Publications by authors named "Bing Yu"

896 Publications

Fibroblast growth factor 21 attenuates iron overload-induced liver injury and fibrosis by inhibiting ferroptosis.

Redox Biol 2021 Sep 11;46:102131. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China; Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Ferroptosis plays a role in several diseases such as iron overload-induced liver diseases. Manipulation of ferroptosis has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat related diseases. Numerous antioxidants have been identified to control ferroptosis but the cell-autonomous mechanisms responsible for regulating ferroptosis remain elusive. In the present study, we found that iron overload promoted ferroptosis in hepatocytes by excessively inducing HO-1 expression, which contributed to the progression of liver injury and fibrosis, accompanied by the upregulation of the FGF21 protein level in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, both recombinant FGF21 and Fgf21 overexpression significantly protected against iron overload-induced hepatocytes mitochondria damage, liver injury and fibrosis by inhibiting ferroptosis. In contrast, the loss of FGF21 aggravated iron overload-induced ferroptosis. Notably, FGF21-induced HO-1 inhibition (via the promotion of HO-1 ubiquitination and degradation) and NRF2 activation provide a mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon. Taken together, we identified FGF21 as a novel ferroptosis suppressor. Thus, FGF21 activation may provide an effective strategy for the potential treatment of iron overload-induced ferroptosis-related diseases, such as hereditary haemochromatosis (HH).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.102131DOI Listing
September 2021

Epidemiologic and Genetic Associations of Erythropoietin With Blood Pressure, Hypertension, and Coronary Artery Disease.

Hypertension 2021 Sep 7:HYPERTENSIONAHA12117597. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor. (N.K., M.-L.Y., K.L.H., Y.E.C., S.K.G.).

While exogenous administration of recombinant erythropoietin has been associated with increased risk of hypertension, coronary artery disease, and mortality, it is not known if endogenous circulating erythropoietin level is associated with coronary artery disease and its risk factors. We measured and analyzed epidemiological and genetic associations of circulating plasma erythropoietin levels in 2 population cohorts, from China (N=4329) and the United States (N=3671). In vitro smooth muscle cell responses and in vivo murine studies of erythropoietin exposure were performed. Erythropoietin levels were positively and linearly associated with blood pressure traits and inversely associated with cholesterol levels and red cell indices. Higher erythropoietin level was associated with higher prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.12-1.29], =4.41×10) and coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.00-1.34], =0.046). In a discovery stage genetic association study of erythropoietin level, we identified a previously reported locus on chromosome 6 (rs7776054 near , =4.86×10) and a new locus on chromosome 4 (rs172629 near , =2.1×10), which was independently replicated. Meta-analysis of discovery and replication genetic association results identified a locus on chromosome 22 (rs855791 near , =3.60×10). Erythropoietin administration, within a physiological range of hematocrit achieved, induced hypertension in vivo and increased contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In conclusion, endogenous circulating erythropoietin level is influenced by common genetic variation and is associated with blood pressure traits, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Vascular effects of erythropoietin demonstrated in vitro and in vivo support a newly discovered mechanism of hypertension and cardiovascular risk with potential implications for erythropoietic support in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.17597DOI Listing
September 2021

STAT3 is required for Smo-dependent signaling and mediates Smo-targeted treatment resistance and tumorigenesis in Shh medulloblastoma.

Mol Oncol 2021 Sep 5. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-driven medulloblastoma (Shh MB) cells are dependent on constitutive Shh signaling, but targeted treatment of Shh MB has been ineffective due to drug resistance. The purpose of this study was to address the critical role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in Shh signaling and drug resistance in Shh MB cells. Herein, we show that STAT3 is required for Smoothened (Smo)-dependent Shh signaling and, in turn, is reciprocally regulated by Shh signaling, and demonstrate that STAT3 activity is critical for expression of HCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase (Hck) in Shh MB. We also demonstrate that maintained STAT3 activity suppresses p21 expression and promotes colony formation of Shh MB cells, whereas dual treatment with inhibitors of both Smo and STAT3 results in marked synergistic killing and overcomes drug resistance in vitro of Smo-antagonist-resistant Shh MB cells. Finally, STAT3 inhibitor treatment significantly prevents in vivo tumor formation in genetically engineered Shh MB mice. Collectively, we show that STAT3 is necessary to maintain Shh signaling, and thus is a potential therapeutic target to treat Shh MB and overcome anti-Smo drug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.13097DOI Listing
September 2021

The genomics of heart failure: design and rationale of the HERMES consortium.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: The HERMES (HEart failure Molecular Epidemiology for Therapeutic targetS) consortium aims to identify the genomic and molecular basis of heart failure.

Methods And Results: The consortium currently includes 51 studies from 11 countries, including 68 157 heart failure cases and 949 888 controls, with data on heart failure events and prognosis. All studies collected biological samples and performed genome-wide genotyping of common genetic variants. The enrolment of subjects into participating studies ranged from 1948 to the present day, and the median follow-up following heart failure diagnosis ranged from 2 to 116 months. Forty-nine of 51 individual studies enrolled participants of both sexes; in these studies, participants with heart failure were predominantly male (34-90%). The mean age at diagnosis or ascertainment across all studies ranged from 54 to 84 years. Based on the aggregate sample, we estimated 80% power to genetic variant associations with risk of heart failure with an odds ratio of ≥1.10 for common variants (allele frequency ≥ 0.05) and ≥1.20 for low-frequency variants (allele frequency 0.01-0.05) at P < 5 × 10 under an additive genetic model.

