Publications by authors named "Bing Huang"

488 Publications

Long Non-coding RNA TMEM220-AS1 Suppressed Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Regulating the miR-484/MAGI1 Axis as a Competing Endogenous RNA.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 5;9:681529. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Liver Transplantation, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have a considerable regulatory influence on multiple biological processes. Nevertheless, the role of TMEM220-AS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. We used The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to analyze the differentially expressed lncRNAs. qRT-PCR was used to verify the results for a large population. The effects of TMEM220-AS1 on HCC cells were determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), flow cytometry, and Transwell assays in HCC cells. We used qRT-PCR and western blotting to identify the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, we performed bioinformatics analysis, western blotting, dual luciferase reporter gene assay, RNA pull-down, and RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of TMEM220-AS1 function. Finally, the function of TMEM220-AS1 was verified . The results showed that TMEM220-AS1 was expressed at considerably low levels in HCC. It was demonstrated that malignant phenotypes and EMT of HCC cells were promoted by the knock down of TMEM220-AS1 both and . TMEM220-AS1, which was detected primarily in the cytoplasm, functioned as an miRNA sponge to bind miR-484 and promote the level of membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW, and PDZ domain containing 1 (), thereby curbing the malignant phenotypes of HCC cells. In conclusion, low levels of TMEM220-AS1 promote proliferation and metastasis through the miR-484/ axis in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.681529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8376477PMC
August 2021

IFN-γ-induced ER stress impairs autophagy and triggers apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

Oncoimmunology 2021 10;10(1):1962591. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Thoracic Surgery Laboratory, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a major effector molecule of immunity and a common feature of tumors responding to immunotherapy. Active IFN-γ signaling can directly trigger apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. Here, we report that IFN-γ rapidly increases protein synthesis and causes the unfolded protein response (UPR), as evidenced by the increased expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, activating transcription factor-4, and c/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in cells treated with IFN-γ. The JAK1/2-STAT1 and AKT-mTOR signaling pathways are required for IFN-γ-induced UPR. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress promotes autophagy and restores homeostasis. Surprisingly, in IFN-γ-treated cells, autophagy was impaired at the step of autophagosome-lysosomal fusion and caused by a significant decline in the expression of lysosomal membrane protein-1 and -2 (LAMP-1/LAMP-2). The ER stress inhibitor 4-PBA restored LAMP expression in IFN-γ-treated cells. IFN-γ stimulation activated the protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic initiation factor 2a subunit (eIF2α) axis and caused a reduction in global protein synthesis. The PERK inhibitor, GSK2606414, partially restored global protein synthesis and LAMP expression in cells treated with IFN-γ. We further investigated the functional consequences of IFN-γ-induced ER stress. We show that inhibition of ER stress significantly prevents IFN-γ-triggered apoptosis. CHOP knockdown abrogated IFN-γ-mediated apoptosis. Inhibition of ER stress also restored cyclin D1 expression in IFN-γ-treated cells. Thus, ER stress and the UPR caused by IFN-γ represent novel mechanisms underlying IFN-γ-mediated anticancer effects. This study expands our understanding of IFN-γ-mediated signaling and its cellular actions in tumor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2021.1962591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8366549PMC
August 2021

Ab Initio Machine Learning in Chemical Compound Space.

Chem Rev 2021 Aug 13;121(16):10001-10036. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Chemical compound space (CCS), the set of all theoretically conceivable combinations of chemical elements and (meta-)stable geometries that make up matter, is colossal. The first-principles based virtual sampling of this space, for example, in search of novel molecules or materials which exhibit desirable properties, is therefore prohibitive for all but the smallest subsets and simplest properties. We review studies aimed at tackling this challenge using modern machine learning techniques based on (i) synthetic data, typically generated using quantum mechanics based methods, and (ii) model architectures inspired by quantum mechanics. Such Quantum mechanics based Machine Learning (QML) approaches combine the numerical efficiency of statistical surrogate models with an ab initio view on matter. They rigorously reflect the underlying physics in order to reach universality and transferability across CCS. While state-of-the-art approximations to quantum problems impose severe computational bottlenecks, recent QML based developments indicate the possibility of substantial acceleration without sacrificing the predictive power of quantum mechanics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c01303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391942PMC
August 2021

Charge Transfer Gap Tuning via Structural Distortion in Monolayer 1T-NbSe.

Nano Lett 2021 Aug 5;21(16):7005-7011. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

School of Physics and Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, People's Republic of China.

The Mott state in 1T-TaS is predicted to host quantum spin liquids (QSLs). However, its insulating mechanism is controversial due to complications from interlayer coupling. Here, we study the charge transfer state in monolayer 1T-NbSe, an electronic analogue to TaS exempt from interlayer coupling, using spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles calculations. Monolayer NbSe surprisingly displays two types of star of David (SD) motifs with different charge transfer gap sizes, which are interconvertible via temperature variation. In addition, bilayer 1T-NbSe shows a Mott collapse by interlayer coupling. Our calculation unveils that the two types of SDs possess distinct structural distortions, altering the effective Coulomb energies of the central Nb orbital. Our calculation suggests that the charge transfer gap, the same parameter for determining the QSL regime, is tunable with strain. This finding offers a general strategy for manipulating the charge transfer state in related systems, which may be tuned into the potential QSL regime.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02348DOI Listing
August 2021

Specific electromagnetic radiation in the wireless signal range increases wakefulness in mice.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology and Frontier Research Center for Biological Structure, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the environment has increased sharply in recent decades. The effect of environmental EMR on living organisms remains poorly characterized. Here, we report the impact of wireless-range EMR on the sleep architecture of mouse. Prolonged exposure to 2.4-GHz EMR modulated by 100-Hz square pulses at a nonthermal output level results in markedly increased time of wakefulness in mice. These mice display corresponding decreased time of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM). In contrast, prolonged exposure to unmodulated 2.4-GHz EMR at the same time-averaged output level has little impact on mouse sleep. These observations identify alteration of sleep architecture in mice as a specific physiological response to prolonged wireless-range EMR exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2105838118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8346830PMC
August 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Awake CT-guided Percutaneous Balloon Compression of Trigeminal Ganglion for Trigeminal Neuralgia.

