Publications by authors named "Bing Han"

1,347 Publications

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Lignite, dewatered lignite and modified subbituminous coal reduce nitrogen loss from broiler litter.

Waste Manag 2021 Oct 15;136:113-121. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

School of Agriculture & Food, Faculty of Veterinary & Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Broiler litter is generated in large quantities as a waste by-product of chicken meat production. N may be lost from the litter and emitted from bird housing as gaseous NH, which can be damaging to the environment and limit the recycling of a valuable nutrient. This study investigated the effect of lignite application rate (0, 5, 10, 15, 20%) on N loss from broiler litter in a static chamber laboratory incubation. Lignite was subsequently dewatered and subbituminous coal modified by aerobic thermal oxidation and their ammoniacal N adsorption potentials were characterised. In a second static chamber incubation, the capacity of these materials (applied at 20%) to reduce N loss from litter was investigated. Finally, their potential to directly reduce NH emissions was examined using a chamber acid trap system. This study showed that lignite reduced N loss when applied to litter at a rate ≥ 5%, with the amount of N retained increasing with increasing lignite application rate. Litter treated with 20% lignite retained 24% more N than untreated litter. Following aerobic thermal treatment, maximum ammoniacal N adsorption capacities of the materials were as follows: lignite > dewatered lignite > modified subbituminous coal > subbituminous coal. Despite inequalities in adsorption capacity, lignite, dewatered lignite and modified subbituminous coal reduced total N loss by 17.3, 18.2 and 18.4% and NH emissions by 41.6, 49.1 and 29.8%, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential of coal-based materials to reduce NH emissions from broiler litter and increase the nutrient value of waste by reducing N loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.10.005DOI Listing
October 2021

Clinical outcomes and safety of polymyxin B in the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: a real-world multicenter study.

J Transl Med 2021 Oct 16;19(1):431. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Department of General ICU, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Key Laboratory of Critical Care Medicine, Zhengzhou Key Laboratory of Sepsis, Henan Engineering Research Center for Critical Care Medicine, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Background: High morbidity and mortality due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR-GNB) has led to the resurgence of polymyxin B (PMB) use in the last decade. The aim of our multicenter, real-world study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PMB in the treatment of CR-GNB infections.

Methods: The real-world study included patients treated with intravenous PMB for at least 7 days during the period of October 2018 through June 2019. Associations between these clinical features and 28-day mortality or all-cause hospital mortality were explored through univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression.

Results: The study included 100 patients. Many patients presented with combined chronic conditions, septic shock, mechanical ventilation, and the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mean duration of PMB therapy was 11 days (range 7-38 days). Temperature (38 °C vs 37.1 °C), white blood cells (14.13 × 10/l vs 9.28 × 10/l), C-reactive protein (103.55 ug/l vs 47.60 ug/l), procalcitonin (3.89 ng/ml vs 1.70 ng/ml) and APACHE II levels (17.75 ± 7.69 vs 15.98 ± 7.95) were significantly decreased after PMB treatment. The bacteria eradication rate was 77.65%. The overall mortality at discharge was 15%, and 28-day mortality was 40%. Major adverse reactions occurred in 16 patients. Nephrotoxicity was observed in 7 patients (7%).

Conclusions: Our results provide positive clinical and safety outcomes for PMB in the treatment of CR-GNB. Timely and appropriate use of PMB may be particularly useful in treating patients with sepsis in CR-GNB infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-03111-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8520283PMC
October 2021

