Publications by authors named "Bing Hu"

833 Publications

Tick virome diversity in Hubei Province, China, and the influence of host ecology.

Virus Evol 2021 8;7(2):veab089. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China.

Ticks are important vector hosts of pathogens which cause human and animal diseases worldwide. Diverse viruses have been discovered in ticks; however, little is known about the ecological factors that affect the tick virome composition and evolution. Herein, we employed RNA sequencing to study the virome diversity of the and ticks sampled in Hubei Province in China. Twelve RNA viruses with complete genomes were identified, which belonged to six viral families: , and . These viruses showed great diversity in their genome organization and evolution, four of which were proposed to be novel species. The virome diversity and abundance of ticks fed on cattle were evidently high. Further ecological analyses suggested that host species and feeding status may be key factors affecting the tick virome structure. This study described a number of novel viral species and variants from ticks and, more importantly, provided insights into the ecological factors shaping the virome structures of ticks, although it clearly warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/veab089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8599308PMC
November 2021

Fully-covered metal stent for the treatment of post-percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) obstruction due to a blood clot in the common bile duct: a case report.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(10):12090-12093. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Endoscopy, Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital, Naval Medical University Shanghai, China.

Aim: This study aimed to report a case of a fully-covered metal stent for the treatment of post-Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage (PTBD) obstruction caused by a blood clot in the common bile duct (CBD).

Case Presentation: The case involved a 75-year-old man who had a history of recurring upper abdominal pain and jaundice. The result of an abdominal computerized tomography showed a stricture in the CBD. After PTBD, bleeding in the tube of PTBD was noted. The bleeding sites were detected using superselective hepatic arteriography. After the bleeding was stopped, Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed to insert a fully-covered metal stent to extract the blood clot. Five months later, He was performed whipple procedure successfully and the pathology shows adenocarcinoma (cholangicarcinoma). This was the first case reported in China.

Conclusions: The complications related to post-PTBD obstruction, which was caused by a blood clot in the CBD, might lead to serious health issues or even death. The blood clot could be diagnosed according to laboratory and clinical data, particularly imaging. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and ERCP were necessary and effective for the patient in the present case. Successfully placement of a fully-covered stent could relieve jaundice. The residual thrombus was easily extracted through the stent. This was important for the preparation of the coming procedure.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8581854PMC
October 2021

Endoscopic magnet-assisted gastrojejunostomy to treat symptoms caused by a deformed pylorus.

Endoscopy 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1682-6815DOI Listing
November 2021

Correction: Synthesis, self-aggregation and cryopreservation effects of perylene bisimide-glycopeptide conjugates.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Nov 23;57(93):12548. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, P. R. China.

Correction for 'Synthesis, self-aggregation and cryopreservation effects of perylene bisimide-glycopeptide conjugates' by Xu He , , 2021, DOI: 10.1039/d1cc03835d.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc90390jDOI Listing
November 2021

Antibody neutralization to SARS-CoV-2 and variants after one year in Wuhan, China.

Innovation (N Y) 2021 Nov 3:100181. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Institute for Vaccine Research and Modern Virology Research Center, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

Most COVID-19 convalescents can build effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity, but it remains unclear how long it can maintain and how efficiently it can prevent the reinfection of the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we tested the sera from 248 COVID-19 convalescents around one year post-infection in Wuhan, the earliest known epicenter. SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins G (IgG) were well maintained in most patients and potently neutralizes the infection of the original strain and the B.1.1.7 variant. However, varying degrees of immune escape was observed on the other tested variants in a patient-specific manner, with individuals showing remarkably broad neutralization potency. The immune escape can be largely attributed to several critical spike mutations. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can elicit long-lasting immunity but escaped by the emerging variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xinn.2021.100181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8563080PMC
November 2021

The Design and Rationale of a Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Transperineal Percutaneous Laser Ablation With Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for Treating Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

