Publications by authors named "Bing Xu"

1,150 Publications

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Activation of CO by Alkaline-Earth Metal Hydrides: Matrix Infrared Spectra and DFT Calculations of HM(OCH) and (MH)(HCOOH) Complexes (M = Sr, Ba).

Inorg Chem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

Reactions of MH (M = Sr, Ba) with CO were explored in pure parahydrogen at 3.5 K using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The formate complex HM(-OCH) and formic acid complex (MH)(HCOOH) were trapped and identified by isotopic substitutions and density functional theory (DFT) frequency calculations. Natural population analysis and the CO reduction mechanism demonstrate that hydride ion transfer from a metal hydride to a CO moiety facilitates the stabilization of such complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01477DOI Listing
July 2021

Radiographic evaluation in three dimensions of condylar fractures with closed treatment in children and adolescents.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center of Stomatology, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The study aimed at investigating a new three-dimensional classification of healing morphology in condylar fractures in children and adolescents after closed treatment, and establish its association with fracture type and clinical outcomes. The medical records of children and adolescents with condylar fracture were reviewed, retrospectively. The clinical outcomes were assessed by mandibular deviation during mouth opening, Helkimo anamnestic index (Ai), and Helkimo clinical dysfunction index (Di). The condylar healing morphology was evaluated through three-dimensional CT images after 1-2 years of follow-up. In total, 96 patients with 142 condylar fracture sites were included in the study. Condylar healing morphology was classified into three main patterns: unchanged (21.13%), spherical (62.68%), and irregular (16.19% - including the three subtypes triangular, L-shaped, and Y-shaped). There was a significant difference in the distribution of the three main healing patterns among various fracture types (p = 0.0227). Irregular patterns occurred more frequently in adolescents than in children. In unilateral fractures, no obvious association was found between condylar healing morphology and clinical outcomes, including mandibular deviation during mouth opening (p = 0.162), Ai (p = 0.0991) and Di (p = 0.25). Most patients healing in different condylar patterns reached a good clinical outcome after 1-2 years. Although the healing morphology of condylar fractures in children and adolescents remained abnormal, good clinical outcome was achieved over the 2-year follow-up. Therefore, closed treatment remains a good approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2021.04.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Induction of Tertiary Phase Epileptiform Discharges after Postasphyxial Infusion of a Toll-Like Receptor 7 Agonist in Preterm Fetal Sheep.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 19;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 19.

The Department of Physiology, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand.

Background: Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are key immunomodulatory factors that can markedly ameliorate or exacerbate hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. We recently demonstrated that central infusion of the TLR7 agonist Gardiquimod (GDQ) following asphyxia was highly neuroprotective after 3 days but not 7 days of recovery. We hypothesize that this apparent transient neuroprotection is associated with modulation of seizure-genic processes and hemodynamic control.

Methods: Fetuses received sham asphyxia or asphyxia induced by umbilical cord occlusion (20.9 ± 0.5 min) and were monitored continuously for 7 days. GDQ 3.34 mg or vehicle were infused intracerebroventricularly from 1 to 4 h after asphyxia.

Results: GDQ infusion was associated with sustained moderate hypertension that resolved after 72 h recovery. Electrophysiologically, GDQ infusion was associated with reduced number and burden of postasphyxial seizures in the first 18 h of recovery ( < 0.05). Subsequently, GDQ was associated with induction of slow rhythmic epileptiform discharges (EDs) from 72 to 96 h of recovery ( < 0.05 vs asphyxia + vehicle). The total burden of EDs was associated with reduced numbers of neurons in the caudate nucleus ( = 0.61, < 0.05) and CA1/2 hippocampal region ( = 0.66, < 0.05).

Conclusion: These data demonstrate that TLR7 activation by GDQ modulated blood pressure and suppressed seizures in the early phase of postasphyxial recovery, with subsequent prolonged induction of epileptiform activity. Speculatively, this may reflect delayed loss of early protection or contribute to differential neuronal survival in subcortical regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234830PMC
June 2021

Robust rank aggregation and cibersort algorithm applied to the identification of key genes in head and neck squamous cell cancer.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 May;18(4):4491-4507

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210000, China.

Objective: Although multiple hub genes have been identified in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) in recent years, because of the limited sample size and inconsistent bioinformatics analysis methods, the results are not reliable. Therefore, it is urgent to use reliable algorithms to find new prognostic markers of HNSCC.

Method: The Robust Rank Aggregation (RRA) method was used to integrate 8 microarray datasets of HNSCC downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Later, Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation together with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis was carried out to discover functions of those discovered DEGs. According to the KEGG results, those discovered DEGs showed tight association with the occurrence and development of HNSCC. Then cibersort algorithm was used to analyze the infiltration of immune cells of HNSCC and we found that the main infiltrated immune cells were B cells, dendritic cells and macrophages. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was established; moreover, key modules were also constructed to select 5 hub genes from the whole network using cytoHubba. 3 hub genes showed significant relationship with prognosis for TCGA-derived HNSCC patients.