Case Report: Diagnostic Value of Metagenomics Next Generation Sequencing in Intracranial Infection Caused by Mucor.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 23;8:682758. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

mNGS(metagenomics Next Generation Sequencing), as a novel culture-independent approach, demonstrated the capability of rapid, sensitive, and accurate pathogen identification. At present, there have been many case reports about the use of mNGS to assist in the diagnosis of bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections and to guide clinicians to determine appropriate treatment. However, the clinical understanding of this technique is not comprehensive, and the experience of using it is relatively limited. We reported a 53-year-old man who was admitted to hospital with a high fever and headache. His inflammatory biomarkers were markedly elevated. Based on the clinical presentation, He was initially diagnosed as having an intracranial infection of unknown etiology and received empirical antibiotics and systemic supportive treatment. But these did not relieve his symptoms. Both the blood and CSF specimens were examined using traditional culture, serological testing, and mNGS. Traditional culture and serological testing produced negative results, while the mNGS revealed the presence of a potential pathogen, , in the CSF specimen. Then targeted antifungal treatment was selected quickly and his temperature gradually returned to normal. Thus, we report the case in which mNGS was an auxiliary method to diagnose , and discuss this case in combination with relevant literature, in order to improve the clinical cognition of this technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.682758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494775PMC
September 2021

Terrestrosin D, a spirostanol saponin from Tribulus terrestris L. with potential hepatorenal toxicity.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Oct 7;283:114716. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, 250355, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Fructus Tribuli (FT) has been commonly used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. With the diverse uses of FT, more attention has been paid to its hepatorenal toxicity. However, the compounds causing the hepatorenal toxicity of FT remain undetermined. Terrestrosin D (TED), a major spirostanol saponin isolated from FT, may exert hepatorenal toxicity.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatorenal toxicity of TED, and preliminarily explore the possible mechanism of TED-induced hepatorenal toxicity.

Materials And Methods: Cytotoxicity assays, a repeated-dose 28-day in-vivo study, a toxicokinetic study, and a tissue distribution study were used to evaluate the potential hepatorenal toxicity of TED. Furthermore, network pharmacology was applied to preliminarily explore the possible mechanism of TED-induced hepatorenal toxicity.

Results: Both the in vitro and in vivo studies showed that the spirostanol saponin TED had potential hepatorenal toxicity. Nonetheless, hepatorenal toxicity induced by oral treatment with TED at a dosage range of 5 - 15 mg/kg daily for 28 consecutive days to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was reversible after 14 days of TED withdrawal. The toxicokinetic study demonstrated that the systematic exposure of SD rats to TED had an accumulation phenomenon and a dose-dependent trend after a 28-day repeated-dose oral administration. The tissue distribution study revealed that TED had a targeted distribution in the liver and kidneys accompanied by a phenomenon of accumulation in SD rats. Network pharmacology combined with molecular docking methods was used to screen for the key targets (HSP90AA1, CNR1, and DRD2) and the key pathways of TED-induced hepatorenal toxicity.

Conclusions: The spirostanol saponin TED, a major spirostanol saponin isolated from FT, had potential hepatorenal toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114716DOI Listing
October 2021

Identifying adsorption sites for Cd(II) and organic dyes on modified straw materials.

J Environ Manage 2021 Oct 4;301:113862. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, PR China; Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia; Institute of Life Science and Green Development, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, PR China. Electronic address:

Turning agricultural waste into effective remediation materials is a highly promising approach for reducing in-field crop burning and promoting affordable wastewater treatment. This comparative study aims to identify active adsorption sites for methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), and cadmium (Cd) as model pollutants on wheat straw materials modified by a thermal partial-oxidation process. The optimal modification temperature was found to be 160-180 °C for MB and CV adsorption, which is much lower than that of Cd(II) at 220-240 °C. A strong linear correlation exits between total surface group concentrations and Cd(II) uptake, indicating that both acidic and basic functional groups are favourable adsorption sites of Cd(II). By contrast, basic groups generated at higher modification temperatures might have adverse effects on MB and CV adsorption. These results provided mechanistic insights and predictive approach into reuse of agricultural waste for environmental remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113862DOI Listing
October 2021

Exploring antiretroviral therapy adherence, competing needs, and viral suppression among people living with HIV and food insecurity in the Dominican Republic.

