nursing, Institute of Health Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) among diabetic patients is becoming a global health burden with a high economic cost to health systems. The incidence of CKD is higher in low-income countries such as Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no national representative evidence on the burden and determinants of CKD among patients with diabetes. Therefore, this review aimed to estimates the pooled burden and determinants of CKD among patients with diabetes. Published articles from various electronic databases such as Pub Med, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Scopes, Cochrane library, the Web of Science, and African Journals Online were accessed. Also, unpublished studies from Addis Ababa digital library were identified. We included all observational studies (cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort) in the review. Data were extracted on the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using STATA 14.1 version. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled estimate with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Forest plots were used to visualize the presence of heterogeneity and estimate the pooled burden and determinants of chronic kidney disease among diabetic patients. The presence of publication bias was assessed by funnel plots and Egger's statistical tests. Published (297) and unpublished (2) literature were identified from several databases and digital libraries, of which twelve articles were selected for final meta-analysis. Significant heterogeneity was observed across studies (I = 85.2%), which suggests a random-effects model to estimate pooled burden. The analysis found that the pooled burden of CKD among patients with diabetes was 18.22% (95% CI: 15.07-21.38). Factors such as hypertension (OR = 2.65, 95%, CI: 1.38, 5.09), type of DM (OR = 0.33, 95%, CI: 0.14-0.76), and duration of DM (OR = 0.51, 95%, CI: 0.34-0.77) were found to have significant association with CKD. The current review revealed a higher burden of CKD among patients with diabetes in Ethiopia. The presence of hypertension, type II diabetes, and duration of diabetes for a longer duration were found to be independent determinants of CKD among patients with diabetes. For better control of chronic kidney disease, integrated management of hypertension and DM should be designed with a special focus on chronic diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/phrs.2021.1603969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8377585PMC
April 2021

Time to Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Its Predictors Among Newly Diagnosed HIV-Positive People in Nekemte Town, Western Ethiopia: Claim of Universal Test and Treat.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2021 9;13:959-972. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Midwifery, Institutes of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: HIV continuum of care demands early ART initiation for all HIV-infected individuals. Early ART initiation reduces onward HIV transmission facilitating rapid viral suppression. Despite this, delayed ART use is a challenge among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals, and there is limited evidence on time to ART initiation among this group in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to assess time to ART initiation and its predictors among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals in Nekemte town, Western Ethiopia.

Methods: An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted on 518 newly diagnosed HIV-positive people from September 5, 2016 to December 20, 2020 at Nekemte town, Western Ethiopia. Data were collected from ART intake forms, registration log books and patient charts. The collected data were entered into Epi Data version 3.1 and STATA version 14.0 was used for analysis. Survival probability was checked graphically by Kaplan-Meier curve and statistically by Log rank test. Both bivariable and multivariable Cox Proportional hazards regression models were conducted to identify the predictors of ART initiation. Hazard ratio with 95% CI and p-value of <0.05 was used to declare a statistical significance.

Results: By the end of the follow-up, 371 (71.6%) individuals had initiated ART with an overall incidence rate of 51.9 per 1000 [95% CI: 54.07-66.32] person days; median time to ART initiation was 4 [IQR: 1-9] days. Being female (AHR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.67), urban dwellers (AHR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.37-2.97), having baseline OIs (AHR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.60-4.30); being tested via VCT (AHR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02-1.74); linked from OPD (AHR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.85); disclosing HIV sero-status (AHR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.17-3.68); and college and above education level (AHR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.00-2.0) were identified as significant predictors of early initiation of ART.

Conclusion: The proportion and incidence of ART initiation was high; a short median time to ART initiation was revealed in this study. Strictly screening OIs, encouraging HIV sero-status disclosure and voluntary HIV testing are recommended to increase early ART initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S327967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8519411PMC
October 2021

Survival from a Triple Co-Infection of COVID-19, HIV, and Tuberculosis: A Case Report.

Int Med Case Rep J 2021 2;14:611-615. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

School of Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Introduction: The triple burden of COVID-19, human immune virus (HIV), and TB co-infection is one of the contemporary challenges to this globe. People living with chronic medical diseases such as HIV and TB are more likely to experience poor outcomes from COVID-19. This study aimed to report survival from triple co-infection with PTB, HIV, and COVID-19 in Wollega University referral hospital (WURH), western Ethiopia.

