Publications by authors named "Binu Joseph"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Exploration of Rapid Automatized Naming and Standard Visual Tests in Prodromal Alzheimer Disease Detection.

J Neuroophthalmol 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Departments of Neurology (SZW, RNK, NM, LH, BJ, AC, JCR, SLG, TMW, AVM, and LJB), Population Health (RNK and LJB), and Ophthalmology (SZW, JCR, SLG, and LJB), New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Background: Visual tests in Alzheimer disease (AD) have been examined over the last several decades to identify a sensitive and noninvasive marker of the disease. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) tasks have shown promise for detecting prodromal AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The purpose of this investigation was to determine the capacity for new rapid image and number naming tests and other measures of visual pathway structure and function to distinguish individuals with MCI due to AD from those with normal aging and cognition. The relation of these tests to vision-specific quality of life scores was also examined in this pilot study.

Methods: Participants with MCI due to AD and controls from well-characterized NYU research and clinical cohorts performed high and low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) testing, as well as RAN using the Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES) and Staggered Uneven Number test, and vision-specific quality of life scales, including the 25-Item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) and 10-Item Neuro-Ophthalmic Supplement. Individuals also underwent optical coherence tomography scans to assess peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thicknesses. Hippocampal atrophy on brain MRI was also determined from the participants' Alzheimer disease research center or clinical data.

Results: Participants with MCI (n = 14) had worse binocular LCLA at 1.25% contrast compared with controls (P = 0.009) and longer (worse) MULES test times (P = 0.006) with more errors in naming images (P = 0.009) compared with controls (n = 16). These were the only significantly different visual tests between groups. MULES test times (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.79), MULES errors (AUC = 0.78), and binocular 1.25% LCLA (AUC = 0.78) showed good diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing MCI from controls. A combination of the MULES score and 1.25% LCLA demonstrated the greatest capacity to distinguish (AUC = 0.87). These visual measures were better predictors of MCI vs control status than the presence of hippocampal atrophy on brain MRI in this cohort. A greater number of MULES test errors (rs = -0.50, P = 0.005) and worse 1.25% LCLA scores (rs = 0.39, P = 0.03) were associated with lower (worse) NEI-VFQ-25 scores.

Conclusions: Rapid image naming (MULES) and LCLA are able to distinguish MCI due to AD from normal aging and reflect vision-specific quality of life. Larger studies will determine how these easily administered tests may identify patients at risk for AD and serve as measures in disease-modifying therapy clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000001228DOI Listing
May 2021

Role for OCT in detecting hemi-macular ganglion cell layer thinning in patients with multiple sclerosis and related demyelinating diseases.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Dec 28;419:117159. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Neurology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Investigations have found associations of homonymous thinning of the macular ganglion cell/ inner-plexiform layer (GCIPL) with demyelinating lesions in the post-chiasmal visual pathway among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Retinal thinning may also occur through retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration, a process by which lesions in post-geniculate visual pathway structures lead to thinning of the GCIPL across thalamic synapses. The purpose of our study was to determine the frequency of homonymous hemimacular thinning that occurs in association with post-chiasmal visual pathway demyelinating lesions in patients with MS and other demyelinating diseases.

Methods: Adult patients with demyelinating diseases (MS, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder [NMOSD], myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease (anti-MOG)) who were participants in an ongoing observational study of visual pathway structure and function were analyzed for the presence of hemimacular GCIPL thinning on OCT scans. Brain MRI scans were examined for the presence of post-geniculate visual pathway demyelinating lesions.

Results: Among 135 participants in the visual pathway study, 5 patients (3.7%) had homonymous hemimacular GCIPL thinning. Eleven patients (8.1%) had a whole+half pattern of GCIPL thinning, characterized by hemimacular thinning in one eye and circumferential macular thinning in the contralateral eye. All but one patient with homonymous hemimacular thinning had demyelinating lesions in the post-geniculate visual pathway; however, these lesions were located in both cerebral hemispheres.