Result: The potent DEGs along with hub genes were selected by the combined bioinformatic approach. AURKA, BIRC5 and UBE2C genes may be the potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic targets of HNSCC.

Conclusions: The Robust Rank Aggregation method and cibersort algorithm method can accurately predict the potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic targets of HNSCC through multiple GEO datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2021228DOI Listing
May 2021

Alloyed Green-Emitting CdZnSeS/ZnS Quantum Dots with Dense Protective Layers for Stable Lighting and Display Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 29;13(27):32217-32225. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Guangdong University Key Laboratory for Advanced Quantum Dot Displays and Lighting, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Photonic-Thermal-Electrical Energy Materials and Devices, and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Alloyed green-emitting CdZnSeS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) demonstrate potential applications in solid-state lighting and displays owing to their various advantages, such as high color purity, light conversion efficiency, and color rendering index. However, their applications in white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) are limited by their poor photostabilities on blue-emitting gallium nitride (GaN) LED chips. In this study, the effect of the specific surface area (SSA) in the coating layers on the photostabilities of QDs was investigated. SSA was adjusted by controlling the proportions of dense aluminum oxide (AlO) layers and porous silica dioxide (SiO) layers to fabricate QD protective layers via a catalyst-free sol-gel method. The results showed that the synthesized AlO possessing the lowest SSA among the synthesis protective layers presented the best QD photostabilities on the LED chips. Moreover, they exhibited a 9.9-fold increase in the operational lifetime () compared to that of pristine QDs. In addition, the QD-based WLED achieved an excellent display performance with a wide color gamut (115%) of the National Television System Committee (NTSC) color gamut standard. This approach offers a promising strategy for enhancing the QD photostabilities for applications in solid-state lighting and displays by coating the protective layers on the QD surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07647DOI Listing
July 2021

50-gene risk profiles in peripheral blood predict COVID-19 outcomes: A retrospective, multicenter cohort study.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jun 19;69:103439. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Divison of Pulmonary, Critical Care & Sleep Medicine. University of South Florida, Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, FL 33602, USA. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19 has been associated with Interstitial Lung Disease features. The immune transcriptomic overlap between Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) and COVID-19 has not been investigated.

Methods: we analyzed blood transcript levels of 50 genes known to predict IPF mortality in three COVID-19 and two IPF cohorts. The Scoring Algorithm of Molecular Subphenotypes (SAMS) was applied to distinguish high versus low-risk profiles in all cohorts. SAMS cutoffs derived from the COVID-19 Discovery cohort were used to predict intensive care unit (ICU) status, need for mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality in the COVID-19 Validation cohort. A COVID-19 Single-cell RNA-sequencing cohort was used to identify the cellular sources of the 50-gene risk profiles. The same COVID-19 SAMS cutoffs were used to predict mortality in the IPF cohorts.

Findings: 50-gene risk profiles discriminated severe from mild COVID-19 in the Discovery cohort (P = 0·015) and predicted ICU admission, need for mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality (AUC: 0·77, 0·75, and 0·74, respectively, P < 0·001) in the COVID-19 Validation cohort. In COVID-19, 50-gene expressing cells with a high-risk profile included monocytes, dendritic cells, and neutrophils, while low-risk profile-expressing cells included CD4, CD8 T lymphocytes, IgG producing plasmablasts, B cells, NK, and gamma/delta T cells. Same COVID-19 SAMS cutoffs were also predictive of mortality in the University of Chicago (HR:5·26, 95%CI:1·81-15·27, P = 0·0013) and Imperial College of London (HR:4·31, 95%CI:1·81-10·23, P = 0·0016) IPF cohorts.

Interpretation: 50-gene risk profiles in peripheral blood predict COVID-19 and IPF outcomes. The cellular sources of these gene expression changes suggest common innate and adaptive immune responses in both diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214725PMC
June 2021

Integrated Analysis of Cell Cycle-Related and Immunity-Related Biomarker Signatures to Improve the Prognosis Prediction of Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 4;11:666826. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a leading malignancy and has a poor prognosis over the decades. LUAD is characterized by dysregulation of cell cycle. Immunotherapy has emerged as an ideal option for treating LUAD. Nevertheless, optimal biomarkers to predict outcomes of immunotherapy is still ill-defined and little is known about the interaction of cell cycle-related genes (CCRGs) and immunity-related genes (IRGs).

Methods: We downloaded gene expression and clinical data from TCGA and GEO database. LASSO regression and Cox regression were used to construct a differentially expressed CCRGs and IRGs signature. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to compare survival of LUAD patients. We constructed a nomogram to predict the survival and calibration curves were used to evaluate the accuracy.

Results: A total of 61 differentially expressed CCRGs and IRGs were screened out. We constructed a new risk model based on 8 genes, including ACVR1B, BIRC5, NR2E1, INSR, TGFA, BMP7, CD28, NUDT6. Subgroup analysis revealed the risk model accurately predicted the overall survival in LUAD patients with different clinical features and was correlated with immune cells infiltration. A nomogram based on the risk model exhibited excellent performance in survival prediction of LUAD.