Front Surg 2021 18;8:755957. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Hongqiao International Institute of Medicine, Shanghai Tong Ren Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is regarded as the "gold standard" for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in elderly men. However, ~15% of patients who had undergone TURP had intraoperative and postoperative complications, such as bleeding, urinary incontinence and urethral stricture. Transperineal percutaneous laser ablation (TPLA) is a method that places the optical fibre directly into the prostate with the guidance of ultrasound imaging, and the percutaneous transperineal approach is performed distal to the urethra and rectum to protect these structures and reduce urethral or postoperative infection. Several studies on TPLA for BPH treatment have been reported recently; however, high-quality randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate its efficacy, safety, and long-term follow up remain absent. This study is a multicentre, open-label RCT to assess the efficacy and safety of TPLA vs. TURP to treat BPH. We hypothesise that the TPLA has non-inferior efficacy to TURP in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) at 3 months changing from the baseline and lower incidence of post-surgery complications. One hundred and fourteen patients with BPH will be recruited at 19 sites and randomly assigned at 1:1 to TPLA or TURP groups. The patients will be followed up at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after the procedure. The study will be the first multicentre clinical trial including 16 participating centres in China, Italy, Switzerland, and Poland with relatively large sample size 114. By comprehensively compare the safety and efficacy of TPLA with TURP in patients with BPH, especially concerning the improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and complication incidence, the study will help to illustrate the clinical value of TPLA and provide a beneficial alternative treatment for BPH patients. The study has been registered on Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn), identifier [ChiCTR1900022739].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.755957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8558367PMC
October 2021

Neutrophil-mediated clinical nanodrug for treatment of residual tumor after focused ultrasound ablation.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Oct 29;19(1):345. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, 200233, Shanghai, China.

Background: The risk of local recurrence after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is relatively high, resulting in poor prognosis of malignant tumors. The combination of HIFU with traditional chemotherapy continues to have an unsatisfactory outcome because of off-site drug uptake.

Results: Herein, we propose a strategy of inflammation-tendency neutrophil-mediated clinical nanodrug targeted therapy for residual tumors after HIFU ablation. We selected neutrophils as carriers and PEGylated liposome doxorubicin (PLD) as a model chemotherapeutic nanodrug to form an innovative cell therapy drug ([email protected]). The produced [email protected] had a loading capacity of approximately 5 µg of PLD per 10 cells and maintained the natural characteristics of neutrophils. The targeting performance and therapeutic potential of [email protected] were evaluated using Hepa1-6 cells and a corresponding tumor-bearing mouse model. After HIFU ablation, [email protected] were recruited to the tumor site by inflammation (most in 4 h) and released PLD with inflammatory stimuli, leading to targeted and localized postoperative chemotherapy.

Conclusions: This effective integrated method fully leverages the advantages of HIFU, chemotherapy and neutrophils to attract more focus on the practice of improving existing clinical therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-01087-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8555249PMC
October 2021

Synthesis, self-aggregation and cryopreservation effects of perylene bisimide-glycopeptide conjugates.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Nov 11;57(90):12000-12003. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, P. R. China.

Three perylene bisimide-glycopeptide conjugates (PBI-AFF-Man, PBI-AFF-Glu and PBI-AFF-Gal) were synthesized, which showed moderate activity in the control of ice crystal growth. Furthermore, the cellular cryopreservation effects of PBI-AFF-Man, PBI-AFF-Glu and PBI-AFF-Gal showed enhancements in cell viabilities, especially for PBI-AFF-Glu with values of 22.77 ± 3.33% (HeLa cells), 19.43 ± 1.90% (A549 cells) and 16.63 ± 1.76% (GES-1 cells) at a dose of 1.0 mg mL. This work will help guide the development of self-assembled cryoprotectants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03835dDOI Listing
November 2021

Preparation of an anti-NEK2 monoclonal antibody and its application in liver cancer.

BMC Biotechnol 2021 Oct 27;21(1):62. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, China.

Background: Never in mitosis gene-A (NIMA)-related expressed kinase 2 (NEK2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase regulated by the cell cycle. The purpose of this study was to obtain NEK2 protein to prepare an anti-NEK2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and explore the application of the anti-NEK2 mAb of therapeutic and diagnostic in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Results: The NEK2 gene sequence was cloned from the normal liver cell line HL7702, and the full-length NEK2 gene sequence was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET30a and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The recombinant fusion protein was obtained under optimized conditions and injected in BALB/c mice to prepare an anti-NEK2 mAb. By screening, we obtained a stable hybridoma cell line named 3A3 that could stably secrete anti-NEK2 mAb. Anti-NEK2 3A3 mAb was purified from ascites fluid. The isotype was IgG1, and the affinity constant (K) was 6.0 × 10 L/mol. Western blot, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), immunofluorescence and immunocytochemical analyses showed that the mAb could specifically recognize the NEK2 protein. MTT assays showed that the mAb 3A3 could inhibit the proliferation of HCC cells. KEGG pathway analysis showed that NEK2 might affected pathways of the cell cycle. Moreover, NEK2-related genes were mainly enriched in the S and G2 phases and might act as tumor-promoting genes by regulating the S/G2 phase transition of HCC cells.