Case Presentation: A 55-year-old male known HIV patient on HAART for the last 3 years presented to WURH on May 26, 2021, with chief complaints of shortness of breath of 5 days' duration associated with productive cough, history of high-grade fever, and severe headache. He had produced a lot of bloody sputum one month prior to the current complaints. On 1st day of his presentation, a Gene Expert test was done from sputum, and he was positive for pulmonary TB. On the same day, a nasopharyngeal sample for COVID-19 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive. On his 2nd day of admission, he was transferred to the COVID-19 treatment center with the diagnosis of severe COVID-19, PTB, and WHO stage-3 RVI. During his stay in the hospital, he was provided with oxygen via a nasal cannula. Intensive phase anti-TB treatment was initiated on the 3rd day of admission. HAART was continued with the same regimen he was taking prior to his presentation. On June 6, 2021, the patient was recovered and discharged from the hospital after 10 days of hospital stay.

Conclusion: This case report suggests, after 10 days of admission with triple infections, there is a good clinical prognosis and survival from COVID-19. On admission, further diagnosis and investigations of TB co-infection should be performed for all patients admitted with COVID-19 due to their similar and non-specific clinical manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IMCRJ.S326383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421329PMC
September 2021

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Toward Corona virus Infection Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Public Hospitals in Three Wollega Zones, Ethiopia.

Int J Gen Med 2021 15;14:3563-3573. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Departments of Pediatrics and Neonatology Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Pregnancy is an immune-suppressed state which makes pregnant women generally more susceptible to COVID-19 infection and severe illness. Extensive precautions have been recommended to avoid exposure to the virus. Knowledge and attitude toward the disease play an integral role in readiness to accept public health measures. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards COVID-19 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in three Wollega zones, Ethiopia.

Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study was employed among 415 pregnant women attending antenatal care at public hospitals in three Wollega zones, Ethiopia from July to August 2020. The data were collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. The level of knowledge was assessed using 12 multiple choice questions; the score of above or equal to mean was considered as adequate knowledge. Binary logistic regression was performed and the adjusted odds ratio with P-value ≤0.05 at 95% CI was taken as statistically significant.

Results: This study indicates that more than two-thirds (75.4%; 95% CI: 71.1-79.3%) and 43.6% of the pregnant women had adequate knowledge and good practice about the coronavirus pandemic, respectively. The pregnant women who attended secondary school and above and were urban residents were more likely to have good knowledge, AOR = 2.99 (1.7-5.0) and 1.6 (1.2-2.7), respectively. Maternal age ≤ 25 yearsand being an urban resident were the two predictors of good practice of preventive measures, AOR = 1.7 (1.2-2.6) and 2.3 (1.3-4.0), respectively.

Conclusions And Recommendations: The target population demonstrated acceptable knowledge and poor practice toward COVID-19. Health-care providers should give more attention to educating pregnant women at any point of contact; legal enforcement should be implemented to improve practice of preventive measures. Special consideration should be given to those who are from rural areas, and to less-educated pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S295490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8289464PMC
July 2021

Time to recovery from COVID-19 and its predictors among patients admitted to treatment center of Wollega University Referral Hospital (WURH), Western Ethiopia: Survival analysis of retrospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252389. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Public Health, Institute of Health Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Despite its alarming spread throughout the world, no effective drug and vaccine is discovered for COVID-19 so far. According to WHO, the recovery time from COVID-19 was estimated to be 2 weeks for patients with mild infection, and 3 to 6 weeks for those with serious illnesses. A studies regarding the median recovery time and its predictors are limited globally and specifically in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the median time to recovery from COVID-19 and its predictors among COVID-19 cases admitted to WURH, Western Ethiopian.

Methods: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study conducted among 263 adult patients admitted with COVID-19 in WURH treatment center from March 29, 2020 through September 30, 2020. Epidata version 3.2 was used for data entry, and STATA version 14 for analysis. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was fitted to determine factors associated with recovery time. A variable with P-value ≤ 0.25 at bivariable Cox regression analysis were selected for multivariable Cox proportional model. Multivariable Cox regression model with 95% CI and Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) was used to identify a significant predictor of time to recovery from COVID-19 at P-value < 0.05.