Conclusions: HERMES is a global collaboration aiming to (i) identify the genetic determinants of heart failure; (ii) generate insights into the causal pathways leading to heart failure and enable genetic approaches to target prioritization; and (iii) develop genomic tools for disease stratification and risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13517DOI Listing
September 2021

Proteins Associated with Risk of Kidney Function Decline in the General Population.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Sep;32(9):2291-2302

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Proteomic profiling may allow identification of plasma proteins that associate with subsequent changesin kidney function, elucidating biologic processes underlying the development and progression of CKD.

Methods: We quantified the association between 4877 plasma proteins and a composite outcome of ESKD or decline in eGFR by ≥50% among 9406 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (visit 3; mean age, 60 years) who were followed for a median of 14.4 years. We performed separate analyses for these proteins in a subset of 4378 participants (visit 5), who were followed at a later time point, for a median of 4.4 years. For validation, we evaluated proteins with significant associations (false discovery rate <5%) in both time periods in 3249 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and 703 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK). We also compared the genetic determinants of protein levels with those from a meta-analysis genome-wide association study of eGFR.

Results: In models adjusted for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR and albuminuria, we identified 13 distinct proteins that were significantly associated with the composite end point in both time periods, including TNF receptor superfamily members 1A and 1B, trefoil factor 3, and -trace protein. Of these proteins, 12 were also significantly associated in CRIC, and nine were significantly associated in AASK. Higher levels of each protein associated with higher risk of 50% eGFR decline or ESKD. We found genetic evidence for a causal role for one protein, lectin mannose-binding 2 protein (LMAN2).

Conclusions: Large-scale proteomic analysis identified both known and novel proteomic risk factors for eGFR decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020111607DOI Listing
September 2021

Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Liver Fibrosis: Novel Strategies, Mechanisms, and Clinical Practice.

Stem Cells Int 2021 10;2021:6546780. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Cell Biology, Center for Stem Cell and Medicine, Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University), Shanghai 200433, China.

Liver fibrosis is a common result of most chronic liver diseases, and advanced fibrosis often leads to cirrhosis. Currently, there is no effective treatment for liver cirrhosis except liver transplantation. Therefore, it is important to carry out antifibrosis treatment to reverse liver damage in the early stage of liver fibrosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most widely used stem cells in the field of regenerative medicine. The preclinical and clinical research results of MSCs in the treatment of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis show that MSC administration is a promising treatment for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. MSCs reverse liver fibrosis and increase liver function mainly through differentiation into hepatocytes, immune regulation, secretion of cytokines and other nutritional factors, reduction of hepatocyte apoptosis, and promotion of hepatocyte regeneration. Recently, many studies provided a variety of new methods and strategies to improve the effect of MSCs in the treatment of liver fibrosis. In this review, we summarized the current effective methods and strategies and their potential mechanisms of MSCs in the treatment of liver fibrosis, as well as the current research progress in clinical practice. We expect to achieve complete reversal of liver injury with MSC-based therapy in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6546780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380491PMC
August 2021

Linking soil carbon availability, microbial community composition and enzyme activities to organic carbon mineralization of a bamboo forest soil amended with pyrogenic and fresh organic matter.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;801:149717. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300, China; Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 442 Earth Sciences Building, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E3, Canada.

Despite fresh and pyrogenic organic matter have been widely used as amendments to improve soil organic carbon (SOC) storage, mineralization that links to C quality and soil temperature, microbial community composition and enzyme activity remain poorly understood. This study aims to explore the effects of amendments (bamboo leaves and its biochar) and incubation temperature on mineralization, and disentangle the relationships of SOC mineralization with chemical composition of SOC, labile organic C, microbial community composition, and activities of enzymes in a subtropical bamboo forest soil. Results showed that cumulative soil CO emissions ranked as bamboo leaf (Leaf) > bamboo leaf biochar (Biochar) > Control, regardless of the incubation temperature. Compared to the control, the Leaf treatment markedly increased, whereas the Biochar treatment decreased, the temperature sensitivity of SOC mineralization (P < 0.05). The cumulative soil CO emission was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with water-soluble organic C (WSOC), microbial biomass C (MBC), O-alkyl C and alkyl C contents, and activities of β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase, but negatively correlated (P < 0.01) with aromatic C content, regardless of the incubation temperature. This indicated that the lower SOC mineralization rate and lower temperature sensitivity in the Biochar (cf. Leaf) treatment were intimately associated with the lower WSOC, MBC, O-alkyl C content, and β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities, and higher aromatic C content in the Biochar. The high relative abundance of bacteria relating SOC mineralization included Rhizobiales, Sphingobacteriales and JG30-KF-AS9, whereas that of fungi included Eurotiales, Sordariales, Agaricales and Helotiales. Our results revealed that the application of pyrogenic organic matter, as compared to the application of fresh organic matter, can reduce SOC mineralization and its temperature sensitivity in a subtropical forest soil by limiting the availability of C and microbial activity, and thus has a great potential for maintaining soil carbon stock in subtropical forest ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149717DOI Listing
August 2021

Solution landscapes of the diblock copolymer-homopolymer model under two-dimensional confinement.