Conclusions: An anti-NEK2 mAb with high potency, high affinity and high specificity was prepared by prokaryotic expression system in this study and may be used in the establishment of ELISA detection kits and targeted treatment of liver cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12896-021-00717-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8549277PMC
October 2021

Facilitate Signing with the Family Doctor: A Study of the Practice in Shanghai, China.

Int J Gen Med 2021 18;14:6907-6917. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, People's Republic of China.

Background: In the time since primary care was implemented in China in 2009, programs of promoting residents signing with family doctor services have been key. However, there has been a lack of effective evaluation of its implementation.

Methods: We used mixed methods for evaluating existing measures of facilitating signing with family doctors in Shanghai. Based on the Donabedian model, qualitative informant interviews were conducted to obtain experts' evaluations in aspects of team construction (structure) and innovative solutions for promoting and supervising signings (process). Quantitative data were used to analyse the utilization situation (outcome) from "Shanghai Family Doctor Signing Data Platform".

Results: Measures of signing with family doctors in Shanghai have functioned well, but there is still a lack of sufficient family doctors and specialists, including paediatricians and gynaecologists. Although proportions of the key population (average=62.59%) and the elderly population (>65 years) (average=78.10%) who had signed with family doctors were relatively high, the proportion of the permanent resident population (average=29.36%) who had signed with family doctors was low from 2017 to 2020 in Shanghai. The proportions of residents seeking medical advice in signed community health centres in outskirts (71.08%) were higher than those in suburbs (63.51%) and urban areas (53.49%), whereas the proportion of those seeking medical advice from recommended multiple medical institutions were similarly low in urban areas, outskirts and suburbs.

Conclusion: The practice of facilitate signing with family doctors in Shanghai has increased. However, we showed that numbers of family doctors were relatively low, and there remains a need for more experienced gynaecology and paediatrics professionals, compared with Western countries. Additionally, efforts should be made to increase proportions of residents who utilize the program, especially in urban areas, and seek medical services in contracted group hospitals and community health centres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S332890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8536883PMC
October 2021

Exploring Somatic Alteration Associating With Aggressive Behaviors of Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas by Targeted Sequencing.

Front Oncol 2021 7;11:722814. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Wisely differentiating high-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients from low-risk PTC patients preoperatively is necessary when comes to making a personalized treatment plan. It is not easy to stratify the risk of patients according to sonography or lab results before surgery. This study aims to seek out potential mutation gene markers that may be helpful in stratifying the risk of PTC. A custom panel of 439 PTC relevant and classic tumor metabolic pathway relevant genes was designed. Targeted capture sequencing was performed on 35 pairs of samples from 35 PTC tumors and 35 para-tumor thyroid tissues obtained during surgery. Variant calling and detection of cancer gene mutations were identified by bio-information analysis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed to do functional enrichment analysis of high-frequency mutant genes. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on 6 PTC patients to explore the expression of protein associated with interested genes. Event-free survival (EFS) was calculated to determine which genes might affect the prognosis of patients. We have identified 32 high-frequency mutant genes in PTC including was found to be significantly correlated to event-free survival, , , , , , and were significantly associated with EFS, while BRAF mutant was not correlated to any of the prognosis indicators. Our findings in this study might open more choices when designing thyroid gene panels used in FNA samples to diagnose PTC and predict the potentially aggressive behavior of PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.722814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8529196PMC
October 2021

Bioemulsification and Microbial Community Reconstruction in Thermally Processed Crude Oil.

Microorganisms 2021 Sep 29;9(10). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Utilization of low-cost, environmental-friendly microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) techniques in thermal recovery-processed oil reservoirs is potentially feasible. However, how exogenous microbes facilitate crude oil recovery in this deep biosphere, especially under mesophilic conditions, is scarcely investigated. In this study, a thermal treatment and a thermal recurrence were processed on crude oil collected from Daqing Oilfield, and then a 30-day incubation of the pretreated crude oil at 37 °C was operated with the addition of two locally isolated hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, DQS3-9A1 and sp. DQ12-45-1b, respectively. The pH, surface tension, hydrocarbon profiles, culture-dependent cell densities and taxonomies, and whole and active microbial community compositions were determined. It was found that both DQS3-9A1 and sp. DQ12-45-1b successfully induced culture acidification, crude oil bioemulsification, and residual oil sub-fraction alteration, no matter whether the crude oil was thermally pretreated or not. Endogenous bacteria which could proliferate on double heated crude oil were very few. Compared with , sp. was substantially more effective at inducing the proliferation of varied species in one-time heated crude oil. Meanwhile, the effects of sp. on crude oil bioemulsification and hydrocarbon profile alteration were not significantly influenced by the ploidy increasing of NaCl contents (from 5 g/L to 50 g/L), but the reconstructed bacterial communities became very simple, in which the genus was predominant. Our study provides useful information to understand MEOR trials on thermally processed oil reservoirs, and proves that this strategy could be operated by using the locally available hydrocarbon-degrading microbes in mesophilic conditions with different salinity degrees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9102054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8539444PMC
September 2021