Results: The mean age of patient was 36.8 (SD± 10.68) years. At the end of follow up, two hundred twenty seven observations were developed an event (recovered) with median time to recovery of 18 days with IQR of 10-27 days. The overall incidence rate of recovery was of 4.38 per 100 (95% CI: 3.84, 4.99) person-days observations. Being older age (AHR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.49), presence of fever on admission (AHR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.62), and comorbidity (AHR = 0.56, 95% CI, 0.34, 0.90) were found to have statistically significant association with recovery time.

Conclusion And Recommendations: In general, the median recovery time of patients with COVID-19 cases was long, and factors such as older age group, presence of fever, and comorbidity was an independent predictors of delayed recovery from COVID-19. Intervention to further reduce recovery time at treatment center has to focus on patients those shows symptoms and with comorbidities.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252389PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191892PMC
June 2021

Knowledge, attitude, and practice of health professionals in Ethiopia toward COVID-19 prevention at early phase.

SAGE Open Med 2021 27;9:20503121211012220. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Nursing, Institutes of Health Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a potentially lethal disease having significant public health concerns. As the disease is new, nothing has been intervened yet. Therefore, here we show the health worker's knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19.

Methods: The online cross-sectional study design was conducted from April to May 2020, among Ethiopia health workers. The data were collected online, downloaded by an Excel sheet, and transferred to IBM SPSS version 24. Using questionnaire containing four parts sociodemographic, knowledge, attitude, and practice assessing. Linear logistic regression and binary logistic regression were performed to test the association between the dependent and the independent variables. We reported the 95% confidence intervals of adjusted odds ratios with a statistical significance level at less than 0.05 -values.

Results And Conclusion: A total of 441 health workers were included in this study. The majority of participants were from urban (88.7%), nurses (53.1%), male (88.4%), and have a degree educational level (66.7%). The mean knowledge level of respondents was 10.13 ± 0.057 standard deviation. The majority of respondents had a positive attitude toward control of COVID-19, 88%, and 77% of respondents had confidence that Ethiopia will control COVID-19. Similarly, male (2.746, 95% confidence interval (1.23, 6.02)) and good knowledge level (1.98, 95% confidence interval (1.01, 3.09)) were found to be a determinant for attitude regarding control of COVID-19. Good knowledge level 1.6 (1.02, 2.6), male sex 2.2 (1.07, 4.6), masters 2.33 (1.06, 5.08), and medical doctors 5.99 (1.76, 20.4) to practice wearing a mask when going out of the home. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of the participant health workers are considerable, but may not be enough to control the disease. Sex, age, and profession of the health workers were determinant factors for knowledge about COVID-19. Therefore, training has to be considered for updating health care workers on COVID-19 prevention and controlled at the national level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20503121211012220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083007PMC
April 2021

HIV serostatus disclosure and associated factors among HIV positive pregnant and lactating women at Nekemte public health facilities, western Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(3):e0248278. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institutes of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Disclosure of Human Immune Virus (HIV) serostatus by pregnant and lactating women is crucial for the successful prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. However, little has been studied regarding the prevalence and factors associated with HIV status disclosure among HIV positive pregnant and lactating women in Ethiopia.

Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Nekemte Public Health facilities among 380 pregnant and lactating women enrolled in universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment from January 2015-December, 2019. The data were collected by using a checklist, developed from Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) logbook, ART intake forms, and medical cards of the patients. Epidata version 3.2 was used for data entry, and then the data were exported to STATA version 14 for further analysis. The binary logistic regression model was employed to determine factors associated with the disclosure status among HIV positive pregnant and lactating women. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals was computed and statistical significance was declared when it is significant at a 5% level (p-value < 0.05).

Results: A total of 380 women have participated in the study. Two hundred seventy-six (73.4%) of women had disclosed their HIV status to at least one individual. The study found living in urban (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.20), married women (OR = 4.16, 95% CI: 1.87, 9.24), higher educational status (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.31, 5.51), positive HIV status of partner (OR = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.70), and being multipara (OR = 4.94, 95% CI: 2.29, 10.66) were independent determinants of HIV status disclosure.