Conclusions: The 8 gene survival signature and nomogram in our study are effective and have potential clinical application to predict prognosis of LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.666826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212041PMC
June 2021

Research Progress on Phytopathogenic Fungi and Their Role as Biocontrol Agents.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:670135. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Plant Protection, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

Phytopathogenic fungi decrease crop yield and quality and cause huge losses in agricultural production. To prevent the occurrence of crop diseases and insect pests, farmers have to use many synthetic chemical pesticides. The extensive use of these pesticides has resulted in a series of environmental and ecological problems, such as the increase in resistant weed populations, soil compaction, and water pollution, which seriously affect the sustainable development of agriculture. This review discusses the main advances in research on plant-pathogenic fungi in terms of their pathogenic factors such as cell wall-degrading enzymes, toxins, growth regulators, effector proteins, and fungal viruses, as well as their application as biocontrol agents for plant pests, diseases, and weeds. Finally, further studies on plant-pathogenic fungal resources with better biocontrol effects can help find new beneficial microbial resources that can control diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.670135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192705PMC
May 2021

Injectable Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Laden Matrigel Microspheres for Endometrium Repair and Regeneration.

Adv Biol (Weinh) 2021 Jun 12:e2000202. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Tsinghua-Berkeley Shenzhen Institute (TBSI), Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Endometrial injury and intrauterine adhesions are increasingly reported in recent years; however, treatment options remain limited. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for endometrium regeneration has limited effectiveness as the retention rate of transplanted cells is low. Hydrogel-based tissue-engineered solutions, such as MSC-seeded bioscaffolds, are reported to increase retention rates; however, a less invasive alternative is still desirable. 560-µm homogeneous Matrigel microspheres are fabricated, loading them with about 1500 MSCs and injecting them into the injured endometria of rats' uteri. This minimally invasive procedure is proved to significantly increase endometrium thickness by over onefold after 21 d (p < 0.0001) and fertility rates from 25% to 75% in impaired and repaired uteri (p < 0.001), respectively. This study provides a minimally invasive alternative to endometrium repair with the promise to establish a broad-spectrum technique for MSC transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.202000202DOI Listing
June 2021

Cleavage of the N≡N Triple Bond and Unpredicted Formation of the Cyclic 1,3-Diaza-2,4-Diborete (FB) N from N and Fluoroborylene BF.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 26;60(31):17205-17210. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Institut für Chemie und Biochemie - Anorganische Chemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Fabeckstrasse 34-36, 14195, Berlin, Germany.

A complete cleavage of the triple bond of N by fluoroborylene (:BF) was achieved in a low-temperature N matrix by the formation of the four-membered heterocycle FB(μ-N) BF, which lacks a trans-annular N-N bond. Additionally, the linear complex FB=N-N=BF and cyclic FB(η -N ) were formed. These novel species were characterized by their matrix infrared spectra and quantum-chemical calculations. The puckered four-membered-ring B N complex shows a delocalized aromatic two-electron π-system in conjugation with the exo-cyclic fluorine π lone pairs. This work may contribute to a rational design of catalysts based on borylene for artificial dinitrogen activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202106984DOI Listing
July 2021

The calcimedin annexin A3 displays tumor-promoting effect in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by activating NF-κB signaling.

Mamm Genome 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Chest Surgery, Gucheng County Hospital, No. 55 of Kangning East Road, Hengshui Gucheng, 253800, Hebei, China.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the lethal malignancies commonly found in the eastern world, with overall five-year survival rates less than 25%. The present study aimed to investigate the biological function of annexin A3 (ANXA3) in ESCC cell proliferation. The mRNA and protein levels of ANXA3 in ESCC tissues and cell lines were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Lentiviral transduction was applied to overexpress or reduce ANXA3 expression in ESCC cell lines. The effect of ANXA3 on ESCC cell proliferation was evaluated by cell-counting kit-8 assay in vitro and tumor-bearing animal model in vivo. We found that ANXA3 was substantially upregulated in ESCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues as well as ESCC cell lines compared to normal esophageal endothelial cells. Suppression of ANXA3 significantly inhibited ESCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. We further revealed that NF-κB was involved in ANXA3-mediated ESCC cell proliferation. Our results suggest that ANXA3 acts as an oncogene in ESCC, and targeting ANXA3 or NF-κB may serve as potential therapeutic strategies for patients with ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-021-09883-3DOI Listing
June 2021

The CD226-ERK1/2-LAMP1 pathway is an important mechanism for Vγ9Vδ2 T cell cytotoxicity against chemotherapy-resistant acute myeloid leukemia blasts and leukemia stem cells.