Phys Rev E 2021 Jul;104(1-1):014505

Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

We investigate the solution landscapes of the confined diblock copolymer and homopolymer in two-dimensional domain by using the extended Ohta-Kawasaki model. The projection saddle dynamics method is developed to compute the saddle points with mass conservation and construct the solution landscape by coupling with downward and upward search algorithms. A variety of stationary solutions are identified and classified in the solution landscape, including Flower class, Mosaic class, Core-shell class, and Tai-chi class. The relationships between different stable states are shown by either transition pathways connected by index-1 saddle points or dynamical pathways connected by a high-index saddle point. The solution landscapes also demonstrate the symmetry-breaking phenomena, in which more solutions with high symmetry are found when the domain size increases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.104.014505DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidin extract supplementation on meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs.

Food Chem 2022 Jan 6;367:130781. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, PR China.

The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) supplementation on meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs. The data showed GSPE increased pH, redness, crude protein content and decreased shear force, drip loss, lactate content and glycolytic potential in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, accompanied by increased contents of total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, and the ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acid. GSPE promoted MyHC I mRNA and slow MyHC protein expression, and increased slow-twitch fiber percentage. The activities of total antioxidant capacity, total superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in LD muscle were increased by GSPE while malondialdehyde content was decreased. Together, this study demonstrated that dietary GSPE supplementation can effectively improve the color, water-holding capacity, tenderness and nutritional value of pork, and increase slow-twitch fiber percentage and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130781DOI Listing
January 2022

L-Leucine Promotes STAT1 and ISGs Expression in TGEV-Infected IPEC-J2 Cells mTOR Activation.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:656573. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

L-leucine (Leu), as one of the effective amino acids to activate the mTOR signaling pathway, can alleviate transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection. However, the underlying mechanism by which Leu alleviates the virus infection has not been fully characterized. In particular, how Leu impacts TGEV replication through mTOR signaling has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we found that TGEV proliferated efficiently in intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 cells) as evidenced by the increase in viral contents by flow cytometry, the inhibition of cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay as well as the reduction of PCNA level by western blot. Besides, western blot analysis showed that STAT1 expression was markedly reduced in TGEV-infected cells. The results of ELISA revealed the inhibition of ISGs (ISG56, MxA, and PKR) expressions by TGEV infection. TGEV-induced mTOR and its downstream p70 S6K and 4E-BP1, STAT1 and ISGs downregulation were blocked by an mTOR activator-MHY1485 but not by an mTOR inhibitor-RAPA. Concurrently, mTOR activation by MHY1485 reduced the contents of TGEV and vice versa. Furthermore, Leu reversed the inhibition of STAT1 and ISGs by activating mTOR and its downstream p70 S6K and 4E-BP1 in TEGV-infected cells. Our findings demonstrated that Leu promoted the expressions of STAT1 and ISGs activating mTOR signaling in IPEC-J2 cells, aiming to prevent TGEV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.656573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339710PMC
July 2021

Alginate oligosaccharide protects against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced porcine intestinal barrier injury.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Oct 8;270:118316. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) possesses various pharmaceutical benefits, making it an attractive candidate for biomedical applications. In the present study, we prepared AOS by depolymerising alginate; its degree of polymerisation mainly ranged from 2 to 8. We confirmed the enteroprotective potential of AOS against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-induced intestinal barrier injury in weaned pigs. Next, we illustrated the mechanisms underlying this effect of AOS using the porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2. AOS potently reduced the binding of the bacteria-deprived endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the IPEC-J2 cell surface. Moreover, it suppressed the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 in IPEC-J2 cells. These results indicate that AOS protects the intestinal epithelium from ETEC-induced inflammatory injury by preventing the activation of NF-κB, implying that AOS could be used as an anti-inflammatory agent for treating inflammation-related intestinal diseases in mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118316DOI Listing
October 2021

Effects of Cold Exposure on Performance and Skeletal Muscle Fiber in Weaned Piglets.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 20;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Low-temperature is one of the most significant risks for the animal industry. In light of this, the present study aimed to explore the effects of low-temperature on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, myofiber types and mitochondrial function in weaned piglets. A total of sixteen 21-day-old male Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) piglets were randomly divided into a control group (CON, 26 ± 1 °C) and a low-temperature group (LT, 15 ± 1 °C), with eight duplicate piglets in each group. The trial period lasted for 21 days. We showed that LT not only increased the ADFI ( < 0.05), as well as increasing the diarrhea incidence and diarrhea index of weaned piglets in the early stage of the experiment ( < 0.01), but it also decreased the apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM) and dry matter (DM) ( < 0.05). Meanwhile, in the LT group, the mRNA expression of ( < 0.05) in longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) and ( < 0.01) in psoas muscle (PM) were increased, while the mRNA expression of in PM was decreased ( < 0.05). In addition, LT increased the mRNA expression of mitochondrial function-related genes citrate synthase (CS) and succinate dehydrogenase-b (SDHB) in LM, as well as increased the mRNA expression of CS ( < 0.05) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1b (CPT-1b) ( < 0.01) in PM. Furthermore, LT increased the T-AOC activity in serum and LM ( < 0.01), as well as increased the T-SOD activity in PM ( < 0.05). Taken together, these findings showed that low-temperature could negatively affect the growth performance and nutrient digestibility, but resulted in a shift toward oxidative muscle fibers, which may occur through mitochondrial function regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11072148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300759PMC
July 2021

Overexpressed versican promoted cell multiplication, migration and invasion in gastric cancer.

