Publications by authors named "Binod Jacob"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Best Practices: Documentation of Sexual Maturity by Microscopic Evaluation in Nonclinical Safety Studies.

Toxicol Pathol 2021 Mar 4:192623321990631. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

510456Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Limited, Allschwil, Switzerland.

The sexual maturity status of animals in nonclinical safety studies can have a significant impact on the microscopic assessment of the reproductive system, the interpretation of potential test article-related findings, and ultimately the assessment of potential risk to humans. However, the assessment and documentation of sexual maturity for animals in nonclinical safety studies is not conducted in a consistent manner across the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology convened an international working group of pathologists and nonclinical safety scientists with expertise in the reproductive system, pathology nomenclature, and Standard for Exchange of Nonclinical Data requirements. This article describes the best practices for documentation of the light microscopic assessment of sexual maturity in males and females for both rodent and nonrodent nonclinical safety studies. In addition, a review of the microscopic features of the immature, peripubertal, and mature male and female reproductive system and general considerations for study types and reporting are provided to aid the study pathologist tasked with documentation of sexual maturity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623321990631DOI Listing
March 2021

International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND): Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Minipig.

Toxicol Pathol 2021 Jan;49(1):110-228

Toxicology & Pathology Consulting, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in most tissues and organs from the minipig used in nonclinical safety studies. Some of the lesions are illustrated by color photomicrographs. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. Relevant infectious and parasitic lesions are included as well. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for lesions in laboratory animals will provide a common language among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623320975373DOI Listing
January 2021

Pigs in Toxicology: Breed Differences in Metabolism and Background Findings.

Toxicol Pathol 2016 06 4;44(4):575-90. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

Zoological Health Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, USA.

Both a rodent and a nonrodent species are required for evaluation in nonclinical safety studies conducted to support human clinical trials. Historically, dogs and nonhuman primates have been the nonrodent species of choice. Swine, especially the miniature swine or minipigs, are increasingly being used in preclinical safety as an alternate nonrodent species. The pig is an appropriate option for these toxicology studies based on metabolic pathways utilized in xenobiotic biotransformation. Both similarities and differences exist in phase I and phase II biotransformation pathways between humans and pigs. There are numerous breeds of pigs, yet only a few of these breeds are characterized with regard to both xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and background pathology findings. Some specific differences in these enzymes based on breed and sex are known. Although swine have been used extensively in biomedical research, there is also a paucity of information in the current literature detailing the incidence of background lesions and differences between commonly used breeds. Here, the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes are compared between humans and pigs, and minipig background pathology changes are reviewed with emphasis on breed differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623316639389DOI Listing
June 2016

Background Pathological Changes in Minipigs: A Comparison of the Incidence and Nature among Different Breeds and Populations of Minipigs.

Toxicol Pathol 2016 Apr 3;44(3):325-37. Epub 2015 Nov 3.

MPI Research, Mattawan, Michigan, USA.

Swine, especially the miniature swine or minipigs, are increasingly being used in preclinical safety assessment of small molecules, biopharmaceutical agents, and medical devices as an alternate nonrodent species. Although swine have been used extensively in biomedical research, there is a paucity of information in the current literature detailing the incidence of background lesions and differences in incidence between commonly used breeds. This article is a collaborative effort between multiple organizations to define and document lesions found in the common breeds of minipigs used for toxicological risk assessment in North America (NA) and the European Union (EU). We retrospectively assessed 10 years of historical control data from several institutions located in NA and EU, covering the period of 2004-2015. Here we report the background lesions with consideration of breed and geographical location. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting spontaneous background lesions in commonly used breeds of swine in both NA and EU. This report serves as a resource to pathologists and will aid in interpretation of findings and differentiation of background from test article-related changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623315611762DOI Listing
April 2016

Sodium fluoride/copper naphthenate toxicosis in cattle.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2007 May;19(3):305-8

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, 1800 Denison Avenue, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

Fourteen cattle on a Kansas pasture died from ingestion of a wood preservative compound containing sodium fluoride and copper naphthenate. Clinical signs included depression, anorexia, ataxia, diarrhea, and recumbency. Grossly visible lesions included perirenal edema, pale kidneys, and forestomach ulceration. All 3 cows that had postmortem evaluations had extensive renal cortical tubular necrosis. Tissue concentrations of fluoride were slightly elevated above expected background levels, while copper tissue concentrations were not elevated. The findings indicated that the sodium fluoride caused renal tubular necrosis leading to renal failure. Copper naphthenate may have contributed to abomasal ulceration; however, tissue copper concentrations indicated that copper from the formulation was not appreciably absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063870701900315DOI Listing
May 2007