Pain Med 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Objectives: To describe the method and clinical efficacy of awake CT-guided percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) as a treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN).

Design: In this case-series, TN patients were treated with awake CT-guided PBC and followed for treatment efficacy and complications for 12 months.

Setting: A single-center study.

Subjects: 66 patients with medical treatment-refractory TN were recruited for the study.

Methods: The procedure was performed under moderate sedation. A balloon catheter was inserted through a trocar needle to reach Meckel's cavity under CT-guidance. The position and optimal shape of the contrast-filled balloon was confirmed with CT 3-dimension reconstruction. Compression of the TG was considered completed when the patient notified operators about facial hypoesthesia or the resolution of TN symptoms. All patients were followed up monthly for 12 months to monitor treatment efficacy and complications.

Results: The average TG compression time was 272±81 seconds, at which point the patients reported significant facial hypoesthesia comparing to the contralateral side or resolution of triggered pain in the affected area. All patients had resolution of TN symptoms for 6 months, with a 1-year recurrent rate of 13%. Overall safety profile is improved with the current technique. Side effects, such as hypoesthesia, and mastication weakness, were overall mild, and did not impact patients' quality-of-life. Some complications that were historically associated with PBC, such as diplopia and keratitis, were not present.

Conclusions: This new awake CT-guided PBC technique produces better outcomes than the traditional PBC under fluoroscopy-guidance and general anesthesia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnab228DOI Listing
July 2021

Transforming C Molecules into Polyhedral Carbon Micro-Nano Shells for Electrochemically Producing HO in Neutral Electrolytes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 22;13(30):35856-35864. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

CAS Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, and Fujian Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

The electrochemical production of hydrogen peroxide (HO) via the two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) can realize the customer-oriented onsite synthesis of HO in a green and sustainable method. The ongoing challenge that needs to be solved is the fabrication of robust electrocatalysts of excellent performance. In this work, C was selected as a precursor due to its uniform structure and abundant pentagon rings. Thanks to the strong interaction between C and thiophene, after heteromolecule assembly in the liquid reaction and subsequent reconstruction of the carbon topological structure in solid calcination, C was successfully transformed into polyhedral carbon micro-nano shells (PCMNS) with an effective pore structure for the first time, which exhibited excellent capacity for production of HO via two-electron ORR, especially in neutral media. In addition to the high onset potential (0.49 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)) and low Tafel slope (72 mV dec), its selectivity reached >90% within the potential range of 0.30-0.45 V and maintained >80% after constant potential electrolysis for 10 h. The yield rate of HO was 1102.5 mmol g h, determined by an H-type electrolytic cell, which was one of the highest values of metal-free carbon-based ORR electrocatalysts ever reported. Such excellent two-electron ORR performance of PCMNS was attributed to its abundant accessible active sites and hierarchical pore structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c11318DOI Listing
August 2021

Correction: Procollagen-lysine 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 promotes hypoxia-induced glioma migration and invasion.

Oncotarget 2021 Jul 6;12(14):1442-1443. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University and Brain Science Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.15581.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.28003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274718PMC
July 2021

Spontaneous fundus lesions in elderly monkeys: An ideal model for age-related macular degeneration and high myopia clinical research.

Life Sci 2021 Oct 10;282:119811. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and high myopia are frequent causes of progressive visual impairment, so it is critical to identify animal models with resembling human retinal physiology, AMD and high myopia pathological features for therapeutic studies.

Main Methods: We screened elderly cynomolgus monkeys for fundus lesions by slit-lamp biomicroscope combined with fundus pre-set lens and further examined positive cases by color fundus photography (CFP), optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), streak retinoscopy, and A-scan ultrasonography.

Key Findings: Among the 156 animals examined, 10 males and 5 females (30 eyes) exhibited fundus abnormalities (9.6% prevalence). Multi-modal imaging revealed drusen in 20 eyes of 11 animals (prevalence rate of 7.1%), tessellated fundus in 22 eyes of 11 animals, and myopia choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in 4 eyes of 3 animals.

Significance: Aged cynomolgus monkeys exhibit spontaneous fundus lesions resembling human AMD and high myopia, which could be an ideal model for clinical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119811DOI Listing
October 2021

CT-guided Chemical Lumbar Sympathectomy in the Treatment of Cold Hypersensitivity in the Hands and Feet.

Pain Physician 2021 Jul;24(4):E459-E466

First Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet is a common clinical symptom in Asian women. Currently, treatment of cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet is still limited to traditional Chinese medicine, mainly herbal medicine. However, many patients with cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet in China are not satisfied with the therapeutic effect of herbal medicine, and took medication for a longer time. Chemical lumbar sympathectomy is widely used in the treatment of plantar hyperhidrosis, diabetic foot, recalcitrant erythromelalgia, and other diseases.

Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the short-term as well as long-term efficacy, complications, and patient satisfaction of chemical lumbar sympathectomy during treatment cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet.

Study Design: A retrospective, observational study.

Setting: Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Jiaxing, China.

Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients with cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet who received chemical lumbar sympathectomy treatment in our hospital from January 2015 to October 2018 was conducted. The heart rate, non-invasive blood pressure, oxygen saturation, visual analog scale, perfusion index, and plantar temperature were monitored and recorded in before treatment (T1) and after treatment (T2) groups. The patients were followed up on day 1, at week 1, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, one year, and 2 years after operation for satisfaction, complications, and recurrence.