Conclusions: HIV status disclosure among pregnant and lactating women in the study area was sub-optimal. Empowering women through education, encouraging partners for HIV testing, and enhancing active male involvement in HIV treatment and control programs should get due attention.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248278PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7978369PMC
October 2021

Determinants of preterm birth among women delivered in public hospitals of Western Ethiopia, 2020: Unmatched case-control study.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(1):e0245825. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Worldwide, preterm birth accounts for 1 million deaths of infants each year and 60% of these deaths occur in developing countries. In addition to the significant health consequences on the infant, preterm birth can lead to economic costs. There was a lack of study in western Ethiopia, and most of those studies conducted in other parts of a country were based on card review with a cross-sectional study design. The risk factors of preterm birth may vary from region to region within the same country due to variation in socioeconomic status and health care service coverage. Therefore, this study aimed to identify determinants of preterm birth in western Ethiopia.

Methods: An institutional-based case-control study was conducted from February 15 to April 15, 2020, in western Ethiopia. The eligible 188 cases and 377 controls were randomly selected for this study. Cases were women who gave birth after 28 weeks and before 37 completed weeks of gestation, and controls were women who gave birth at and after 37 weeks of gestation from the first day of the last normal menstrual period. Data were collected by a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The collected data were entered into Epi info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify determinants of preterm birth at P-value <0.05.

Results: From a total of 565 eligible participants, 516 (172 cases and 344 controls) participated in this study with a response rate of 91.3%. The result of the multivariable analysis shows that mothers who developed pregnancy-induced hypertension (AOR = 3.13, 95% CI; 1.78, 5.50), only one time ANC visits (AOR = 5.99, 95% CI; 2.65, 13.53), experienced premature rupture of membrane (AOR = 3.57, 95% CI; 1.79, 7.13), birth interval less than two years (AOR = 2.96, 95% CI; 1.76, 4.98), developed anemia during the current pregnancy (AOR = 4.20, 95% CI; 2.13, 8.28) and didn't get dietary supplementation during the current pregnancy (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI; 1.51, 3.91) had statistically significant association with experiencing preterm birth.

Conclusion: Antenatal care service providers should focus on mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension, premature rupture of membrane, and anemia during pregnancy, and refer to the senior experts for early management to reduce the risk of preterm delivery. Antenatal care services such as counseling the mother on the benefit of dietary supplementation during pregnancy, antenatal care follow up, and lengthening birth interval should be integrated into the existing health extension packages. New and inclusive strategies such as the establishment of comprehensive mobile clinic services should also be designed to reduce the burden of preterm birth among women living in the rural community. Lastly, we recommend future researchers to conduct longitudinal and community-based studies supplemented with qualitative methods.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245825PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833256PMC
June 2021

Postpartum modern contraception utilization and its determinants in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(12):e0243776. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institutes of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Contraceptive use is the best and most cost-effective strategy to reduce feto-maternal adverse effects of short birth intervals. More than two-thirds of women in developing countries who do not want to conceive are not using contraception methods. Although there were various primary studies in different parts of the country, there is no nationally representative evidence on postpartum modern contraception utilization and its determinants in Ethiopia.

Objective: This review was aimed to determine the best available pieces of evidence to pool the magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization and find out its determinants.

Methods: Published studies were extensively searched by using electronic databases and unpublished studies were identified from the digital library. All observational studies conducted on the magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization and its determinants in Ethiopia were included. Data were extracted on the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using STATA 14.1 version. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Inverse variance (I2) was used to identify the presence of heterogeneity and forest plot was used to estimate the pooled magnitude of postpartum contraception utilization. The presence of publication bias was assessed by funnel plots and Egger's statistical tests. Sub-group analysis was computed to minimize underlying heterogeneity.

Findings: In this review, 19 primary studies were included. The pooled magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization in Ethiopia was 45.79% (95%CI 36.45%, 55.13%). The review found that having more than four Antenatal care visits(ANC), having postnatal care visit (PNC), having a formal education, history of family planning use, history of counseling on family planning, and having greater than four alive children as significant determinants of postpartum modern contraception utilization.

Conclusion: The magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization in Ethiopia was low. ANC visit, PNC visit, maternal educational status, history of previous family planning use, counseling on family planning, and number of alive children were found to be significant determinants of postpartum modern contraception utilization. Therefore, strengthening focused ANC and PNC services to encourage women in utilizing modern contraception during the postnatal period is needed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243776PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735615PMC
February 2021

Fertility desire and associated factors among people living with HIV in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Public Health 2020 Nov 23;78(1):123. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Public health, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Increased Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) coverage improves health status and the survival of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as a result, reproductive health needs of the clients are increased. As part of continuum HIV care, understanding fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of HIV positive peoples will play paramount role in planning and delivering appropriate health services. The finding of studies conducted on the fertility desire and associated factors among People Living with HIV in Ethiopia presented inconclusive. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the pooled prevalence of fertility desire and associated factors among people living with HIV in Ethiopia.