Potential therapeutic mechanism of duodenal mucosal resurfacing.

Authors:
Hang Yang Bing Hu

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 11;94(5):1015-1016

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2021.06.002DOI Listing
November 2021

Magnetic resonance elastography of the prostate in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: feasibility of the modified driver at high multi-frequencies.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Radiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University (SYSU), No 600, Tianhe Road, Guangzhou, 510630, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility and diagnostic value of high-frequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluation of prostatic disease in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

Methods: 41 patients who underwent preoperative prostate MRI and MRE with a modified driver were enrolled retrospectively from May 2016 to September 2021. All were included in the assessment of MRE image quality, using a qualitative visual inspection and a quantitative confidence map. 35 patients (prostate cancer (PCa), n = 13; non-PCa, n = 22) undergoing prostatectomy or biopsy were evaluated for the diagnostic performance of stiffness values. The confidence values and the stiffness values were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent samples T test, respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) analysis was performed.

Results: Through the qualitative analysis, all MRE acquisitions were successful at 60, 90, 120 and 150 Hz. The quantitative confidence values were significantly lower at 60 Hz (0.683 ± 0.055) and 90 Hz (0.762 ± 0.048) than that at 120 Hz (0.814 ± 0.049) and 150 Hz (0.840 ± 0.049), all P < 0.001. The stiffness of PCa was higher than non-PCa at 90 Hz (P = 0.008), 120 Hz (P < 0.001) and 150 Hz (P < 0.001). The AUCs were 0.773, 0.881 and 0.944, respectively.

Conclusion: Prostate MRE using the modified driver is feasible at 60-150 Hz and image quality is better at higher frequencies. Prostate MRE may be useful and helpful to evaluate prostate diseases in patients with LUTS at higher frequencies; however, further study may be warranted with larger population in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03302-6DOI Listing
October 2021

Dynamic crotonylation of EB1 by TIP60 ensures accurate spindle positioning in mitosis.

Nat Chem Biol 2021 Dec 4;17(12):1314-1323. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

MOE Key Laboratory for Cellular Dynamics and Hefei National Center for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Spindle position control is essential for cell fate determination and organogenesis. Early studies indicate the essential role of the evolutionarily conserved Gαi/LGN/NuMA network in spindle positioning. However, the regulatory mechanisms that couple astral microtubules dynamics to the spindle orientation remain elusive. Here we delineated a new mitosis-specific crotonylation-regulated astral microtubule-EB1-NuMA interaction in mitosis. EB1 is a substrate of TIP60, and TIP60-dependent crotonylation of EB1 tunes accurate spindle positioning in mitosis. Mechanistically, TIP60 crotonylation of EB1 at Lys66 forms a dynamic link between accurate attachment of astral microtubules to the lateral cell cortex defined by NuMA-LGN and fine tune of spindle positioning. Real-time imaging of chromosome movements in HeLa cells expressing genetically encoded crotonylated EB1 revealed the importance of crotonylation dynamics for accurate control of spindle orientation during metaphase-anaphase transition. These findings delineate a general signaling cascade that integrates protein crotonylation with accurate spindle positioning for chromosome stability in mitosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41589-021-00875-7DOI Listing
December 2021

The associations between urinary metals and metal mixtures and kidney function in Chinese community-dwelling older adults with diabetes mellitus.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Dec 27;226:112829. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

School of Public Health, Department of Hygiene Inspection and Quarantine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032, China; Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second People's Hospital of Hefei, Hefei, Anhui 230011, China. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies have found associations between single toxic metals, such as arsenic and cadmium, and kidney function in adults with diabetes. However, studies with regards to other metals and metal mixtures are still limited.

Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the associations between urinary concentrations of 5 selected metals and metal mixtures and kidney function using a sample of older adults with diabetes mellitus in Chinese communities.