Results: There were no significant differences in heart rate, non-invasive blood pressure, and oxygen saturation between T1 and T2 groups (P > 0.05). Perfusion index and plantar temperature in T2 group were remarkably higher than T1 group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The visual analog scale score of the T2 group was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). Of all the patients who underwent chemical lumbar sympathectomy, the postoperative therapeutic effect was effective in 63 cases (87.5%) and ineffective in 9 cases (12.5%). Among the effective patients, the postoperative curative effect was shown to be excellent in 47 cases and improved in 16 cases. According to the follow-up results at day 1, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after operation, the satisfaction rate was 87.5%, 87.5%, 81.9%, 61.1%, 52.7%, 41.6%, and 34.7%, respectively. There were no serious complications observed and 23 patients relapsed after two years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis results showed that the effect of visual analog scale (OR = 7.312, 95% CI: 1.598 - 33.646, P = 0.011) and plantar temperature (OR = 0.470, 95% CI: 0.288 - 0.766, P = 0.002) on therapeutic effect showed has statistical significance; the effect of gender (OR = 0.654, 95% CI: 0.134 - 3.181, P = 0.599), age (OR = 0.975, 95% CI: 0.916 - 1.039, P = 0.441), perfusion index (OR = 0.710, 95% CI: 0.367 - 1.375, P = 0.310), and disease course (OR = 1.019, 95% CI: 0.997 - 1.042, P = 0.088) on therapeutic effect showed no statistical significance. The effect of gender (OR = 0.451, 95% CI 0.131 - 1.554, P = 0.207), age (OR = 0.961, 95% CI 0.912 - 1.013, P = 0.141), and course of disease (OR = 1.006, 95% CI 0.997 - 1.015, P = 0.203) on postoperative recurrence showed no statistical significance.

Limitations: The nonrandomized, single-center, small sample size, retrospective design is a major limitation of this study.

Conclusions: Chemical lumbar sympathectomy is a valid treatment option for cold hypersensitivity in hands and feet, and computed tomography-guided percutaneous puncture chemical lumbar sympathectomy has the advantages of high success rate, less invasion, less complications, and repeatablity.
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July 2021

Extracranial Non-Gasserian Ganglion Application of Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation on the Mandibular Branch of the Trigeminal through the Foramen Ovale for Trigeminal Neuralgia.

Pain Physician 2021 Jul;24(4):E425-E432

First Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the trigeminal Gasserian ganglion via the foramen ovale is still one of the classic treatments for primary trigeminal neuralgia. However, the Gasserian ganglion is deep in the middle cranial fossa. Although it is a structure outside the brain tissue, the puncture needle must enter the encephalic to reach the Gasserian ganglion and so it is difficult to completely avoid the risk of intracranial hemorrhage and infection caused by puncture damage to intracranial blood vessels. It is not clear whether if it is possible for RFA at the extracranial non-gasserian-ganglion site via the exit of the cranial channel (foramen ovale) for patients with V3 trigeminal neuralgia (TN).

Study Design: Prospective, clinical research study.

Setting: Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medical Center, Jiaxing, China.

Methods: One hundred and seven patients with isolated mandibular branch trigeminal neuralgia were included. Radiofrequency thermocoagulation was performed by CT-guided percutaneous puncture through the foramen ovale. The puncture target was the midpoint of the horizontal transverse diameter of the oval foramen. If the tingling sensation in the mandibular nerve innervation area could be detected, the radiofrequency thermocoagulation (90°C, 120 sec) under intravenous anesthesia would be performed. We investigated the inclination angle, puncture angle and depth, puncture operation time, intraoperative complications and short-term and long-term results after operation.

Results: After radiofrequency thermocoagulation, the pain in the mandibular branch dominant area was completely diminished in 104 patients. Two patients were cured after the second radiofrequency treatment. No intracranial hemorrhage not infection complications occurred, except for facial hematoma during operation in 21 cases. After 12-24 months of follow-up, 9 patients had recurrence and were still effective after receiving additional extracranial radiofrequency treatment.

Limitations: A control group should be established and more clinical data should be collected in future work.

Conclusion: Extracranial non-Gasserian-ganglion RF can achieve satisfactory results and improve the safety of radiofrequency treatment for trigeminal neuralgia.
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July 2021

Novel duck reovirus exhibits pathogenicity to specific pathogen-free chickens by the subcutaneous route.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11769. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Institute of Poultry Science, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 1 Jiaoxiao Road, Jinan City, 250023, Shan Dong Province, China.

To study the pathogenicity of new duck reovirus (NDRV) to chickens, eighty 3-day-old SPF chickens were equally divided into two groups. The experimental group was inoculated with a NDRV challenge strain of 100 μL (10 ELD/0.1 mL) by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route, and the control group was inoculated with 100 μL of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by the same route. In the experimental group, chickens exhibited introflexion of claws, performing of splits, stunting syndrome, weight loss and death. Gross lesions such as enlargement and yellowish-white focal necroses were observed in the liver and spleen. Microscopic changes were typical including varying degrees of hepatocyte steatosis and necrosis, splenic lymphocyte necrosis, interstitial pneumonia. Viral loads were detected in lung, liver, heart, spleen, duodenum, burse and kidney. The liver and spleen viral loads remained a much higher level and maintained for a longer time, suggesting that these tissues might be the target organs. In summary, NDRV can cause systemic infections and death in chickens, which indicated that chickens may be infected by NDRV in poultry production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90979-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175558PMC
June 2021

Epithelial PBLD attenuates intestinal inflammatory response and improves intestinal barrier function by inhibiting NF-κB signaling.