Conclusion: Homonymous hemimacular thinning in the GCIPL by OCT is associated with post-chiasmal visual pathway demyelinating lesions but it appears to be a relatively uncommon contributor to GCIPL loss. Patients with this pattern of GCIPL often fail to complain of hemifield visual loss. Future studies with prospective and detailed MR imaging may be able to more closely associate demyelinating lesions in anatomically appropriate regions of the post-chiasmal visual pathways with homonymous hemimacular thinning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117159DOI Listing
December 2020

The SUN test of vision: Investigation in healthy volunteers and comparison to the mobile universal lexicon evaluation system (MULES).

J Neurol Sci 2020 08 30;415:116953. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Neurology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Population Health, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Tests of rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been used for decades to evaluate neurological conditions. RAN tests require extensive brain pathways involving visual perception, memory, eye movements and language. To the extent that different naming tasks capture varied visual pathways and related networks, we developed the Staggered Uneven Number (SUN) test of rapid number naming to complement existing RAN tests, such as the Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES). The purpose of this investigation was to determine values for time scores for SUN, and to compare test characteristics between SUN and MULES.

Methods: We administered the SUN and MULES tests to healthy adult volunteers in a research office setting. MULES consists of 54 color photographs; the SUN includes 145 single- and multi-digit numbers. Participants are asked to name each number or picture aloud.

Results: Among 54 healthy participants, aged 33 ± 13 years (range 20-66), the average SUN time score was 45.2 ± 8.3 s (range 30-66). MULES test times were 37.4 ± 9.9 s (range 20-68). SUN and MULES time scores did not differ by gender, but were greater (worse) among older participants for MULES (r = 0.43, P = .001). Learning effects between first and second trials were greater for the MULES; participants improved (reduced) their time scores between trials by 5% on SUN and 16% for MULES (P < .0001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test).

Conclusion: The SUN is a new vision-based test that complements presently available picture- and number-based RAN tests. These assessments may require different brain pathways and networks for visual processing, visual memory, language and eye movements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116953DOI Listing
August 2020

Rapid picture naming in Parkinson's disease using the Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES).

J Neurol Sci 2020 Mar 9;410:116680. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Departments of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Departments of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Departments of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES) is a test of rapid picture naming that captures extensive brain networks, including cognitive, language and afferent/efferent visual pathways. MULES performance is slower in concussion and multiple sclerosis, conditions in which vision dysfunction is common. Visual aspects captured by the MULES may be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) including color discrimination, object recognition, visual processing speed, and convergence. The purpose of this study was to compare MULES time scores for a cohort of PD patients with those for a control group of participants of similar age. We also sought to examine learning effects for the MULES by comparing scores for two consecutive trials within the patient and control groups.

Methods: MULES consists of 54 colored pictures (fruits, animals, random objects). The test was administered in a cohort of PD patients and in a group of similar aged controls. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to determine statistical significance for differences in MULES time scores between PD patients and controls. Spearman rank-correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relation between MULES time scores and PD motor symptom severity (UPDRS). Learning effects were assessed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests.

Results: Among 51 patients with PD (median age 70 years, range 52-82) and 20 disease-free control participants (median age 67 years, range 51-90), MULES scores were significantly slower (worse performance) in PD patients (median 63.2 s, range 37.3-296.3) vs. controls (median 53.9 s, range 37.5-128.6, P = .03, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Slower MULES times were associated with increased motor symptom severity as measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Section III (r = 0.37, P = .02). Learning effects were greater among patients with PD (median improvement of 14.8 s between two MULES trials) compared to controls (median 7.4 s, P = .004).

Conclusion: The MULES is a complex test of rapid picture naming that captures numerous brain pathways including an extensive visual network. MULES performance is slower in patients with PD and our study suggests an association with the degree of motor impairment. Future studies will determine the relation of MULES time scores to other modalities that test visual function and structure in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116680DOI Listing
March 2020