Methods: In a sample of older adults (n = 5186), 592 eligible subjects were included in this study. Urinary concentrations of 5 metals, i.e., arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), vanadium (V), cobalt (Co), and thallium (Tl), were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated and dichotomized into indicator of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Logistic analysis and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) were used to explore the associations between single metals and metal mixtures and CKD, respectively.

Results: Urinary levels of As and V were positively correlated with CKD (OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.31-4.30 for As; OR=2.24, 95% CI: 1.25-4.03 for V), when compared the 4th quartile with the 1st quartile. After adjustment for potential confounders, the significant association between As and CKD still existed (OR=2.73, 95% CI: 1.23-6.07). BKMR analyses showed strong linear positive associations between As and V and CKD. Higher urinary levels of the mixture were significantly associated with higher odds of CKD in a dose-response pattern. As and V showed the highest posterior inclusion probabilities.

Conclusion: Urine As and V were positively associated with CKD in older adults with diabetes mellitus, separately and in a mixture. The metals mixture showed a linear dose-response association with the odds of CKD. The analyses of mixtures, rather than of single metals, may provide a real-world perspective on the relationship between metals and kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112829DOI Listing
December 2021

Clinical characteristics and effectiveness of antiviral agents in hospitalized children with infectious mononucleosis in China: A multicenter retrospective study.

Pediatr Investig 2021 Sep 22;5(3):188-194. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children Ministry of Education Research Unit of Critical Infection in Children Chinese Academy of Medical Science Department of Infectious Diseases Beijing Children's Hospital Capital Medical University National Center for Children's Health Beijing China.

Importance: The clinical characteristics of infectious mononucleosis (IM) in Chinese children have not been evaluated in multicenter studies, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatment are controversial.

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of Chinese children with IM and current status of antiviral therapy for affected patients.

Methods: Hospitalized patients with IM were enrolled between 2018 and 2020 in five children's hospitals in China. The clinical characteristics were compared among four age groups: <3 years, 3-<6 years, 6-<10 years, and ≥10 years. The clinical characteristics of IM and effectiveness of antiviral therapy were compared among patients receiving acyclovir (ACV), ganciclovir (GCV), and no antiviral therapy (i.e., non-antiviral group).

Results: In total, 499 patients were analyzed; most patients were 3-<6 years of age. The most common symptoms and signs included fever (100%), lymphadenopathy (98.6%), pharyngitis (86.4%), eyelid edema (76.8%), and snoring (72.9%). There were significant differences in rash, hepatomegaly, and liver dysfunction among the four age groups. Patients aged < 3 years had a lower incidence of liver dysfunction and a higher incidence of rash. Among the 499 patients, 50.1% were treated with GCV, 26.3% were treated with ACV, and 23.6% received no antiviral therapy. Compared with the non-antiviral group, patients in the ACV and GCV groups had longer durations of fever ( 0.001). There were no significant differences in the incidences of complications among the three treatment groups.

Interpretation: The incidence of IM in Chinese children peaked at 3-<6 years of age. Clinical features of IM varied according to age. Patients receiving antiviral therapy exhibited more serious clinical manifestations than did patients without antiviral therapy. The effectiveness of antiviral therapy for IM requires further analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ped4.12294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8458718PMC
September 2021

Efficacy and safety of chemotherapy combined with bevacizumab in Chinese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: A prospective, multicenter, observational, non-interventional phase IV trial.

Chin J Cancer Res 2021 Aug;33(4):490-499

Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060, China.

Objective: Bevacizumab has an important and evolving role in improving outcomes in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) worldwide and was approved in China in 2010. However, there are limited real-world data on the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy regimens combined with bevacizumab in Chinese patients with mCRC. This observational, phase IV trial study aimed to obtain more experience on the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy in Chinese mCRC patients.

Methods: Between September 2013 and November 2016, patients with histologically confirmed mCRC were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, observational, non-interventional phase IV trial at 26 centers across China. Eligible patients received different chemotherapeutic regimens combined with bevacizumab. The efficacy and safety data in the intention-to-treat study population were analyzed.

Results: A total of 611 patients were included in the efficacy analysis. The median overall survival and median progression-free survival was 18.00 and 10.05 months, respectively. The objective response rate was 21.00% and disease control rate was 89.40%. In subgroup analyses, the survival differences were observed according to metastatic status, duration of treatment and elevation in blood pressure. A total of 613 patients were evaluable for safety assessments. And 569 (92.82%) patients reported at least one adverse event (AE), and 151 (24.63%) experienced grade 3 or higher AEs. The incidence of bevacizumab-associated AEs of special interest was reported in 31 (5.06%) patients with hypertension (n=12), abscesses and fistulae (n=7), bleeding (n=6), proteinuria (n=3), gastrointestinal perforation (n=2) and venous thrombotic events (n=1).