Methods: A total of 26 studies conducted in Ethiopia were included in this Meta-analysis. Pub Med, HINARI, Google scholar and Google data bases were searched. Data from the included articles were extracted using a standardized data extraction tool. The included studies were analyzed using a random effects meta-analysis model. Analysis was done Using STATA version 14 statistical software. Heterogeneity was assessed statistically using the standard Chi-square, I The association between fertility desire and factors were examined using a random effects model.

Result: In this meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of fertility desire in Ethiopia is 42.21% (95%CI 39.18, 45.25). Fertility desire is significantly associated with sex: being female (OR = 0.71,95%CI 0.57,0.86), partners desire (OR = 16.8, 95% CI: 9.45, 29.88), not having child (OR = 5.46 95%CI 4.24, 7.040), age < 30(OR = 2.34, 95%CI 2.10, 2.60), formal education (OR = 1.31 95%CI 1.09, 1.59)). However, use of family planning, residence, and Knowledge on Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission and disclosure status didn't show association with fertility desire.

Conclusion: In this finding, significant people of living with HIV have a desire to have a child. The finding showed the need to strengthen fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of HIV positive peoples. Therefore, strengthening the integration of fertility related issues with HIV continuum care will play a paramount role in averting risky sexual behaviors and Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission among peoples on ART.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-020-00504-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685622PMC
November 2020

The magnitude of adherence to option B plus program and associated factors among women in eastern African countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Public Health 2020 Nov 27;20(1):1812. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Public Health, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Despite coverage and benefits associated with the prevention of mothers to child transmission (PMTCT) services, mothers' adherence to option B plus is still a challenge. Though few primary studies are available on the magnitude of adherence to option B plus and factors associated in Eastern African countries, they do not provide strong evidence in helping policymakers to address suboptimal adherence to option B plus. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was intended to estimate the pooled magnitude of adherence to option B plus program and associated factors among women in Eastern African countries.

Methods: PubMed, Medline, HINARI, Cochrane library, the Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for studies reported on the magnitude of adherence to option B plus among women in Eastern African countries. The search terms used were "option B plus", "magnitude", "prevalence", "PMTCT", "ART adherence", "associated factors", "all lists of Eastern African countries" and their combination by Boolean operators. The effect sizes of the meta-analysis were the magnitude of adherence to option B plus and the odds ratio of the associated factors. STATA/SE V14 was used for statistical analysis, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's test.

Results: Fourteen studies having total participants of 4883 were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Using the random effect model, the pooled prevalence of adherence to option B plus was 71.88% (95% CI: 58.54-85.23%). The factors associated with good adherence to option B plus PMTCT program were partner support (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 4.13; 95% CI: 2.78-6.15), received counseling services (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI: 2.81-6.02), disclosure of HIV status to partner (AOR = 4.38; 95% CI: 1.79-10.70), and clinical stage of HIV/AIDS I/II (AOR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.53-4.46).

Conclusion: The level of adherence to option B plus program in Eastern African countries was generally sub-optimal. Thus, a coordinated effort is needed to raise the number of mothers to be tested, and early treatment initiation for HIV positive mothers before the disease advances. Furthermore, counseling services for couples on the importance of early treatment initiation and adherence to medications must be given due attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09903-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693523PMC
November 2020

Knowledge and Attitude Towards Antimicrobial Resistance of Graduating Health Science Students of Wollega University.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 3;13:3937-3944. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Nursing, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide concern due to the inappropriate and irrational use of antibiotics. Thus, this study was aimed at determining the knowledge and attitude of graduating health science students of Wollega University towards antimicrobial resistance.

Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed from June to July 2019. Epi-data version 3.1 was used to receive data and exported to SPSS version 25 for further analysis. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were done to find factors associated with attitudes of students towards antibiotic consumption and resistance at a 95% confidence level. The strength of association was measured with the odds ratio. Variables with a -value of <0.05 at multivariable analysis were considered to be a significant variable. Finally, texts and simple frequency tables were used to present the findings.