AIDS Care 2021 Sep 28:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Behavioral and Policy Sciences Department, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA.

Understanding factors related to suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and detectable viral load (VL), especially among vulnerable populations, is needed to improve HIV outcomes. The Caribbean is highly impacted by HIV and socioeconomic inequalities, but few studies have been conducted there to explore food insecurity among people with HIV and factors associated with viral suppression in this vulnerable population. Using baseline data from a pilot intervention trial among people living with HIV and food insecurity in the Dominican Republic, we examined psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with viral suppression, ART adherence, and competing needs. Among participants ( = 115), 61% had a detectable VL; the strongest factor associated with detectable VL was having missed taking ART in the last six months due to not having food (OR = 2.68,  = 0.02). Greater odds of reporting missed ART doses due to not having food were associated with severe food insecurity (OR = 4.60,  = 0.006), clinical depression (OR = 2.76,  = 0.018), Haitian background (OR = 6.62  = 0.017), and internalized HIV stigma (OR = 1.09,  = 0.041), while lower odds were associated with social support (OR = 0.89,  = 0.03) and having health insurance (OR = 0.27,  = 0.017). Ensuring that people with HIV and food insecurity have food to take with their ART is essential for viral suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2021.1981218DOI Listing
September 2021

Modified lignite and black coal reduce ammonia volatilization from cattle manure.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 25;301:113807. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Modified lignite and black coal (BC) are potential amendments for animal bedding to abate ammonia (NH) emissions due to their large adsorption capacities for ammoniacal nitrogen (N). However, the ability of modified lignite and BC in reducing NH volatilization from livestock manure and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present study has investigated the effect of lignite, modified lignite, BC and modified BC on NH volatilization from cattle manure, biological immobilization of manure ammoniacal N and manure properties. Modified lignite and BC reduced the NH volatilization from manure by 44 and 36%, respectively, which were comparable with original lignite (43%). The biological immobilization of applied stable isotope labelled N in lignite, modified lignite, BC and modified BC amended manures was 15, 18, 11 and 16%, respectively, which were significantly higher than that in unamended manure (4%, P < 0.001). In addition, NH-N concentrations of lignite, modified lignite and modified BC amended manures (7.0-7.3 mg g) were significantly higher than that of the unamended and original BC amended manures (3.3 and 4.8 mg g, respectively, P < 0.001). However, the manure pH in all treatments remained alkaline (pH > 8.2). Our results highlight that the adsorption and immobilization of manure ammoniacal N induced by amendments are the key drivers in reducing NH loss from manure, outweighing the pH effect. The findings of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms of coal amendments reducing NH loss from animal manure and their potential applications in intensive livestock systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113807DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of inorganic mercury exposure on reproductive system of male mice: Immunosuppression and fibrosis in testis.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Mercury as a toxic heavy metal will accumulate in the body and induce various diseases through the food chain. However, it is unknown that the detailed mechanism of reproductive disorder induced by inorganic mercury in male mice to date. This study investigated the toxicological effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl ) exposure on reproductive system in male mice. Male Kunming mice received normal saline daily or HgCl (3 mg/kg bodyweight) by intraperitoneal injection for a week. The reproductive function was evaluated, and the HgCl exposure induced the decline of sperm quality, pregnancy rate, mean litter size, and survival rate. Notably, we firstly found the HgCl -induced immunosuppression and fibrosis in mice testis according to the results of RNA sequencing. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that HgCl exposure disrupts the reproductive system and induces testicular immunosuppression and fibrosis via inhibition of the CD74 signaling pathway in male mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23378DOI Listing
September 2021

Deep learning for differential diagnosis of malignant hepatic tumors based on multi-phase contrast-enhanced CT and clinical data.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Sep 26;14(1):154. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Transplantation, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated To Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Background: Liver cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death globally, and the treatment strategies are distinct for each type of malignant hepatic tumors. However, the differential diagnosis before surgery is challenging and subjective. This study aims to build an automatic diagnostic model for differentiating malignant hepatic tumors based on patients' multimodal medical data including multi-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography and clinical features.