Cell Death Dis 2021 05 31;12(6):563. Epub 2021 May 31.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Institute of Gastroenterology of Guangdong Province, Department of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, 510515, Guangzhou, China.

Intestinal barrier function defects and dysregulation of intestinal immune responses are two key contributory factors in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Phenazine biosynthesis-like domain-containing protein (PBLD) was recently identified as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and breast cancer; however, its role in UC remains unclear. Therefore, we analyzed colonic tissue samples from patients with UC and constructed specific intestinal epithelial PBLD-deficient (PBLD) mice to investigate the role of this protein in UC pathogenesis. We found that epithelial PBLD was decreased in patients with UC and was correlated with levels of tight junction (TJ) and inflammatory proteins. PBLD mice were more susceptible to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In DSS-induced colitis, PBLD mice had impaired intestinal barrier function and greater immune cell infiltration in colonic tissue than WT mice. Furthermore, TJ proteins were markedly reduced in PBLD mice compared with WT mice with colitis. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation was markedly elevated and resulted in higher expression levels of downstream effectors (C-C motif chemokine ligand 20, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) in colonic epithelial cells isolated from PBLD mice than WT mice with colitis. PBLD overexpression in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) consistently inhibited TNF-α/interferon-γ-induced intestinal barrier disruption and TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses via the suppression of NF-κB. In addition, IKK inhibition (IKK-16) rescued excessive inflammatory responses induced by TNF-α in PBLD knockdown FHC cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that PBLD may interact with IKKα and IKKβ, thus inhibiting NF-κB signaling, decreasing inflammatory mediator production, attenuating colonic inflammation, and improving intestinal barrier function. Modulating PBLD expression may provide a novel approach for treatment in patients with UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03843-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166876PMC
May 2021

The Profiles of Long Non-coding RNA and mRNA Transcriptome Reveals the Genes and Pathway Potentially Involved in Infection of New Zealand Rabbits.

Front Vet Sci 2021 5;8:591273. Epub 2021 May 5.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, China.

Infection with () causes severe epidemic diseases in rabbits and is responsible for the pronounced economic losses in the livestock industry. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proven to exert vital functions in regulating the host immune responses to bacterial attacks. However, little is known about how lncRNAs participate in the rabbit's immune response against infection in the lungs. LncRNA and mRNA expression profiles were analyzed by transcriptomics and bioinformatics during infection. A total of 336 lncRNAs and 7,014 mRNAs were differentially regulated at 1 day and 3 days post infection (dpi). Nearly 80% of the differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited an increased expression at 3 dpi suggesting that the genes are responsible for regulation. Moreover, GO and KEGG enriched analysis indicated that the immune-related pathways including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), cytokines, and chemokines were significantly enriched at 3 dpi. These results indicate that the dysregulated immune-related genes may play crucial roles in defending against attacks. Overall, these results advance our cognition of the role of lncRNAs and mRNAs in modulating the rabbit's innate immune response against attacks, which will offer a valuable clue for further studies into exploring -related diseases in human.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.591273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131872PMC
May 2021

CT-guided radiofrequency treatment of trigeminal neuralgia at different temperatures through foramen rotundus.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(4):3102-3110. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pain Management, Shanghai Pudong Hospital, Fudan University Pudong Medical Center Shanghai, China.

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of CT-guided radiofrequency therapy in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) through foramen rotundus at different temperatures.

Methods: A total of 60 patients with TN in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into the control group and the observation group, with 30 cases in each group. CT or MRI was routinely performed before the operation to exclude intracranial space-occupying lesions. The round hole of both groups of patients was targeted under CT guidance. The puncture needle position and depth were determined according to CT images and radiofrequency electrical stimulation. The control group gradually increased the radiofrequency temperature to 75°C, and the observation group gradually increased to 90°C for damage treatment. Both groups of patients were treated with radiofrequency for 360 s. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by BNI classification criteria. At the same time, the visual analog scale (VAS) score, the total score of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and the incidence of complications were compared between the two groups. The Kaplan-Meier method in survival analysis was used to calculate the pain recurrence rate at 1 and 2 years after the operation.

Results: One week after the operation, there was no significant difference in the total effective rate between the two groups (χ=0.089, P=0.766). After 2 months, the total effective rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group (χ=4.043, P=0.044). One day and one week after the operation, the VAS score of the observation group was higher than that of the control group (t=7.365, 6.269; P=0.007, 0.012), and the total score of PSQI was significantly higher than that of the control group (t=8.026, 5.447; P=0.002, 0.015). There was no significant difference in VAS score and PSQI total score between the two groups 1 month and 2 months after operation (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between the two groups (P>0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate the recurrence rate of pain at 1 and 2 years after operation. The recurrence rate of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group (χ=4.219, 4.021; P=0.039, 0.044).

Conclusion: CT-guided radiofrequency at 90°C through foramen rotundus is effective in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia without increasing the incidence of complications.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129275PMC
April 2021

Deep-Ultraviolet Nonlinear-Optical van-der-Waals Beryllium Borates*.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 18;60(30):16680-16686. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing, 100193, China.

Van-der-Waals (vdW) deep-ultraviolet (DUV) nonlinear-optical (NLO) materials hold great potential to extend DUV NLO applications to two dimensions, but they are rare in nature. In this study, we propose a design principle to realize vdW DUV NLO materials via structural evolution from the non-vdW (BO )-(BeO F) layers in KBe BO F (KBBF) to the vdW (BO )-(BeO H) layers in berborite Be BO H (BBH) and the vdW (BO )-(BeO ) layers in beryllium metaborate BeB O (BEBO). Based on first-principles calculations, the fundamental NLO properties of BBH and BEBO demonstrate that a balanced DUV NLO performance can be achieved in these two systems. Importantly, BBH, a layered material existing in nature, can achieve an available DUV phase-matched output with strong second harmonic generation (SHG) for 177.3/193.7 nm DUV lasers, which is almost identical to that of KBBF. Remarkably, BEBO shows an excellent DUV SHG capacity and an even shorter phase-matching wavelength than KBBF. Therefore, the newly discovered vdW BBH and BEBO, once verified by experiments, could provide an ideal platform to study DUV NLO effects in three dimensions and two dimensions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202105789DOI Listing
July 2021

Atomistic Mechanism Underlying the Si(111)-(7×7) Surface Reconstruction Revealed by Artificial Neural-Network Potential.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(17):176101

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.