Tissue Cell 2021 Aug 2;73:101611. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pathology, The First Hospital of Qiqihar, Affiliated Qiqihar Hospital, Southern Medical University, China. Electronic address:

Versican (VCAN) is verified to promote development among many cancers, whose function on gastric cancer (GC) is less studied. This work explored the effect of VCNA on GC. The differentially expressed VCAN between tumor and normal samples, among different cancer stages and the overall survival of GC patients with high and low VCAN levels were predicted through Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis 2 (GEPIA2). The association between VCAN and clinicopathological parameters was analyzed by clinical investigation. AGS and NCI-N87 cells were transfected with VCAN short hairpin RNA (shVCAN) and VCAN overexpression plasmid. The VCNA, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin and Vimentin expression was detected through quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Cell viability was assessed through MTT assay. Cell migration was measured by wound healing assay and cell invasion was evaluated through Transwell assay. Cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry assay. VCAN was upregulated in GC and its high expression related to advanced TNM stage, Lymph node metastasis, Depth of invasion and Grade. VCAN knockdown inhibited multiplication, migration, invasion, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, N-Cadherin and Vimentin expression while induced cycle arrest and E-Cadherin level of GC cells, whereas overexpressed VCAN showed opposite results. VCAN had a potential to be a biomarker for GC and overexpressed VCAN promoted GC cell multiplication, migration and invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2021.101611DOI Listing
August 2021

The immunomodulatory function of the porcine β-defensin 129: Alleviate inflammatory response induced by LPS in IPEC-J2 cells.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Oct 3;188:473-481. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, PR China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition, Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, PR China. Electronic address:

β-defensin family plays a critical role in host defense against infections. In this study, we found that pBD129 are widely expressed in porcine tissues such as the intestine, liver, and spleen. Interestingly, the expression level of pBD129 in most tissues was higher in Tibetan pigs than in DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) pigs (P < 0.05), and was significantly upregulated upon E. coli K88 infection (P < 0.05). The pBD129 protein was successfully expressed in E. coli and the molecule weight was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 37.2 kDa. Mass spectrometry verified the protein as a pBD129. The protein showed antibacterial activities against Streptococcus and E. coli DH5α with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/mL. Hemolytic and cytotoxicity assays indicated that pBD129 had no detrimental effect on cell viability. Importantly, pBD129 significantly reduced the apoptosis of porcine intestinal epithelial cells exposure to bacterial endotoxins, which was associated with down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines such as the IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα (P < 0.05), and down-regulation of apoptosis-related genes such as the caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 (P < 0.05). These results suggested that pBD129 is a novel modulator of innate immunity involved in mammalian inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.194DOI Listing
October 2021

Chitosan oligosaccharide attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated intestinal apoptosis the Akt/mTOR pathway.

Food Funct 2021 Sep 20;12(18):8647-8658. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China.

Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis are widely considered as essential factors associated with intestinal disorders, whereas nutritional therapeutic approaches targeting ERS may control disease activity. Thus, we focus on the potential benefit of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) on repressing ERS and ERS-induced apoptosis. In this study, we used the ERS model with tunicamycin (TM)-induced IPEC-J2 cells and nutrient deprivation-induced ERS in piglets to evaluate the protective mechanism of COS against ERS and ERS-induced apoptosis. The results showed that cells were characterized by activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and increased epithelial apoptosis upon exposure to TM. However, these changes were significantly attenuated by COS and the expressions of Akt and mTORC1 were inhibited. Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of mTOR confirmed the suppression of Akt and reduced the activation of the UPR and apoptosis. , COS protected against nutrient deprivation-induced ERS in the jejunum of piglets, in which the overexpression of the UPR and apoptosis was rescued. Consistently, COS attenuated nutrient deprivation-induced disruption of intestinal barrier integrity and functional capacity. Together, we provided the first evidence that COS could protect against intestinal apoptosis through alleviating severe ERS, which may be related to the inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01234gDOI Listing
September 2021

A review of the design of packing materials for ion chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Sep 12;1653:462313. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China; State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

The development of ion chromatography has made remarkable progress in the past few decades, and it is now widely used for the analysis of common ions and organic compounds. Ion chromatography has many advantages, such as fast, high sensitivity, good selectivity and support for simultaneous analysis of multiple ionic compounds. In order to meet the high requirements of material analysis, new packing materials for ion chromatography with higher sensitivity and selectivity have been developed. In this paper, a lot of knowledge of ion chromatography is reviewed, and the development of ion chromatographic packings in recent years, especially in the last five years, is summarized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462313DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparisons of the micronization, steam explosion, and gamma irradiation treatment on chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls.