Cancer Sci 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Hematology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are attractive effector cells for immunotherapy with potent cytotoxic activity against a variety of malignant cells. However, the effect of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells on chemotherapy-resistant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts, especially highly refractory leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of cytotoxicity of allogeneic Vγ9Vδ2 T cells on chemotherapy-resistant AML cell lines, as well as on primary AML blasts and LSCs obtained from refractory AML patients. The results indicated that Vγ9Vδ2 T cells can efficiently kill drug-resistant AML cell lines in vitro and in vivo, and the sensitivity of AML cells to Vγ9Vδ2 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity is not influenced by the sensitivity of AML cells to chemotherapy. We further found that Vγ9Vδ2 T cells exhibited a comparable effect of cytotoxicity against LSCs to primary AML blasts. More importantly, we revealed that the CD226-extracellular signal-regulatory kinase1/2 (ERK1/2)-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) pathway is an important mechanism for Vγ9Vδ2 T cell-induced cytotoxicity against AML cells. First, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognized AML cells by receptor-ligand interaction of CD226-Nectin-2, which then induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Finally, triggering the movement of lytic granules toward AML cells induced cytolysis of AML cells. The expression level of Nectin-2 may be used as a novel marker to predict the susceptibility/resistance of AML cells to Vγ9Vδ2 T cell treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.15014DOI Listing
June 2021

The uncoupled anterior and posterior spinal ligament tension (UAPLT) - An improvement to three-dimensional spring model of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) pathogenesis.

Med Hypotheses 2021 Jul 27;152:110616. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Spine Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China; Zhongde Scoliosis Clinic and Research Center, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The pathogenesis of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) remains unclear. Previous research proposed that ligament laxity is a clinical feature that can be easily overlooked in patients with AIS. We speculated a new hypothesis which is an improvement of our three-dimensional spring model hypothesis of AIS pathogenesis. The tethered string in the spring model stimulates the spinal ligament instead of spinal cord. Spinal overgrowth in the adolescent age leads to higher tension of posterior spinal ligament. And the ligament laxity leads to lower tension of anterior spinal ligament. This uncoupled anterior and posterior spinal ligament tension maybe the key cause of AIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2021.110616DOI Listing
July 2021

FMS-Related Tyrosine Kinase 3 Ligand Promotes Radioresistance in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Pharmacol 2021 10;12:659735. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

The FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FL) has an important role in regulating FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt-3) activity. Serum FL levels are markedly increased among patients with hematopoietic disease. However, its role in radiation treatment remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of FL on radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). KYSE150 and KYSE450 cells were stimulated with FL (200 ng/ml). mRNA expression was analyzed using qRT-PCR. Cell viability was checked using CCK-8 assay kits. Proliferation was determined using the EdU assay. Radiosensitivity was detected through a colony-forming assay. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. The number of γH2AX foci was verified using an immunofluorescence assay. The change in relative proteins was determined by western blot analysis. The growth of transplanted tumors was demonstrated in nude mice. Our results showed that FL increased the radiation resistance of ESCC cells by promoting clone formation, increasing EdU incorporation, enhancing DNA damage repair, and inhibiting apoptosis. Moreover, the Flt-3 receptor expression significantly increased in ESCC cells after radiation, which may have been an important factor in their radioresistance. Our results suggest that FL increases the radioresistance of esophageal cancer cells and that FL-Flt-3 could be a potential target for enhancing radiosensitivity in ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.659735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141745PMC
May 2021

CDCA2 promotes tumorigenesis and induces radioresistance in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells.

Mol Med Rep 2021 07 26;24(1). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Synthetic Internal Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, P.R. China.

Cell division cycle‑associated 2 (CDCA2) overexpression has been demonstrated to serve a significant role in tumorigenesis in certain types of cancer. Nevertheless, its role in tumour proliferation and radioresistance in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains to be elucidated. Thus, the present study aimed to elucidate these roles. Data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to compare the gene expression profiles. The expression of CDCA2 was higher in ESCC tissues compared with normal tissues. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed based on the ESCC cohorts in TCGA database. This demonstrated that higher expression of CDCA2 was significantly associated with the expression of related components of the cell cycle phase transition and G2/M phase transition pathways. Collectively, the results revealed that CDCA2 could serve as an underlying target to regulate tumour growth and radioresistance among patients with ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170267PMC
July 2021

Metal Oxo-Fluoride Molecules OMF (M = Mn and Fe; = 1-4) and OMnF: Matrix Infrared Spectra and Quantum Chemistry.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jun 24;60(11):7687-7696. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics & Molecular Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

On reacting laser-ablated manganese or iron difluorides with O or O during codeposition in solid neon or argon, infrared absorptions of several new metal oxo-fluoride molecules, including OMF, (η-O)MF, (η-O)MF, (η-O)MF (M = Mn and Fe), and OMnF, have been observed. Quantum chemical density functional and multiconfiguration wavefunction calculations have been applied to characterize these new products by their geometric and electronic structures, vibrations, charges, and bonding. The assignment of the main vibrational absorptions as dominant symmetric or antisymmetric M-F or M-O stretching modes is confirmed by oxygen isotopic shifts and quantum chemical calculations of frequencies and thermal stabilities. The tendency of Fe to form polyoxygen complexes in lower oxidation states than the preceding element Mn is affirmed experimentally and supported theoretically. The M-F stretching frequencies of the isolated metal oxo-fluorides may provide a scale for the local charge on the MF sites in active energy conversion systems. The study of these species provides insights for understanding the trend of oxidation state changes across the transition-metal series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c03806DOI Listing
June 2021

Long-term results of combined porous tantalum augments and titanium-coated cups for Paprosky type III bone defects in acetabular revision.