The 7×7 reconstruction of the Si(111) surface represents arguably the most fascinating surface reconstruction so far observed in nature. Yet, the atomistic mechanism underpinning its formation remains unclear after it was discovered sixty years ago. Experimentally, it is observed post priori so that analysis of its formation mechanism can only be carried out in analogy with archaeology. Theoretically, density-functional theory (DFT) correctly predicts the Si(111)-(7×7) ground state but is impractical to simulate its formation process; while empirical potentials failed to produce it as the ground state. Developing an artificial neural-network potential of DFT quality, we carried out accurate large-scale simulations to unravel the formation of the Si(111)-(7×7) surface. We reveal a possible step-mediated atom-pop rate-limiting process that triggers massive nonconserved atomic rearrangements, most remarkably, a critical process of collective vacancy diffusion that mediates a sequence of selective dimer, corner-hole, stacking-fault, and dimer-line pattern formation, to fulfill the 7×7 reconstruction. Our findings may not only solve the long-standing mystery of this famous surface reconstruction but they also illustrate the power of machine learning in studying complex structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.176101DOI Listing
April 2021

Approaching Charge Separation Efficiency to Unity without Charge Recombination.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(17):176401

School of Physics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China.

Improving the efficiency of charge separation (CS) and charge transport (CT) is essential for almost all optoelectronic applications, yet its maximization remains a big challenge. Here we propose a conceptual strategy to achieve CS efficiency close to unity and simultaneously avoid charge recombination (CR) during CT in a ferroelectric polar-discontinuity (PD) superlattice structure, as demonstrated in (BaTiO_{3})_{m}/(BiFeO_{3})_{n}, which is fundamentally different from the existing mechanisms. The competition of interfacial dipole and ferroelectric PD induces opposite band bending in BiFeO_{3} and BaTiO_{3} sublattices. Consequently, the photoexcited electrons (e) and holes (h) in individual sublattices move forward to the opposite interfaces forming electrically isolated e and h channels, leading to a CS efficiency close to unity. Importantly, the spatial isolation of conduction channels in (BaTiO_{3})_{m}/(BiFeO_{3})_{n} enable suppression of CR during CT, thus realizing a unique band diagram for spatially orthogonal CS and CT. Remarkably, (BaTiO_{3})_{m}/(BiFeO_{3})_{n} can maintain a high photocurrent and large band gap simultaneously. Our results provide a fascinating illumination for designing artificial heterostructures toward ideal CS and CT in optoelectronic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.176401DOI Listing
April 2021

Density-independent plasmons for terahertz-stable topological metamaterials.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Beijing Computational Science Research Center, 100193 Beijing, China;

To efficiently integrate cutting-edge terahertz technology into compact devices, the highly confined terahertz plasmons are attracting intensive attention. Compared to plasmons at visible frequencies in metals, terahertz plasmons, typically in lightly doped semiconductors or graphene, are sensitive to carrier density () and thus have an easy tunability, which leads to unstable or imprecise terahertz spectra. By deriving a simplified but universal form of plasmon frequencies, here, we reveal a unified mechanism for generating unusual -independent plasmons (DIPs) in all topological states with different dimensions. Remarkably, we predict that terahertz DIPs can be excited in a two-dimensional nodal line and one-dimensional nodal point systems, confirmed by the first-principle calculations on almost all existing topological semimetals with diverse lattice symmetries. Besides -independence, the feature of Fermi velocity and degeneracy factor dependencies in DIPs can be applied to design topological superlattice and multiwalled carbon nanotube metamaterials for broadband terahertz spectroscopy and quantized terahertz plasmons, respectively. Surprisingly, high spatial confinement and quality factor, also insensitive to , can be simultaneously achieved in these terahertz DIPs. Our findings pave the way for developing topological plasmonic devices for stable terahertz applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023029118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126841PMC
May 2021

Molecular characterization and protective efficacy of a new conserved hypothetical protein of Eimeria tenella.

Parasite 2021 3;28:40. Epub 2021 May 3.

Key Laboratory of Animal Parasitology of Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, CAAS, 200241 Shanghai, PR China.

Eimeria tenella is an obligate intracellular parasite that actively invades cecal epithelial cells of chickens. This parasite encodes a genome of more than 8000 genes. However, more than 70% of the gene models for this species are currently annotated as hypothetical proteins. In this study, a conserved hypothetical protein gene of E. tenella, designated EtCHP18905, was cloned and identified, and its immune protective effects were evaluated. The open reading frame of EtCHP18905 was 1053bp and encoded a protein of 350 amino acids with a molecular weight of 38.7kDa. The recombinant EtCHP18905 protein (rEtCHP18905) was expressed in E. coli. Using western blot, the recombinant protein was successfully recognized by anti GST-Tag monoclonal antibody and anti-sporozoites protein rabbit serum. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the EtCHP18905 mRNA levels were higher in sporozoites than in unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts and second-generation merozoites. Western blot analysis showed that EtCHP18905 protein expression levels were lower in sporozoites than in other stages. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the EtCHP18905 protein was located on the surface of sporozoites and second-generation merozoites. Inhibition experiments showed that the ability of sporozoites to invade host cells was significantly decreased after treatment with the anti-rEtCHP18905 polyclonal antibody. Vaccination with rEtCHP18905 protein was able to significantly decrease mean lesion scores and oocyst outputs as compared to non-vaccinated controls. The results suggest that the rEtCHP18905 protein can induce partial immune protection against infection with E. tenella and could be an effective candidate for the development of new vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2021037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8095096PMC
May 2021

CD8 T cells actively penetrate hepatocytes via the CD44/p-ERM/F-actin pathway in autoimmune hepatitis.