Food Chem 2022 Jan 17;366:130618. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the micronization (MT), steam explosion (SE), and gamma irradiation (GI) treatment on the chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls. GI (1200 kGy) treatment exerted the optimum effects on improving soluble dietary fiber content, in vitro gross energy digestibility (IVGED), and reducing sugar yield (RS) in the three modification methods, increased by 342.88%, 55.24%, and 117.02%, respectively. Compared with GI treatment, MT-GI combined treatment could further enhance the degradation effect of irradiation and improve the physicochemical properties (p<0.05) in soybean fibers. From the results of correlation analysis, RS was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with IVGED, and RS = -112.24 + 4.90 × IVGED (r = 0.82, p<0.01). In summary, MT-GI combined treatment could be considered the ideal modification method to improve the quality of soybean fiber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130618DOI Listing
January 2022

Functional Characterization of Porcine NK-Lysin: A Novel Immunomodulator That Regulates Intestinal Inflammatory Response.

Molecules 2021 Jul 13;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Porcine NK-Lysine (PNKL) is a new antimicrobial peptide (AMP) identified in the small intestine. In this study, PNKL protein was obtained through heterologous expression in and was estimated by SDS-PAGE at 33 kDa. The antibacterial activities of PNKL were determined using various bacterial strains and showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, K88-challenged IPEC-J2 cells were used to determine PNKL influences on inflammatory responses. Hemolytic assays showed that PNKL had no detrimental impact on cell viability. Interestingly, PNKL elevated the viability of IPEC-J2 cells exposure to K88. PNKL significantly decreased the cell apoptosis rate, and improved the distribution and abundance of tight junction protein ZO-1 in IPEC-J2 cells upon K88-challenge. Importantly, PNKL not only down regulated the expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as the IL-6 and TNF-α, but also down regulated the expressions of NF-κB, Caspase3, and Caspase9 in the K88-challenged cells. These results suggest a novel function of natural killer (NK)-lysin, and the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of PNKL may allow it a potential substitute for conventionally used antibiotics or drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307250PMC
July 2021

Metabolomics of Dietary Acid Load and Incident Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Ren Nutr 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Objective: Blood biomarkers of dietary intake are more objective than self-reported dietary intake. Metabolites associated with dietary acid load were previously identified in 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations. We aimed to extend these findings to a general population, replicating their association with dietary acid load, and investigating whether the individual biomarkers were prospectively associated with incident CKD.

Methods: Among 15,792 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort followed up from 1987 to 1989 (baseline) to 2019, we evaluated 3,844 black and white men and women with dietary and metabolomic data in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. We hypothesized that a higher dietary acid load (using equations for potential renal acid load and net endogenous acid production) was associated with lower serum levels of 12 previously identified metabolites: indolepropionylglycine, indolepropionate, N-methylproline, N-δ-acetylornithine, threonate, oxalate, chiro-inositol, methyl glucopyranoside, stachydrine, catechol sulfate, hippurate, and tartronate. In addition, we hypothesized that lower serum levels of these 12 metabolites were associated with higher risk of incident CKD.

Results: Eleven out of 12 metabolites were significantly inversely associated with dietary acid load, after adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, health status, and estimated glomerular filtration rate: indolepropionylglycine, indolepropionate, N-methylproline, threonate, oxalate, chiro-inositol, catechol sulfate, hippurate, methyl glucopyranoside (α + β), stachydrine, and tartronate. N-methylproline was inversely associated with incident CKD (hazard ratio: 0.95, 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.99, P = .01). The metabolomic biomarkers of dietary acid load significantly improved prediction of elevated dietary acid load estimated using dietary data, beyond covariates (difference in C statistics: 0.021-0.077, P ≤ 1.08 × 10).

Conclusion: Inverse associations between candidate biomarkers of dietary acid load were replicated in a general population. N-methylproline, representative of citrus fruit consumption, is a promising marker of dietary acid load and could represent an important pathway between dietary acid load and CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2021.05.005DOI Listing
July 2021

Prebiotic inulin as a treatment of obesity related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through gut microbiota: a critical review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 22:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, People's Republic of China.

The microbial-derived products, including short chain fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and secondary bile acids, have been shown to participate in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that prebiotics, such as oligosaccharide and inulin, have abilities to change the concentration of microbial-derived products through modulating the microbial community structure, thus controlling body weight and alleviating hepatic fat accumulation. However, recent evidence indicates that there are individual differences in host response upon inulin treatment due to the differences in host microbial composition before dietary intervention. Probably it is because of the multiple relationships among bacterial species (e.g., competition and mutualism), which play key roles in the degradation of inulin and the regulation of microbial structure. Thereby, analyzing the composition and function of initial gut microbiota is essential for improving the efficacy of prebiotics supplementation. Furthermore, considering that different structures of polysaccharides can be used by different microorganisms, the chemical structure of processed inulin should be tested before using prebiotic inulin to treat obesity related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1955654DOI Listing
July 2021

Semiconductor small molecule IHIC/ITIC applied to photothermal therapy and photoacoustic imaging of tumors.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 Aug 10;221:112257. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China; Center for Bionanoengineering and Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Organic semiconductor small molecules IHIC and ITIC have been developed as solar cell materials, and because of their strong near-infrared absorption capabilities, they are promising for cancer phototherapy. This article reports the application of semiconductor small molecule IHIC/ITIC liposomes in photothermal therapy and photoacoustic imaging of tumors firstly. Experiments show that the liposome-loaded IHIC/ITIC material has good biocompatibility and can be effectively enriched in tumor sites. After being irradiated with laser, it can emit strong photoacoustic signals, and has achieved good results in the photothermal treatment of breast cancer mice. We believe that organic semiconductor small molecule IHIC/ITIC will become a promising photothermal agent with wonderful development possibilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2021.112257DOI Listing
August 2021