Conclusions: This observational phase IV trial broadens our experience and knowledge of bevacizumab in the Chinese population and provides a good indication of its overall efficacy and safety. Bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy offers clinical benefits to Chinese patients with mCRC and has an acceptable and manageable safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21147/j.issn.1000-9604.2021.04.06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435824PMC
August 2021

Two intraluminal duodenal diverticula treated with a "clip-assisted incision" technique.

Endoscopy 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1628-1827DOI Listing
September 2021

Chronic inflammation and long-lasting changes in the gastric mucosa after Helicobacter pylori infection involved in gastric cancer.

Inflamm Res 2021 Dec 21;70(10-12):1015-1026. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects approximately half of the world's population, as one of the most common chronic infections. H. pylori infection has been widely recognized as a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC).

Methods: Eradication treatment is considered to abolish the inflammatory response and prevent progression to GC. However, only 1-3% of H. pylori-infected patients develop GC, whereas GC can occur even after eradicating H. pylori. In addition, the incidence of GC following H. pylori infection is significantly higher compared to the gross incidence induced by all causes, although eradicating H. pylori reduces the risk of developing GC.

Results: Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that H. pylori infection results in changes that persist even after its eradication. Several of these changes may not be reversible within a short time, including the status of inflammation, the dysfunction of immunity and apoptosis, mitochondrial changes, aging and gastric dysbacteriosis.

Conclusion: The present review article aimed to discuss these potential long-lasting changes induced by H. pylori infection that may follow the eradication of H. pylori and contribute to the development of GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-021-01501-xDOI Listing
December 2021

Antibody array-based proteomic screening of novel biomarkers in malignant biliary stricture.

Cancer Biomark 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Distinguishing between benign and malignant bile duct strictures has long been a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice.

Objective: This study aimed to discover novel biomarkers in bile to improve the diagnostic accuracy of malignant biliary strictures.

Methods: Bile samples were collected from 6 patients with malignant or benign biliary stricture, respectively. Protein profiles of the bile were analyzed with a semi-quantitative human antibody array of 440 proteins. Then the differential expressed proteins were screened by Venn diagram analysis. Following this, the accuracy of these potential biomarkers for discriminating between malignant and non-malignant biliary strictures was validated in a larger (n= 40) group of patients using lasso analysis.

Results: Twenty proteins were found differentially expressed in malignant versus benign biliary strictures, 6 of which were identified by Venn diagram analysis to be up-regulated regardless of the location of biliary strictures. Among the 6 biomarkers, bile lipocalin-2, P-cadherin, and adipsin showed better diagnostic utility than that of bile CA19-9. Lasso analysis identified that lipocalin-2, P-cadherin and CA19-9 as a group of makers best distinguished malignant from benign strictures.

Conclusions: Lipocalin-2 and P-cadherin measurements in bile could be clinically useful for the detection of malignant biliary strictures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-210095DOI Listing
September 2021

Artificial intelligence for detecting superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma under multiple endoscopic imaging modalities: A multicenter study.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background And Aim: Diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is complicated and requires substantial expertise and experience. This study aimed to develop an artificial intelligence (AI) system for detecting superficial ESCC under multiple endoscopic imaging modalities.

Methods: Endoscopic images were retrospectively collected from West China Hospital, Sichuan University as a training dataset and an independent internal validation dataset. Images from other four hospitals were used as an external validation dataset. The AI system was compared with 11 experienced endoscopists. Furthermore, videos were collected to assess the performance of the AI system.

Results: A total of 53 933 images from 2621 patients and 142 videos from 19 patients were used to develop and validate the AI system. In the internal and external validation datasets, the performance of the AI system under all or different endoscopic imaging modalities was satisfactory, with sensitivity of 92.5-99.7%, specificity of 78.5-89.0%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.906-0.989. The AI system achieved comparable performance with experienced endoscopists. Regarding superficial ESCC confined to the epithelium, the AI system was more sensitive than experienced endoscopists on white-light imaging (90.8% vs 82.5%, P = 0.022). Moreover, the AI system exhibited good performance in videos, with sensitivity of 89.5-100% and specificity of 73.7-89.5%.