J Dig Dis 2021 Jun 2;22(6):351-362. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ministry of Health, State Key Laboratory for Oncogenes and Related Genes, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University; Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, Shanghai, China.

Objective: Emperipolesis is a pathological feature for the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We have previously found that CD8 T cells participated in the emperipolesis in AIH. In this study we aimed to clarify the characteristics and molecular mechanisms of emperipolesis in patients with AIH in vitro and in mice with α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-induced acute hepatitis.

Methods: The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with various chronic liver diseases and healthy controls were co-cultured with hepatic cell lines to induce emperipolesis in vitro. Confocal staining was performed to illustrate the cellular types and potential mechanisms of emperipolesis in AIH. In addition, a murine model of α-GalCer-induced acute hepatitis that mimics human AIH was used to confirm the role of CD44/p-ERM/F-actin in the emperipolesis process in vivo.

Results: In the co-cultured system of PBMC and hepatic cell line, emperipolesis was observed most commonly in patients with AIH. The main cells participating in emperipolesis were CD8 T cells, and they penetrated hepatic cells actively via the CD44/p-ERM/F-actin pathway. As a result, most CD8 T cells engulfed by hepatic cells underwent apoptosis. In the α-GalCer-induced acute hepatitis model, emperipolesis was observed around the inflammatory foci and was inhibited by the ezrin phosphorylation inhibitor NSC668394. Similarly, activated murine CD8 T cells penetrated primary hepatocytes via the CD44/p-ERM/F-actin pathway in vitro.

Conclusions: CD8 T cells penetrate hepatic cells actively via the CD44/p-ERM/F-actin signaling pathway and undergo apoptosis. This may be a compensatory mechanism to attenuate the overwhelming immune attack in AIH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-2980.12995DOI Listing
June 2021

Alloy Engineering of a Polar (Si,Ge)NO System for Controllable Second Harmonic Performance.

Inorg Chem 2021 May 27;60(10):7381-7388. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100193, China.

Although silicon oxynitrides are important semiconductors for many practical applications, their second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have never been systemically explored. Using the first-principles calculations, in this article, we discover that the sinoite (e.g., silicon oxynitride SiNO) can simultaneously exhibit wide optical band gap, strong second-harmonic generation (SHG) effect, and large birefringence, which are further confirmed by our preliminary experimental measurement. Importantly, we propose that alloying engineering can be further applied to control the balanced NLO properties in the SiNO system. Based on first-principles cluster expansion theory, we demonstrate that alloying Ge into SiNO can form low formation-energy SiGeNO alloys, which can in turn achieve controllable phase-matching harmonic output with high SHG efficiency at different energy ranges. Therefore, alloy engineering could provide a unique approach to effectively control the NLO performance of SiGeNO, making this polar alloy system hold potential applications in tunable laser conversion and controllable optical devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00590DOI Listing
May 2021

Two-Dimensional Magnetic Anionic Electrons in Electrides: Generation and Manipulation.

Nano Lett 2021 May 26;21(9):3813-3819. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Shenzhen JL Computational Science and Applied Research Institute, Shenzhen 518131, China.

Introducing magnetism to anionic electrons (AE) of electrides, especially for those confined in two-dimensional (2D) interlayer spaces, could provide a promising way to generate 2D spin-polarized free electron gas. However, the realization of this is challenging. Here, we propose a strategy for generating 2D magnetic AE, which requires two fundamental criteria, i.e., coexistence of localized AE (LAE) and delocalized AE (DAE) and a nearly half-filled LAE. Applying this to YC, the magnetism of 2D AE is tunable or sensitive to external strain, hole doping, and layer thickness, depending on the competition between atomic-orbital electrons, DAE, and LAE. Remarkably, a reversible on/off switching of magnetism can be achieved in bilayer YC by an electric field. Furthermore, the 2D magnetic AE in YC thin films are more robust against oxidation due to spatially selective hole doping effects. The manipulation of spin-polarized 2D AE gas paves a new way for designing spintronic devices with van der Waals magnets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00172DOI Listing
May 2021

Urban trees in university campus: structure, function, and ecological values.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 16;28(33):45183-45198. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Shenyang Institute of Technology, Fushun, 113122, People's Republic of China.

University campuses usually have more trees and can provide various ecosystem services. However, there are few reports on tree ecosystem services of Chinese university campuses, especially in northern China. This study investigated the trees in the campus of Shenyang Institute of Technology and analyzed its ecological benefits and monetary value through i-Tree Streets. The campus trees contained a total of 5193 trees of 66 species, of which Catalpa ovata G. Don, Acer mono Maxim., Rhus typhina Nutt, and Salix babylonica L. accounted for 59.7% of the total number. The age structure of the trees in the campus was not ideal, with 71.5% of young trees, 24.0% of maturing trees, 4.5% of mature trees, and only 0.04% of old trees. The trees in the campus provided more energy saving benefits ($60,850, $11.7/tree), carbon reduction benefits ($34,318, $6.6/tree) and aesthetic benefits ($30,150, $5.8/tree). The benefits resulted from air pollutant removal ($12,889, $2.5/tree) and rainwater runoff interception ($15,534, $3.0/tree) were smaller. In addition, tree species with more maturing trees and mature trees (i.e., with larger diameter at breast height) and large leaf area in the campus contributed significantly to ecosystem services. Our results can provide suggestions and certain insights for Chinese campus greening managers in tree species selection and tree management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13841-6DOI Listing
September 2021

Awake CT-guided percutaneous stylomastoid foramen puncture and radiofrequency ablation of facial nerve for treatment of hemifacial spasm.