Int Orthop 2021 07 21;45(7):1699-1706. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital/West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, 37# Wuhou Guoxue Road, Chengdu, 610041, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The use of porous tantalum augments and titanium-coated cups in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) with acetabular defects has shown satisfactory outcomes in our centre. The aim of this study was to report the long-term radiological and clinical outcomes of using this combination for Paprosky type III acetabular bone defects in acetabular revision.

Patients And Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2015, 45 patients with Paprosky type III acetabular defects underwent acetabular revision using a combination of porous tantalum augments and titanium-coated cups. Among these, 41 patients (41 hips) had complete follow-up. Thirty-one patients had a Paprosky type IIIA defect, and ten patients had a Paprosky type IIIB defect. No patients had pelvic discontinuity. There were 20 males and 21 females with an average age of 63.2 years (range 35-80) at the time of revision surgery.

Results: The mean follow-up was 122.8 months (range 69-165). The Harris Hip Score (HHS) improved significantly from 32.1 points (range 17-58) pre-operatively to 85.3 points (63-98) at the last follow-up. The Short Form-12 (SF-12) and Hip Dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) improved significantly for each item at the last follow-up. Two patients had a high hip centre post-operatively. One patient had recurrent dislocation but did not require re-revision. No further revision of the acetabular components was required, and all hips remained stable at the last follow-up with bony ingrowth of the acetabular components according to the criteria of Moore et al. CONCLUSION: The combination of tantalum augments and conventional titanium-coated cups achieved satisfactory long-term radiographic and clinical outcomes for Paprosky type III acetabular bone defects without pelvic discontinuity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-021-05075-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Applied research on aquatic macrophyte fermentation broth in SBR denitrification.

Water Environ Res 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan, China.

In the traditional biological process for nitrogen removal, an insufficient carbon source is often the limiting factor. To solve this problem, reed fermentation broth was selected as the source of denitrification carbon for nitrogen removal in a SBR, and the influence of different C/N conditions on the denitrification and the characteristics of bacteria in the reactor were examined. Leaching experiments with reeds employed fluorescence excitation-emission spectrophotometry and revealed that the reed material had a high capacity for carbon release, the average dissolved organic carbon release content proportion was 11.3 mg/g, and the dissolved organic matter mainly consisted of humic acid-like compounds. Using reed fermentation broth as an additional carbon source promoted the denitrification of wastewater by microbes. When reed fermentation broth was added at a C/N ratio of 6, the best nitrogen efficiency for nitrogen removal was 88.3-96.4%. Analyses of microbial diversity indicated that in the SBR reactor, the relative abundance of denitrifying bacteria at the genus level reached 38.5%. These results revealed that reed fermentation broth promoted the growth of anaerobic denitrifying bacteria and improved the efficiency of denitrification. The findings will contribute to a better understanding of the use of reed fermentation broth as an external carbon source that increases the efficiency for denitrification of wastewater. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Using fluorescence excitation-emission spectrophotometry and parallel factor analysis to evaluate the supply capacity of DOMs released from reed. Research the feasibility of reed fermented broth as external carbon source under the condition of extremely low carbon source. Provides theoretical guidance for deep denitrification in sewage treatment plant with SBR process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.1584DOI Listing
May 2021

Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Mediates Microglial Activation in Mice With Diabetic Retinopathy.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 04;10(4):20

Department of Chest Surgery, Gucheng County Hospital, Hengshui Gucheng, Hebei, China.

Purpose: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries, in which microglial activation is involved. However, the mechanism of microglial activation in DR remains largely unknown.

Methods: We used Cx3cr1CreERT2; Sykfl/fl mice to knockout microglial spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in the retina of mice (cKO mice) after streptozotocin injection to induce diabetes. We also isolated primary retinal microglia from wild-type and cKO mice, respectively, to explore the role of microglial Syk in DR.

Results: The deletion of microglial Syk in the retina of mice or in the primary retinal microglia inhibited microglial activation and inflammatory response, eventually leading to the improvement of DR by regulating the expressions of interferon regulatory factor 8 (Irf8) and Pu.1 both in vivo and in vitro.

Conclusions: The deletion of microglial Syk in the retina effectively ameliorated microglial activation-induced DR, suggesting the potential of microglial Syk as a therapeutic target for DR.

Translational Relevance: Microglial spleen tyrosine kinase might serve as a potential therapeutic target for diabetic retinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.4.20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083065PMC
April 2021

Increased quality of life in patients with stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic: a matched-pair study.