Conclusions: We developed an AI system that showed comparable performance with experienced endoscopists in detecting superficial ESCC under multiple endoscopic imaging modalities and might provide valuable support for inexperienced endoscopists, despite requiring further evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15689DOI Listing
September 2021

Response.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 10;94(4):879-880

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Sichuan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2021.06.018DOI Listing
October 2021

Role of "Stiff Rim" sign obtained by shear wave elastography in diagnosis and guiding therapy of breast cancer.

Int J Med Sci 2021 28;18(15):3615-3623. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai 200233, P.R, China.

Because the halo around the tumor in shear wave elastography (SWE) is defined as the "stiff rim" sign, the diagnosis of breast lesions with the stiff rim sign is popular. However, only a few studies have described the stiff rim sign quantitatively. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of the stiff rim sign in the diagnosis and tumor, node, metastasis stage of breast cancer. Two hundred and ten breast lesions were analyzed retrospectively. The maximum, mean, minimum Young's modulus (YM), and the YM standard deviation in the lesion, the peritumoral stiffness (shell), and the region containing lesion and shell were obtained. The suspicious SWE feature with the best diagnostic performance was chosen to downgrade or upgrade the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification. The coincidence rates of SWE and B-mode ultrasound in T staging and their positive predictive value (PPV) for T staging were compared. The presence of "stiff rim" sign was selected to upgrade or downgrade the BI-RADS classification because of its best performance. In pathological benign lesions, 18.9% (25 of 132) of lesions should undergo biopsy if BI-RADS combined with the stiff rim sign were referred while it was 57.6% (76 of 132) if BI-RADS alone was referred. The coincidence rate of T2 staging evaluated by SWE was significantly higher than B-mode ultrasound (about 30% increase, < 0.001). The PPVs of SWE for T1 and T2 staging were higher than B-mode ultrasound ( < 0.05). BI-RADS combined with "stiff rim" sign is expected to improve the diagnostic performance of breast lesions to avoid unnecessary biopsy. The maximum diameter of the lesion measured in SWE is more accurate than B-mode ultrasound in the estimation of T staging, which is beneficial to the treatment and prognosis of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.64243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8436109PMC
August 2021

Resection of a tubular adenoma in the distal common bile duct through percutaneous choledochoscopy.

Endoscopy 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1541-7246DOI Listing
September 2021

On-Surface Polymerization of In-Plane Highly Ordered Carbon Nitride Nanosheets toward Photocatalytic Mineralization of Mercaptan Gas.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 3;33(42):e2101466. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 350002, P. R. China.

2D carbon nitride nanosheets have attracted ever-increasing interest in photocatalysis due to their unique structural advantages. However, the nanosheets synthesized by the traditional methods, such as post oxidation and liquid exfoliation, have suffered from in-plane disorder with abundant structural defects, which seriously counteracts their structural benefits for photocatalysis. Herein, it is demonstrated that polymer carbon nitride nanosheets with in-plane highly ordered structure (PCNNs-IHO) can be successfully prepared by on-surface polymerization of melamine on NaCl crystal surface at elevated temperatures. The NaCl crystals with relative high surface energy not only facilitate the adsorption and activation of melamine to undergo condensation reaction, but also function as unique substrates to orientate the assembly of 2D nanosheet structure. In addition, NaCl also acts as a reactant to provide Na doping into carbon nitride matrix, affording PCNNs-IHO with robust structural base sites. Benefiting from this structural basicity, PCNNs-IHO exhibits superior photocatalytic performance toward CH SH mineralization under visible light irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202101466DOI Listing
October 2021

Double-Regiodetermining-Stages Mechanistic Model Explaining the Regioselectivity of Pd-Catalyzed Hydroaminocarbonylation of Alkenes with Carbon Monoxide and Ammonium Chloride.

J Org Chem 2021 09 28;86(18):12988-13000. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165, People's Republic of China.