J Neurosurg 2021 Apr 16:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

2Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

Objective: Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a debilitating neuromuscular disorder with limited treatment options. The current study describes a novel minimally invasive procedure that provided effective and sustained relief for patients with HFS. The authors provide a detailed description of the awake CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the facial nerve for treatment of HFS, and they examine its clinical efficacy. This is the first time in the literature that this procedure has been applied and systematically analyzed for HFS.

Methods: Patients with a history of HFS were recruited between August 2018 and April 2020. Those with a history of cerebellopontine lesions, coagulopathy, ongoing pregnancy, cardiac pacemaker or defibrillator implants, or who declined the procedure were excluded from the study. Fifty-three patients who met the study criteria were included and underwent awake CT-guided RFA. Under minimal sedation, a radiofrequency (RF) needle was used to reach the stylomastoid foramen on the affected side under CT guidance, and the facial nerve was localized using a low-frequency stimulation current. Patients were instructed to engage facial muscles as a proxy for motor monitoring during RFA. Ablation stopped when the patients' hemifacial contracture resolved. Patients were kept for inpatient monitoring for 24 hours postoperatively and were followed up monthly to monitor resolution of HFS and complications for up to 19 months.

Results: The average duration of the procedure was 32-34 minutes. Postoperatively, 91% of the patients (48/53) had complete resolution of HFS, whereas the remaining individuals had partial resolution. A total of 48 patients reported mild to moderate facial paralysis immediately post-RFA, but most resolved within 1 month. No other significant complication was observed during the study period. By the end of the study period, 5 patients had recurrence of mild HFS symptoms, whereas only 2 patients reported dissatisfaction with the treatment results.

Conclusions: The authors report for the first time that awake CT-guided RFA of the facial nerve at the stylomastoid foramen is a minimally invasive procedure and can be an effective treatment option for HFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.10.JNS203209DOI Listing
April 2021

Long-term follow-up of cumulative incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus patients without antiviral therapy.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Mar;27(11):1101-1116

Department of Hepatology, Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Shenzhen 518033, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: China has a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), but most chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients do not receive standardized antiviral therapy. There are few relevant reports addressing the outcomes of the large number of CHB patients who do not receive antiviral therapy.

Aim: To observe the outcomes of long-term follow-up of patients with CHB without antiviral treatment.

Methods: This study included 362 patients with CHB and 96 with hepatitis B cirrhosis without antiviral treatment and with only liver protection and anti-inflammatory treatment from 1993 to 1998. The median follow-up times were 10 and 7 years, respectively. A total of 203 CHB and 129 hepatitis B cirrhosis patients receiving antiviral therapy were selected as the control groups. The median follow-up times were 8 and 7 years, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze the cumulative incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the Cox regression model was used to analyze the risk factors for HCC.

Results: Among the patients in the non-antiviral group, 16.9% had spontaneous decreases in HBV DNA to undetectable levels, and 32.8% showed hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. In the antiviral group, 87.2% of patients had undetectable HBV DNA, and 52% showed HBeAg seroconversion. Among CHB and hepatitis B cirrhosis patients, the cumulative incidence rates of HCC were 14.9% and 53.1%, respectively, in the non-antiviral group and were 10.7% and 31.9%, respectively, in the antiviral group. There was no difference between the two groups regarding the CHB patients ( = 0.842), but there was a difference between the groups regarding the hepatitis B cirrhosis patients ( = 0.026). The cumulative incidence rates of HCC were 1.6% and 22.3% ( = 0.022) in the groups with and without spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion, respectively. The incidence rates of HCC among patients with and without spontaneous declines in HBV DNA to undetectable levels were 1.6% and 19.1%, respectively ( = 0.051). There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of HCC between the two groups regarding the patients with drug-resistant CHB ( = 0.119), but there was a significant difference between the two groups regarding the patients with cirrhosis ( = 0.004). The Cox regression model was used for regression of the corrected REACH-B score, which showed that alanine aminotransferase > 400 U/L, history of diabetes, and family history of liver cancer were risk factors for HCC among men aged > 40 years ( < 0.05). Multifactorial analysis showed that a family history of HCC among men was a risk factor for HCC.

Conclusion: Antiviral therapy and non-antiviral therapy with liver protection and anti-inflammatory therapy can reduce the risk of HCC. Antiviral therapy may mask the spontaneous serological response of some patients during CHB. Therefore, the effect of early antiviral therapy on reducing the incidence of HCC cannot be overestimated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v27.i11.1101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985729PMC
March 2021

An IFNγ/STAT1/JMJD3 Axis Induces ZEB1 Expression and Promotes Aggressiveness in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Mol Cancer Res 2021 07 26;19(7):1234-1246. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Thoracic Surgery Laboratory, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei, China.