A new class of biochar-based slow-release phosphorus fertilizers with high water retention based on integrated co-pyrolysis and co-polymerization.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 9;285:131481. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Environment and Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou, 311300, PR China. Electronic address:

The development of slow-release phosphorus fertilizers (SRFs) with high water retention is of significance for modern agriculture. Herein, a new class of biochar-based SRFs are developed by an integrated co-pyrolysis and co-polymerization process (PSRFs). The water-retention performance and P slow-release behavior of PSRFs are evaluated, which are compared with other types of biochar-based SRFs derived from biochar-based phosphorus adsorption (MSRFs), co-pyrolysis of biomass-bentonite-nutrients (BSRFs), and the application of coating on BSRFs (CSRFs). The results show that the obtained PSRFs exhibits high water retention with the maximum swelling capacity of 94.2 g/g, far outstripping other tested SRFs. The water-retention performance of PSRFs is found to be positively correlated with their crosslinking agent contents. In addition, PSRFs has excellent P slow-release performance which is comparable with CSRFs (~51.5% of P release after 30 days), but much better than MSRFs and BSRFs with a complete P release after 30 days. Furthermore, pot experiments reveal that PSRFs has the highest P utilization efficiency (75.83% after 60 days), which can promote the growth of pepper seedlings better than other SRFs. Moreover, the soil burial tests indicate that PSRFs has a good biodegradability with the degradation ratio of 33.46% in 75 days. Finally, biological abundance analysis further reveals that Actinobacteria in soil is mainly responsible for the metabolism of starch and sodium alginate in PSRFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131481DOI Listing
July 2021

rich enterotype may benefit gut health in finishing pigs fed diet with a high amylose-to-amylopectin ratio.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 25;7(2):400-411. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed of Ministry of Agriculture of China, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, And Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

To investigate the influence of baseline enterotypes and dietary starch type on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), numbers of butyrate producing bacteria and the expression of genes related to intestinal barrier and inflammatory response in the colon of finishing pigs, a 60-d in vivo trial was conducted. A 2-wk pre-trial with 102 crossbred (Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire]) finishing barrows (90 d old) was conducted to screen enterotypes. Then, a total of 32 pigs (87.40 ± 2.76 kg) with high (HPBR, ≥ 14) and low (LPBR, ≤ 2) -to- ratios (PBR) in equal measure were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates per group and 1 pig per replicate. The trial was designed following a 2 (PBR) × 2 (amylose-to-amylopectin ratio, AMR) factorial arrangement. Pigs with different PBR were fed diets based on corn-soybean meal with high AMR (HAMR, 1.24) or low AMR (LAMR, 0.23), respectively. Results showed that neither PBR nor AMR influenced the growth performance of pigs. HPBR pigs fed HAMR diet had a higher number of colonic cluster XIVa and higher gene expression of butyrate kinase compared to the LPBR pigs ( < 0.05). The HPBR pigs fed HAMR diets also had increased colonic concentrations of total SCFA and propionate compared to the LPBR pigs ( < 0.05). Comparing with other pigs, HPBR pigs fed HAMR diets showed a lower ( < 0.05) expression of histone deacetylases () gene and higher ( < 0.05) expression of G protein-coupled receptor 43 gene () in the colonic mucosa. The interaction ( < 0.05) of HPBR and HAMR was also found to decrease the gene expression of interleukin ()-6, , and tumor necrosis factor-α () in colonic mucosa. These findings show that HAMR diet increased the abundance and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria and the concentration and absorption of SCFA, which may be associated with the decreased gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in the colonic mucosa of pigs with -rich enterotype. All these alterations are likely to have a positive effect on the intestinal health of finishing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.08.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245826PMC
June 2021

Effects of soybean raffinose on growth performance, digestibility, humoral immunity and intestinal morphology of growing pigs.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 6;7(2):393-399. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, 625014, Sichuan, China.

There are appreciable does of raffinose in soybean, but the impacts of raffinose on pigs are poorly investigated. We used 2 experiments to investigate the influence of soybean raffinose on growth performance, digestibility, humoral immunity and intestinal morphology of growing pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 30 crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) barrows (21.93 ± 0.43 kg) were randomly divided into 3 groups, and were fed with the control diet, the control diets supplemented with 0.2% and 0.5% raffinose, respectively, for 21 d. Results showed that the addition of 0.2% or 0.5% raffinose reduced ( < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and nutrient digestibility, and dietary 0.5% raffinose increased the ratio of feed to gain ( < 0.05). For serum indexes, dietary 0.5% raffinose decreased growth hormone and increased glucagon-like peptide-2, immunoglobulin G, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 concentration ( < 0.05). In Exp. 2, a total of 24 crossbred barrows (38.41 ± 0.45 kg) were randomly divided into 3 groups, and were fed with the control diet (ad libitum), the raffinose diet (0.5% raffinose, ad libitum), and the control diet in the same amount as the raffinose group (feed-pair group) for 14 d, respectively. Compared with the control diet, dietary 0.5% raffinose decreased ADFI ( < 0.05). Intriguingly, the raffinose group had lower ADG than the feed-pair group, lower nutrient digestibility, lower amylase activity in duodenum, lower amylase, lipase and trypsin activities in jejunum and higher TNF-α concentration in serum compared with the other 2 groups, and a higher ratio of villus height to crypt depth compared with the control group ( < 0.05). These results showed that soybean raffinose could reduce feed voluntary intake and body gain while improving intestinal morphology without a significant negative influence on immunity. Taken together, dietary raffinose could decrease growth performance by reducing both feed intake and nutrient digestibility while inducing humoral immune response of growing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.06.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245804PMC
June 2021