Pd-catalyzed hydroaminocarbonylation (HAC) of alkenes with CO and NHCl enables atom-economic and regiodivergent synthesis of primary amides, but the origin of regioselectivity was incorrectly interpreted in previous computational studies. A density functional theory study was performed herein to investigate the mechanism. Different from the previous proposals, both alkene insertion and aminolysis were found to be potential regioselectivity-determining stages. In the alkene insertion stage, 2,1-insertion is generally faster than 1,2-insertion irrespective of neutral or cationic pathways for both P(Bu) and xantphos. Such selectivity results from the unconventional proton-like hydrogen of the Pd-H bond in alkene insertion transition states. For less bulky alkenes, aminolysis with P(Bu) shows low selectivity, while linear selectivity dominates in this stage with xantphos due to a stronger repulsion between xantphos and branched acyl ligands. It was further revealed that the less-mentioned CO concentration and solvents also influence the regioselectivity by adjusting the relative feasibilities of CO-involved steps and NH release from ammonium chloride, respectively. The presented double-regiodetermining-stages mechanistic model associated with the effects of ligands, CO concentration, and solvents well reproduced the experimental selectivity to prove its validity and illuminated new perspectives for the regioselectivity control of HAC reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c01672DOI Listing
September 2021

Diagnosis of Infection and Recent Advances.

Authors:
Hang Yang Bing Hu

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jul 21;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Background: () infects approximately 50% of the world population. Its infection is associated with gastropathies, extra-gastric digestive diseases, and diseases of other systems. There is a canonical process from acute-on-chronic inflammation, chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and intraepithelial neoplasia, eventually to gastric cancer (GC). eradication abolishes the inflammatory response and early treatment prevents the progression to preneoplastic lesions.

Methods: the test-and-treat strategy, endoscopy-based strategy, and screen-and-treat strategy are recommended to prevent GC based on risk stratification, prevalence, and patients' clinical manifestations and conditions. Challenges contain false-negative results, increasing antibiotic resistance, decreasing eradication rate, and poor retesting rate. Present diagnosis methods are mainly based on invasive endoscopy and noninvasive laboratory testing.

Results: to improve the accuracy and effectiveness and reduce the missed diagnosis, some advances were achieved including newer imaging techniques (such as image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE), artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR).

Conclusion: in the article, we summarized the diagnosis methods of infection and recent advances, further finding out the opportunities in challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391489PMC
July 2021

Electrostatic Interaction-Based Fabrication of Calcium Alginate-Zein Core-Shell Microcapsules of Regulable Shapes and Sizes.

Langmuir 2021 Sep 24;37(35):10424-10432. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Core-shell microcapsules with combined features of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity have become much popular. However, the assembly of biocompatible and edible materials in hydrophilic-hydrophobic core-shell microcapsules is not easy. In this work, based on electrostatic interactions, we prepared controllable calcium alginate (ALG)-zein core-shell particles of different shapes and sizes using hydrophilic ALG and hydrophobic zein by a two-step extrusion method. Negatively charged hydrogel beads of spherical, ellipsoidal, or fibrous shape were added into a positively charged zein solution (dissolved in 70% (v/v) aqueous ethanol solution) to achieve different-shaped core-shell particles. Interestingly, the size, shape, and shell thickness of the particles can be regulated by the needle diameter, stirring speed, and zein concentration. Moreover, for simplification, the core-shell particles were also synthesized by a one-step extrusion method, in which an ALG solution was added dropwise into a 70% (v/v) aqueous ethanol solution containing zein and CaCl. The particles synthesized in this work showed controlled digestion of encapsulated medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and sustained release of encapsulated thiamine and ethyl maltol. Our preparation method is simplistic and can be extended to fabricate a variety of hydrophilic and hydrophobic core-shell structures to encapsulate a broad spectrum of materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c01098DOI Listing
September 2021

Hypoxic acclimation improves mitochondrial bioenergetic function in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea under Cu stress.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Aug 20;224:112688. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

National Engineering Research Center of Marine Facilities Aquaculture, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, PR China; East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200090, PR China. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to investigate how pre-hypoxia exposure affected the mitochondrial structure and bioenergetic function of large yellow croaker in responding to Cu stress. Fish were acclimated to normoxia and 3.0 mg DO L for 48 h, then subjected to 0 and 120 μg Cu L for another 48 h. Hypoxic acclimation did not affect mitochondrial ultrastructure and reactive oxygen species (ROS), but reduced oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) efficiency. Cu exposure impaired mitochondrial ultrastructure, increased ROS generation and inhibited OXPHOS efficiency. Compared with Cu exposure alone, hypoxic acclimation plus Cu exposure reduced ROS production and improved OXPHOS efficiency by enhancing mitochondrial respiratory control ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential, and activities and gene expressions of electron transport chain enzymes. In conclusion, hypoxic acclimation improved the mitochondrial energy metabolism of large yellow croaker under Cu stress, facilitating our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding adaptive responses of hypoxia-acclimated fish under Cu stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112688DOI Listing
August 2021
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