Active IFNγ signaling is a common feature of tumors responding to PD-1 checkpoint blockade. IFNγ exhibits both anti- and protumor activities. Here, we show that the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma cells with IFNγ led to a rapid increase of ZEB1 expression and a significant change in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated gene expression pattern. Moreover, functional analyses show that IFNγ promoted cell migration and metastasis . We demonstrate that ZEB1 is required for IFNγ-promoted EMT, cell migration, and metastasis, as RNAi-mediated knockdown of ZEB1 abrogated EMT, cell migration, and metastasis induced by IFNγ. We show that IFNγ induced upregulation of JMJD3 significantly reduced H3K27 trimethylation in the promoter of the gene, which led to activation of gene transcription. IFNγ-induced JMJD3 expression was JAK1/2-STAT1 dependent. Inhibition of JMJD3 abrogated IFNγ-induced ZEB1 expression. IFNγ-induced ZEB1 also reduced expression. Downregulation of ZEB1 increased expression, which led to a reduction of PD-L1 expression induced by IFNγ. It is worth noting that knockdown of did not affect IFNγ-mediated antiproliferation and induction of CXCL9 and CXCL10. Thus, downregulation of ZEB1 may prevent the protumor activity of IFNγ while retaining its antitumor function. This study expands our understanding of IFNγ-mediated signaling and helps to identify therapeutic targets to improve current immunotherapies. IMPLICATIONS: IFNγ increases ZEB1 expression in a STAT1-JMJD3 dependent manner, and consequently promotes cancer cell aggressiveness. This study provides a potential target to minimize the procancer effect of IFNγ while preserving its antitumor function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-20-0948DOI Listing
July 2021

Significant Inhibition of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus In Vitro by Remdesivir, Its Parent Nucleoside and β-D-N-hydroxycytidine.

Virol Sin 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is widespread in the world. In recent years, the increased virulence of the virus due to viral variations, has caused great economic losses to the pig industry in many countries. It is always worthy to find effective therapeutic methods for PED. As an important class of antivirals, nucleoside drugs which target viral polymerases have been applied in treating human viral infections for half a century. Herein, we evaluated the anti-PEDV potential of three broad-spectrum antiviral nucleoside analogs, remdesivir (RDV), its parent nucleoside (RDV-N) and β-D-N-hydroxycytidine (NHC). Among them, RDV-N was the most active agent in Vero E6 cells with EC of 0.31 μmol/L, and more potent than RDV (EC = 0.74 μmol/L) and NHC (EC = 1.17 μmol/L). The activity of RDV-N was further confirmed using an indirect immuno-fluorescence assay. Moreover, RDV-N exhibited a good safety profile in cells and in mice. The high sequence similarity of the polymerase functional domains of PEDV with other five porcine coronaviruses indicated a broader antiviral spectrum for the three compounds. Generally, RDV-N is a promising broad-spectrum antiviral nucleoside, and it would be worthy to make some structural modifications to increase its oral bioavailability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-021-00362-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983969PMC
March 2021

Efficacy of Dorsal Root Ganglion Pulsed Radiofrequency Combined with Paravertebral Injection of Recombinant Human Interferon-α2b in Herpetic Neuralgia.

J Pain Res 2021 11;14:711-719. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, 314001, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) pulsed radiofrequency combined with paravertebral injection of recombinant human interferon-α2b in the treatment of patients with acute herpes zoster neuralgia and its preventive effectiveness on postherpetic neuralgia (PHN).

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 62 patients with acute herpes zoster neuralgia was implemented. All patients were divided into two groups: pulsed radiofrequency paraspinal injection of recombinant human interferon-α2b (group P); pulsed radiofrequency combined with paravertebral injection of saline (group C). The numerical rating scales (NRS) scores were used for pain assessment, and the dose of the analgesic drug was recorded. Gal-3 and IL-6 levels in blood were compared between the two groups before treatment and at 1 week, 2, and 4 weeks after treatment. The incidence of PHN was recorded in both groups.

Results: The pain intensity, the levels of Gal-3 and IL-6 in blood and the dose of oral administration of gabapentin capsules and morphine were reduced in all patients after treatment. Compared with group C, patients in group P had lower NRS scores, blood levels of Gal-3 and IL-6, and dosages of oral gabapentin capsules and morphine hydrochloride immediate-release tablets after treatment. The incidence of PHN was significantly lower at 8 and 12 weeks.

Conclusion: DRG pulsed radiofrequency combined with paravertebral injection of recombinant human interferon-α2b for acute stage herpes zoster neuralgia is a more effective treatment, and can effectively prevent the incidence rate of PHN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S290852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959205PMC
March 2021

Migration of pre-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the transplanted to contralateral eye in mice.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 03 10;12(1):168. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Background: Retina diseases may lead to blindness as they often afflict both eyes. Stem cell transplantation into the affected eye(s) is a promising therapeutic strategy for certain retinal diseases. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) are a good source of stem cells, but it is unclear whether pre-induced hPBMCs can migrate from the injected eye to the contralateral eye for bilateral treatment. We examine the possibility of bilateral cell transplantation from unilateral cell injection.

Methods: One hundred and sixty-one 3-month-old retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) mice were divided randomly into 3 groups: an untreated group (n = 45), a control group receiving serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) injection into the right subretina (n = 45), and a treatment group receiving injection of pre-induced hPBMCs into the right subretina (n = 71). Both eyes were examined by full-field electroretinogram (ERG), immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at 1 and 3 months post-injection.

Results: At both 1 and 3 months post-injection, labeled pre-induced hPBMCs were observed in the retinal inner nuclear layer of the contralateral (left untreated) eye as well as the treated eye as evidenced by immunofluorescence staining for a human antigen. Flow cytometry of fluorescently label cells and qRT-PCR of hPBMCs genes confirmed that transplanted hPBMCs migrated from the treated to the contralateral untreated eye and remained viable for up to 3 months. Further, full-field ERG showed clear light-evoked a and b waves in both treated and untreated eyes at 3 months post-transplantation. Labeled pre-induced hPBMCs were also observed in the contralateral optic nerve but not in the blood circulation, suggesting migration via the optic chiasm.

Conclusion: It may be possible to treat binocular eye diseases by unilateral stem cell injection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02180-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7945672PMC
March 2021
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