Gut microbiota absence and transplantation affect growth and intestinal functions: An investigation in a germ-free pig model.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 22;7(2):295-304. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China.

This study was conducted to investigate host-microbiota interactions and explore the effects of maternal gut microbiota transplantation on the growth and intestinal functions of newborns in a germ-free (GF) pig model. Twelve hysterectomy-derived GF Bama piglets were reared in 6 sterile isolators. Among them, 6 were considered as the GF group, and the other 6 were orally inoculated with healthy sow fecal suspension as fecal microbiota transplanted (FMT) group. Another 6 piglets from natural birth were regarded as the conventional (CV) group. The GF and FMT groups were hand-fed with Co60-γ-irradiated sterile milk powder, while the CV group was reared by lactating Bama sows. All groups were fed for 21 days. Then, all piglets and then were switched to sterile feed for another 21 days. Results showed that the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in the GF group decreased ( < 0.05). Meanwhile, the serum urea nitrogen concentration and digesta pH values in the GF group increased compared with those in the FMT and CV groups ( < 0.05). Compared with the CV group, the GF group demonstrated upregulation in the mRNA expression levels of intestinal barrier function-related genes in the small intestine ( < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA abundances of intestinal development and absorption-related genes in the small intestine and colon were higher in the GF group than in the CV and FMT groups ( < 0.05). The FMT group exhibited greater growth performance, lipase activity, and nutrient digestibility ( < 0.05), higher mRNA expression levels of intestinal development and barrier-related genes in the small intestine ( < 0.05), and lower mRNA abundances of pro-inflammatory factor in the colon and jejunum ( < 0.05) than the CV group. In conclusion, the absence of gut microbes impaired the growth and nutrient digestibility, and healthy sow gut microbiota transplantation increased the growth and nutrient digestibility and improved the intestinal development and barrier function of newborn piglets, indicating the importance of intestinal microbes for intestinal development and functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.11.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245803PMC
June 2021

Recent advances in detection technologies for COVID-19.

Talanta 2021 Oct 12;233:122609. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266071, China; State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266071, China. Electronic address:

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious respiratory illness that was caused by the SARS-CoV-2. It spread around the world in just a few months and became a worldwide pandemic. Quick and accurate diagnosis of infected patients is very important for controlling transmission. In addition to the commonly used Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection techniques, other diagnostic techniques are also emerging endlessly. This article reviews the current diagnostic methods for COVID-19 and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. It provides an important reference for the diagnosis of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196236PMC
October 2021

[Analysis of metabolomics and proteomics based on capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry].

Se Pu 2020 Sep;38(9):1013-1021

Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China.

Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) has the advantages of higher sensitivity, higher efficiency, and less sample consumption. Moreover, it possesses obvious advantages during the analysis of strongly charged and highly polar samples. CE-MS has been widely applied in life sciences, medicine, and pharmacology. In the past ten years, the main factors affecting its application were system stability, reproducibility, and data accuracy. In order to solve the existing problems of CE-MS, researchers have invested significant effort in technology innovation to further expand CE-MS application. In the fields of medicine and analytical chemistry, substantial research indicates that CE-MS is superior compared to other metabolomic and proteomic approaches. This study aims at reviewing the latest methods and applications developed in the fields of medicine and analytical chemistry since 2015. Furthermore, it also aims at enhancing the technology development-related application value of CE-MS and serving as a reference for future development. Further development of the CE-MS technology is discussed from the aspects of coating-sample interaction, interface types, and data processing methods. Concerning the coating types, neutral coatings had been applied extensively in CE-MS and there should be no limitation to the charge of the analyte. The coating decreased sample adsorption on the inner wall by covering the surface charge, greatly reducing the electroosmotic flow (EOF). A charged capillary coating could modify such an EOF direction. The cationic coating could reduce the hydrophobic interaction between the sample and the capillary column, resulting in higher EOF. If it is applied to the sheathless interface, the resolution could be improved by extending the capillary length. Anionic coatings are predominant among the anionic compounds, shortening the separation time by reducing the interaction between the anionic compounds and the capillary. The coating type should be chosen relative to the analyte characteristics. Concerning the interface technology, all interfaces should be simple, practical, and non-dependent on sheath liquid and background electrolytes. As far as data processing methods are concerned, it is necessary to design and develop a practical method for span space data comparison and processing. The optimized experimental conditions have effectively improved separation efficiency and data comparison analysis. Furthermore, they established a solid foundation for its application development. CE-MS analysis of complex samples in the fields of metabolomics and proteomics (e. g., of tissues, cells, body fluids, etc.) could provide a visualization method for future clinical analysis. It contributes to the development of cancer pathological analysis, drug development, disease surveillance, etc. The characteristic analysis of small molecule metabolites and protein biomarkers directly reflects on enzymatic activity in the biological systems. It could be associated with the development of various diseases/complications. Omics analysis also has an important directive to disease detection and surveillance with obvious advantages in disease diagnosis, staged treatment, drug development, and patient treatment progress. CE-MS is useful in detecting complications and promoting personalized medicine. It provides technical support for future clinical developments. In addition to a comprehensive review of the recent advances of CE-MS research, this paper also indicates the development directions of CE-MS. In order to avoid the problem of omics analysis and obtain the optimized analysis results, future analysis should be improved from the following three aspects:(i) The analysis conditions should be optimized concerning sample preparation methods and separation techniques. (ii) The analytic techniques should be supported to adjust to capillary coating and interface technology. (iii) New ideas should be developed in the fields of clinical research and statistical analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2020.02025DOI Listing
September 2020