Results: Out of 249, 232 students were included in this survey yielding a response rate of 93.6%. Hundred fifty-eight (68.1%) of them had adequate knowledge about antibiotic identification, role, side effects, and resistance. Students with a family member who works in health and related professions had a lower probability of stopping antibiotics when they feel better (AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90) and using leftover antibiotics (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28-0.92) compared to their counterparts.

Conclusion: Students' knowledge on antibiotic identification, role, side effects, and resistance was suboptimal, and the attitude of students towards antibiotic consumption was unfavorable. Respondents having a family member in a health-related field showed a good attitude. Respondents with three years of study also had a good attitude, female gender showed good attitude, and urban residence were independent predictors of attitude toward antibiotic consumption. Training on antimicrobial resistance should be arranged for graduating class nursing and medical students, as they are the future prescribers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S264481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650017PMC
November 2020

Magnitude of first line antiretroviral therapy treatment failure and associated factors among adult patients on ART in South West Shoa, Central Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(11):e0241768. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Diredawa University, Diredawa, Ethiopia.

Background: First-line antiretroviral treatment failure has become a public health concern in high, low and middle-income countries with high mortality and morbidity In Ethiopia, around 710,000 peoples were living with HIV and 420,000 of them were receiving ART in 2017. Little is known about the magnitude of first-line ART treatment failure and its associated factors in Ethiopia, particularly in the study area. Therefore, this study was aimed to find the magnitude of first-line ART treatment failure and its associated factors among adult patients attending ART clinic at Southwest shoa zone public hospitals.

Methods: Institutions based cross-sectional study was employed from February 1 to April 2, 2019. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 350 adult patients on ART using a systematic random sampling technique. The collected data were coded and entered into Epidata version 3 and exported to STATA SE version 14 for analysis. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was done to identify factors associated with first-line ART treatment failure. At 95% confidence level strength of association was measured using Odds ratio. Variables with a p-value of ≤ 0.25 in the bivariable analysis were considered as a candidate variable for multivariable analysis. To get the final variables step-wise backward selection procedure was used and those in the final model were selected at a p-value <0.05. Finally, texts, simple frequency tables, and figures were used to present the findings.

Results: In this study the magnitude of first-line ART treatment failure was 33.42%. Absence of baseline opportunistic infection AOR = 0.362 (95%CI0.178, 0.735), Staying on first-line ART for <5 years AOR = 0.47 (95%CI 0.252, 0.878), Nevirapine containing ART regimen AOR = 3.07 (95%CI 1.677, 5.63), Baseline CD4 count ≥100 cells/mm3 AOR = 0.299 (95%CI 0.152 0.591), absence of opportunistic infections after ART initiation AOR = 0.257 (95%CI 0.142, .467), time taking greater than an one-hour to reach health facility AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.022 3.367) were significantly associated with first-line ART treatment failure.

Conclusion: The magnitude of first-line ART treatment failure was high in the study area. Base-line opportunistic infection, duration on first-line ART, NVP based ART, Baseline CD4 count level, OI after ART initiation, and time it takes to reach health facility were independent determinants of first-line ART treatment failure.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241768PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7657481PMC
January 2021

Nurses' knowledge about palliative care and attitude towards end- of-life care in public hospitals in Wollega zones: A multicenter cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(10):e0238357. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Mathematics, College of Natural and Computational Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Palliative care is nowadays essential in nursing care, due to the increasing number of patients who require attention in the final stages of their life. Lack of knowledge of and negative attitude palliative care among nurses is one of the most common barriers to quality palliative care. This study, therefore, aimed to assess nurses' knowledge about palliative care and attitude toward end-of-life care in public hospitals in Wollega zones, Ethiopia.

Methods: A multicenter institutional-based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from 372 nurses working in public hospitals in Wollega zones from October 02-22, 2019. A self-administered questionnaire with three different parts: Demographic characteristics of nurses, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN), and the Frommelt Attitudes Towards Care of the Dying (FATCOD). SPSS version 21 was used for analysis used for data analysis. The binary logistic regression test was used for analysis at p < 0.05.