Sci Rep 2021 05 13;11(1):10277. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Public Health, China Medical University, No.77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

Patients with stroke are likely to experience impaired health-related quality of life (QOL), especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate the QOL of Chinese patients with stroke during the pandemic and explore the associated variables. A matched-pair, multicenter survey was conducted before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Questionnaires including the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale, and the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR) were used. A total of 172 matched pairs (344 patients) were recruited in this study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze variables associated with QOL. Physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS) were higher among the stroke patients during the pandemic (44.20 ± 18.92 and 54.24 ± 19.08) than before the pandemic (37.98 ± 14.52 and 43.50 ± 20.94). Pandemic stress, demographic and clinical characteristics were negative variables associated with PCS and MCS. QPR was positively associated with PCS and MCS. The QOL of Chinese stroke patients was higher during than before the COVID-19 pandemic. Pandemic stress aggravated stroke patients' QOL, while personal recovery could alleviate the detrimental effect of pandemic stress on QOL for stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89746-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8119409PMC
May 2021

Coupled dynamic reaction force study of a large-aperture piezoelectric fast steering mirror.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(12):3393-3402

The reaction force of a large-aperture piezoelectric fast steering mirror (PFSM) has adverse coupling interference for the stability and pointing accuracy of laser beams, and the dynamic characteristics of the reaction force are coupled with the inner components of the PFSM. In order to compensate for and eliminate the reaction force, it is essential to accurately analyze the dynamic characteristics. In this paper, a simplified piezoelectric-coupling model of PFSM is established. The coupling mathematical equations for investigating the characteristics of the reaction force are deducted based on the piezoelectric constitutive equation and Hamiltonian's principle. Then the coupling characteristics of the reaction force are probed by a finite element (FE) piezoelectric-coupling method. The simulations for three large apertures' (250, 320, and 400 mm) FE models show that the reaction force has a linear positive correlation with the actuating voltage, and coupled with the materials of the central flexure hinge, the relationship between the reaction force and driving frequency is not completely quadratic. Experiments with the 320 mm aperture are completed, and the testing results are consistent with the mathematical model and the FE piezoelectric-coupling simulation. The dynamic characteristics of the reaction force demonstrated in this paper are significance for the accurate estimation of the reaction force, the design of compensation structure, and the optimization of algorithm for beam jitter controlling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.420904DOI Listing
April 2021

Long Non-Coding RNA CASC2 Overexpression Ameliorates Sepsis-Associated Acute Kidney Injury by Regulating MiR-545-3p/PPARA Axis.

J Surg Res 2021 Sep 3;265:223-232. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of orthopedics, Chengdu Second People's Hospital; Sichuau, China. Electronic address:

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to be involved in the progression of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we aimed to explore the functions of lncRNA cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (CASC2) in sepsis-induced AKI.

Methods: The sepsis cell models were established by exposing HK2 and HEK293 cells into lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was conducted to determine the expression of CASC2, miR-545-3p and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARA) mRNA. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry analysis and wound healing assay were employed for cell viability, apoptosis and migration, respectively. Western blot assay was conducted for the protein levels of E-cadherin, α-SMA and PPARA. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by specific kits. The relationship between miR-545-3p and CASC2 or PPARA was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay.

Results: CASC2 level was decreased in sepsis patients' serums and LPS-treated HK2 and HEK293 cells. CASC2 overexpression facilitated cell viability and restrained cell apoptosis, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and oxidative stress in LPS-triggered HK2 and HEK293 cells. CASC2 was identified as a sponge for miR-545-3p to regulate PPARA expression. MiR-545-3p overexpression restored the impact of CASC2 on LPS-induced injury in HK2 and HEK293 cells. Moreover, miR-545-3p overexpression aggravated LPS-induced cell injury in HK2 and HEK293 cells by targeting PPARA.

Conclusion: CASC2 overexpression relieved the damage of HK2 and HEK293 cells mediated by LPS treatment through regulating miR-545-3p/PPARA axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2021.03.047DOI Listing
September 2021

Dynamic Continuum of Nanoscale Peptide Assemblies Facilitates Endocytosis and Endosomal Escape.

Nano Lett 2021 05 3;21(9):4078-4085. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Chemistry, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, Massachusetts 02453, United States.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enables intracellular targeting by peptide assemblies, but how the ALP substrates enter cells remains elusive. Here we show that nanoscale phosphopeptide assemblies cluster ALP to enable caveolae-mediated endocytosis (CME) and endosomal escape. Specifically, fluorescent phosphopeptides undergo enzyme-catalyzed self-assembly to form nanofibers. Live cell imaging unveils that phosphopeptides nanoparticles, coincubated with HEK293 cells overexpressing red fluorescent protein-tagged tissue-nonspecific ALP (TNAP-RFP), cluster TNAP-RFP in lipid rafts to enable CME. Further dephosphorylation of the phosphopeptides produces peptidic nanofibers for endosomal escape. Inhibiting TNAP, cleaving the membrane anchored TNAP, or disrupting lipid rafts abolishes the endocytosis. Decreasing the transformation to nanofibers prevents the endosomal escape. As the first study establishing a dynamic continuum of nanoscale assemblies for cellular uptake, this work illustrates an effective design for enzyme-responsive supramolecular therapeutics and provides mechanism insights for understanding the dynamics of cellular uptake of proteins or exogenous peptide aggregates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180093PMC
May 2021

Adaptive parameter of standard deviation enhances the power of noninvasive prenatal screens.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Apr 28:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Beijing USCI Medical Laboratory, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Traditional test methods during noninvasive prenatal screens (NIPS) use the fixed parameter of standard deviation (SD), which ignores the influence of actual sequencing read counts of a sample on the results. The aim of this study is to eliminate the influence of the sequencing depth of individual samples on the results and enhance the power of NIPS.