Supplemental Association of Clonal Hematopoiesis With Incident Heart Failure.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 07;78(1):42-52

Department of Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA; Care New England, Center for Primary Care and Prevention, Pawtucket, Rhode Island, USA; Department of Family Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Age-related clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), defined as clonally expanded leukemogenic sequence variations (particularly in DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1, and JAK2) in asymptomatic individuals, is associated with cardiovascular events, including recurrent heart failure (HF).

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate whether CHIP is associated with incident HF.

Methods: CHIP status was obtained from whole exome or genome sequencing of blood DNA in participants without prevalent HF or hematological malignancy from 5 cohorts. Cox proportional hazards models were performed within each cohort, adjusting for demographic and clinical risk factors, followed by fixed-effect meta-analyses. Large CHIP clones (defined as variant allele frequency >10%), HF with or without baseline coronary heart disease, and left ventricular ejection fraction were evaluated in secondary analyses.

Results: Of 56,597 individuals (59% women, mean age 58 years at baseline), 3,406 (6%) had CHIP, and 4,694 developed HF (8.3%) over up to 20 years of follow-up. CHIP was prospectively associated with a 25% increased risk of HF in meta-analysis (hazard ratio: 1.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.38) with consistent associations across cohorts. ASXL1, TET2, and JAK2 sequence variations were each associated with an increased risk of HF, whereas DNMT3A sequence variations were not associated with HF. Secondary analyses suggested large CHIP was associated with a greater risk of HF (hazard ratio: 1.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-1.44), and the associations for CHIP on HF with and without prior coronary heart disease were homogenous. ASXL1 sequence variations were associated with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

Conclusions: CHIP, particularly sequence variations in ASXL1, TET2, and JAK2, represents a new risk factor for HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313294PMC
July 2021

Effects of essential oil on growth performance, digestibility, immunity, and intestinal health in broilers.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 13;100(8):101242. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Essential oils (EO) are concentrated hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aromatic compounds obtained from plants, which have properties as withdrawn antibiotic growth promoters. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of EO on growth performance, digestibility, immunity and intestinal health in broilers. A total of 500 1-day-old Arbor Acre broilers were randomly put into five groups with 10 replicate cages containing 10 birds each. Birds in the 5 groups were fed a basal diet (CON), and basal diet with 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg EO (EO0.5, EO1, EO2 and EO4) for 42 d respectively. Birds were euthanized at 21d and 42 d, blood and tissue samples were collected. In the study, the digestibility of DM, GE and EE in groups with EO supplementation were significantly increased compared with CON group (P < 0.05). However, only EO2 and EO4 significantly increased the digestibility of CP compared with CON group (P < 0.05). In contrast to CON group, EO0.5 and EO1 in jejunum at 21 d, and EO1 in jejunum at 42 d markedly increased the activity of sucrase (P < 0.05). In addition, the level of SOD of EO2 and EO4 in serum at 21 d was significantly increased compared with CON group (P < 0.05). What's more, the concentration of intestinal mucosa SIgA in jejunum and ileum at 21 d of groups with EO supplementation was significantly increased compared with CON group (P < 0.05). Moreover, V/C in jejunum at 21 d of groups with EO supplementation, CD in jejunum at 42 d was also significantly increased to compare with CON group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression levels of critical genes associated with nutrient transportation (i.e., GLUT2, SGLT1, SLC38A, SLC79A and SLC27A4) and barrier function (TJP1) were quadratically and linearly up-regulated in jejunum and ileum with EO supplementation (P < 0.05). These results suggest that EO has a positive impact on growth, immunity and intestinal health in broilers, and 200 mg/kg of EO was recommended in broiler diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242051PMC
August 2021

Metal-Free Photosynthesis of Alkylated Benzimidazo[2,1-]isoquinoline-6(5)-ones and Indolo[2,1-]isoquinolin-6(5)-ones in PEG-200.

J Org Chem 2021 07 23;86(13):9055-9066. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Green Catalysis Center, College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

A visible-light-induced decarboxylation reaction was developed for the synthesis of alkylated benzimidazo[2,1-]isoquinoline-6(5)-ones and indolo[2,1-]isoquinolin-6(5)-ones under metal-free conditions. Impressively, metal catalysts and traditionally volatile organic solvents could be effectively avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c01022DOI Listing
July 2021
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