Findings: Our final sample size was 422 nurses (response rate = 88%). With the mean total PCQN scores (9.34), the majority of them showed an inadequate level of knowledge about palliative care. The mean total FATCOD scores (79.58) displayed a positive attitude toward end-of-life care, with 52% of respondents eager to care for a dying person and their family. Nurses who had PC service experience [AOR = 1.94 CI (1.10-3.42), p = 0.02] and had ever attended training/lecture on PC [AOR = 1.87 CI (1.01-3.46), p = 0.04] were independently associated with nurses' knowledge about PC. Similarly, nurses who had no PC service experience [AOR = 0.41, CI (0.21-0.79), p = 0.008], who read articles/brochures about PC [AOR = 1.94, CI (1.11-3.39), p = 0.01] and had provided care for a smaller number of terminally ill patients [AOR = 1.74, CI (1.01-2.97), p = 0.04] were significantly associated with nurses' attitude towards end-of-life care.

Conclusion: The study highlighted that nurses' knowledge about palliative care is inadequate, and showed a less favorable attitude toward end-of-life care. The findings also provide evidence for greater attentions and resources should be directed towards educating and supporting nurses caring for patients with palliative care needs in Wollega Zones.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238357PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540839PMC
November 2020

Postpartum depression and associated factors among postpartum women in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 2020.

Public Health Rev 2020 16;41:21. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Introduction: The postpartum period is recognized as a high-risk period for the development of various mood disorders like postpartum depression. Globally, postnatal depression is a serious public health problem that has a negative impact on the mother's health and child development, especially in developing countries. In Ethiopia, even though there are different primary studies conducted on postpartum depression, there is no nationally representative evidence. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the pooled prevalence and associated factors of postpartum depression in Ethiopia.

Methods: Published and unpublished articles from various electronic databases and digital libraries were accessed. This systematic review included studies that were conducted on the magnitude and factors associated with postpartum depression among postnatal women in Ethiopia. A random-effect model was used to estimate the pooled magnitude of postpartum depression with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Inverse variance (I) was used to visualize the presence of heterogeneity, and forest plot was used to estimate the pooled magnitude of postpartum depression. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plots and Egger's statistical tests. A meta-regression and subgroup analysis were computed to minimize underlying heterogeneity.

Result: Initially, a total of 764 studies were accessed. Twenty-eight full articles were assessed for eligibility criteria, of which twelve studies fulfilled inclusion criteria were included in the final meta-analysis. The overall pooled magnitude of postpartum depression was 22.89% (95% CI 17.75%, 28.03%) with the lowest (12.20%) and highest (33.82%) in the Southern nations region. Unplanned pregnancy, domestic violence, lack of social support, previous history of depression, infant loss, and dissatisfaction in marriage showed a statistically significant association with postpartum depression.

Conclusions: In the current analysis, the prevalence of postpartum depression was high as compared with other developing countries. Routine screening of mothers in the postpartum period and integrating mental health with maternal health care is highly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40985-020-00136-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493842PMC
September 2020

Nursing students' knowledge on the management of peripheral venous catheters at Wollega University.

PLoS One 2020 17;15(9):e0238881. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

College of Natural and Computational Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Adherence to the best standards of nursing practice is the fundamental principle to improve patient outcome and prevent nursing procedure related-infections. A peripheral venous catheter (PVC) is the most common invasive procedure performed in nursing care. Its poor performance could expose patients to bloodstream-related infections. The present study aimed to assess post-basic nursing students' knowledge of evidence-based guidelines on the management of peripheral venous catheters.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design was conducted on May 01-03, 2019, using a convenient sample 239 among post-basic nursing students in Wollega University.

Results: The study result showed that nursing students' had a low mean (4.1±1.52) of knowledge about PVC procedure management. Only 41% of the respondents have adhered to recommendations of CDC guidelines. Among the provided options of the items, none achieved 100% correct answers. The majority of nursing students (77%) responded that antiseptic handwashing is always performed before insertion of PVCs. Meanwhile, few students (5%) correctly answered that the infusion set is recommended to be removed after 96 hours when neither lipids nor blood products are administered. In multivariable regression analysis, nursing students who had received training (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI (1.6, 5.1)) and who were younger (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI (1.3, 4.3)) significantly associated with a higher score of knowledge.

Conclusions: This study finding shows that an overall level of knowledge of post-basic nursing students is inadequate. Measurements such as an increase in the provision of adequate training by nurses educators based on evidence-based guidelines could improve the post-basic nursing students' knowledge.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238881PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498047PMC
October 2020
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