Methods: In this study, we propose an improved NIPS method, which calculates the SD in the score process adaptively according to the actual read count of the test sample. Our approach obtained the SD linear fitting function along with the read count with a large number of reference samples, in which SD and read count fit well. The effectiveness of our enhanced NIPS method was evaluated on three common trisomy syndromes and five recurrent CNV syndromes with 3219 and 6592 samples based on whole genome sequencing of maternal peripheral blood.

Results: A total of 3,219 pregnant samples have been used for validating the proposed method on detecting fetal trisomy syndromes (T13, T18, and T21), in which eight false negative (FN) samples have been corrected as true positive (TP) and eight false positive (FP) samples have been fixed as true negative (TN) with our proposed adaptive-SD method. Another 6592 samples were used to compare the two methods on detecting five recurrent fetal copy number variation (CNV) syndromes, in which the FP samples have decreased from 99 to 39.

Conclusions: Our adaptive-SD NIPS method shows more power on detecting both trisomy syndromes and five recurrent CNVs in the pregnant samples with diverse read counts. Besides, our proposed method contributes to lower FP and FN samples than the traditional test method in NIPS. Our results show that our enhanced NIPS methods are effective in detecting both abnormal fetal trisomy syndromes and recurrent CNV syndromes in pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1912001DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of polysaccharide on human retinoblastoma Y79 cell proliferation and apoptosis.

Int J Ophthalmol 2021 18;14(4):497-503. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Fuling Central Hospital, Chongqing 408000, China.

Aim: To explore the effect of the () polysaccharide on the proliferation and apoptosis of human retinoblastoma (RB) Y79 cells and its mechanism.

Methods: The refined polysaccharide was obtained using techniques such as water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and decompression concentration. The inhibition effect of the polysaccharide on the proliferation of Y79 cells was detected by cell proliferation assay. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis rate and cycle change. Real-time qunatitative polymerase chain reaction (RT qPCR)and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of cell apoptosis signal pathway-related factors (caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9) and cell cycle signal pathway-related factors (CDK1 and cyclinB1) at the transcriptional and translational levels.

Results: Infrared and ultraviolet spectrum scanning showed that the extracted drug was a polysaccharide with high purity. After being treated with different concentrations of polysaccharide for different periods of time, the Y79 cells showed different degrees of proliferation inhibition. Flow cytometric observations showed that the cell apoptosis rate and the proportion of cells blocked in the G2/M phase were significantly increased after polysaccharide treatment. Further analysis revealed that the mRNA and protein expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 in the polysaccharide treatment groups increased significantly compared with that in the control groups, while the expression of CDK1 and cyclinB1 decreased significantly.

Conclusion: The polysaccharide could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of Y79 cells. Its possible mechanism is the upregulation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 expression in the cell apoptotic signaling pathway and the downregulation of CDK1 and cyclinB1 expression in the cell cycle signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2021.04.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025161PMC
April 2021

Mechanisms exploration of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Ligusticum Chuanxiong Rhizoma herb-pair for liver fibrosis prevention based on network pharmacology and experimental pharmacologylogy.

Chin J Nat Med 2021 Apr;19(4):241-254

School of Life Sciences, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui) and Ligusticum Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan Xiong) herb-pair (DC) have been frequently used in Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescriptions for hundreds of years to prevent vascular diseases and alleviate pain. However, the mechanism of DC herb-pair in the prevention of liver fibrosis development was still unclear. In the present study, the effects and mechanisms of DC herb-pair on liver fibrosis were examined using network pharmacology and mouse fibrotic model. Based on the network pharmacological analysis of 13 bioactive ingredients found in DC, a total of 46 targets and 71 pathways related to anti-fibrosis effects were obtained, which was associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway, hepatic inflammation and fibrotic response. Furthermore, this hypothesis was verified using carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced fibrosis model. Measurement of liver functional enzyme activities and histopathological examination showed that DC dramatically reduced bile acid levels, inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition caused by CCl. The increased expression of liver fibrosis markers, such as collagen 1, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and inflammatory factors, such as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (MCP-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 in fibrotic mice were significantly downregulated by DC herb-pair through regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)-protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways. Collectively, these results suggest that DC prevents the development of liver fibrosis by inhibiting collagen deposition, decreasing inflammatory reactions and bile acid accumulation, which provides insights into the mechanisms of herb-pair in improving liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60026-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Disulfiram/copper shows potent cytotoxic effects on myelodysplastic syndromes via inducing Bip-mediated apoptosis and suppressing autophagy.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jul 16;902:174107. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University and Institute of Hematology, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361003, China; Key Laboratory of Xiamen for Diagnosis and Treatment of Hematological Malignancy, Xiamen, 361003, China. Electronic address:

Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who resist or fail to respond to hypomethylating agents (HMAs) show very poor outcomes and have no effective treatment strategies. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed for MDS patients harboring adverse prognostic factors. Repurposing disulfiram (DSF), an alcohol-abuse drug, with or without Copper (Cu) has attracted considerable attentions as a candidate anti-tumor therapy in diverse malignancies. However, the effect of DSF in the presence or absence of Cu on MDS has not been reported yet. In this study, we found that monotherapy with DSF showed mild cytotoxic effects on MDS preclinical models. However, the anti-tumor activity of DSF was significantly enhanced in the presence of Cu in MDS in vitro and in vivo with minimal safety profiles. DSF/Cu combination blocked MDS cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase, accompanied by reduction of the S phase. Accordingly, co-treatment with DSF and Cu downregulated the expression of Cyclin D1 and Cyclin A2, whereas this combination upregulated the level of P21 and P27. Mechanistically, the anti-MDS effectiveness of DSF/Cu was potentially associated with activation of the ER stress-related Bip pathway and inactivation of the Akt pathway. In addition, inhibition of autophagy process also contributed to the cytotoxicity of DSF/Cu in MDS cells. In conclusion, these findings provide impressive evidence that the DSF/Cu complex shows potent anti-tumor efficacies on MDS preclinical models, representing a potential alternative therapy for MDS patients and warranting further investigation in clinical contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174107DOI Listing
July 2021

Anlotinib suppresses MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia cell growth by inhibiting SETD1A/AKT-mediated DNA damage response.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1494-1504. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University and Institute of Hematology, School of Medicine, Xiamen University Xiamen 361003, P. R. China.

Leukemias driven by chromosomal translocation of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene are highly prevalent in hematological malignancy. The poor survival rate and lack of effective targeted therapy for patients with MLL-rearranged (MLL-r) leukemias emphasize an urgent need for improved knowledge and novel therapeutic approaches for these malignancies. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effectiveness and mechanism of Anlotinib, a novel receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in MLL-r acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The findings revealed that Anlotinib significantly inhibited the growth of MLL-r AML cells in both and a murine xenograft model. RNA sequencing identified that multiple genes involved in DNA damage response were responsible for Anlotinib activity. To further elucidate the correlation between the DNA damage response induced by Anlotinib and MLL fusion, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) was conducted. It revealed that Anlotinib impaired DNA damage response via inhibiting SETD1A and AKT. In conclusion, Anlotinib exerts anti-leukemia function by inhibiting SETD1A/AKT-mediated DNA damage response and highlights a novel mechanism underlying Anlotinib in the treatment of MLL-r AML.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014360PMC
March 2021

Effect of Spray Drying Conditions on Physical Properties of Saponin (PNS) Powder and the Intra-Batch Dissolution Variability of PNS Hydrophilic Matrix Tablet.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 30;15:1425-1440. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Chinese Medicine Informatics, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Understanding raw material variability and its impact on product quality are crucial for developing robust pharmaceutical processes. This work aimed to study the effects of spray drying conditions on properties of the spray dried saponin (PNS) powders as well as the subsequent intra-batch dissolution variability of PNS hydrophilic matrix tablets.

Methods: The Plackett-Burman design was applied to screen the critical process parameters (CPPs). Then, the Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the relationship between the CPPs and the physiochemical properties of spray dried PNS powders. The PNS hydrophilic matrix tablets containing 57% spray dried PNS powders were directly compressed. The partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to uncover the hidden multivariate relationships among the CPPs, intermediate powder properties, and tablet quality attributes.

Results: The identified CPPs were the feed concentration, the inlet air temperature, and the atomization pressure. It was found that the CPPs exerted little impact on chemical properties of spray dried PNS powders, but had significant impact on physical properties, such as particle size, specific surface area, bulk density, hygroscopicity, and inter-particle porosity, etc. Latent variable modeling results revealed that the high inlet air temperature of spray drying process could produce PNS powders with low moisture content and high hygroscopicity, which were beneficial to reduce the intra-batch dissolution variability of PNS hydrophilic matrix tablets. Finally, a design space of the spray drying process was built in order to ensure the dissolution consistency.

Conclusion: Our research provided a reference for improving the spray drying conditions in order to ensure the dissolution consistency of the PNS hydrophilic matrix tablet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S295825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019609PMC
March 2021

Improving the torsion performance of IPMC by changing the electrode separation.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 7;11(1):7639. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chao Hu University, Hefei, China.

Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are widely studied as actuators and sensors, due to their large bending motion, flexibility and being light-weight. Nowadays, IPMCs are used in the bionic field, for example, to achieve bending and twisting movements of wings and fins. In this paper, a method is proposed to optimize the torsion performance of IPMCs by changing the electrode separation. The IPMCs with patterned electrode fabricated by masking technique are proposed to accomplish twisting motion. The result indicates that the torsion performance is improved as the electrode separation increased. Thereby it provides a new strategy for the bionic field with twisting behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87347-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027434PMC
April 2021