Methods: Our study consisted of 723 patients from two centers, who were pathologically diagnosed with HCC, ICC or metastatic liver cancer. The training set and the test set consisted of 499 and 113 patients from center 1, respectively. The external test set consisted of 111 patients from center 2. We proposed a deep learning model with the modular design of SpatialExtractor-TemporalEncoder-Integration-Classifier (STIC), which take the advantage of deep CNN and gated RNN to effectively extract and integrate the diagnosis-related radiological and clinical features of patients. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/ruitian-olivia/STIC-model .

Results: The STIC model achieved an accuracy of 86.2% and AUC of 0.893 for classifying HCC and ICC on the test set. When extended to differential diagnosis of malignant hepatic tumors, the STIC model achieved an accuracy of 72.6% on the test set, comparable with the diagnostic level of doctors' consensus (70.8%). With the assistance of the STIC model, doctors achieved better performance than doctors' consensus diagnosis, with an increase of 8.3% in accuracy and 26.9% in sensitivity for ICC diagnosis on average. On the external test set from center 2, the STIC model achieved an accuracy of 82.9%, which verify the model's generalization ability.

Conclusions: We incorporated deep CNN and gated RNN in the STIC model design for differentiating malignant hepatic tumors based on multi-phase CECT and clinical features. Our model can assist doctors to achieve better diagnostic performance, which is expected to serve as an AI assistance system and promote the precise treatment of liver cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01167-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8474892PMC
September 2021

Correlation of DUOX2 residual enzymatic activity with phenotype in congenital hypothyroidism caused by biallelic DUOX2 defects.

Clin Genet 2021 Sep 26. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Molecular Diagnostics & Endocrinology, The Core Laboratory in Medical Center of Clinical Research, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

DUOX2 is the most frequently mutated gene in patients with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in China. However, no reliable genotype-phenotype relationship has been found in patients with DUOX2 mutations. In this study, DUOX2 mutations were screened in 266 CH patients, and the enzymatic activity of 89 DUOX2 variants was determined in vitro. Furthermore, the DUOX2 residual activity in 76 CH patients caused by DUOX2 biallelic mutations was calculated. The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels were found to be higher and lower in patients with DUOX2 residual activity ≤22%, respectively, compared to patients with residual enzymatic activity >22%. Moreover, we interpreted the pathogenicity of DUOX2 variants by applying the ACMG classification criteria with or without PS3/BS3 evidence. The results indicated that residual DUOX2 enzymatic activity was closely related to the clinical phenotypes of CH patients caused by DUOX2 biallelic mutations. These findings suggest that the residual enzymatic activity of 22% may be a cutoff value for estimating the severity of hypothyroidism in CH patients with biallelic DUOX2 mutations. Well-established functional studies are useful and necessary to evaluate the pathogenicity of DUOX2 variants, improving the accuracy and scope of genetic consultations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.14065DOI Listing
September 2021

Editorial: Advanced Materials for the Restoration and Reconstruction of Dental Functions.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 3;9:756860. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Pharmacology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.756860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8448342PMC
September 2021

Heterogeneous distribution of mature olfactory sensory neurons in human olfactory epithelium.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The olfactory cleft (OC) comprising the olfactory epithelium (OE) is the most important anatomical location for olfactory function. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is used to treat diseases related to the OC and improve olfactory dysfunction. However, iatrogenic OE injury occasionally occurs. Comprehensive knowledge of the olfactory region is required to avoid damage to the OE during endoscopic procedures.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed on olfactory mucosa obtained from the unaffected side of olfactory neuroblastoma surgical specimens. The OE was defined as the epithelium containing mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). The distribution and cell kinetics of the OE were examined.

Results: The OE was selectively localized to the anterior two-thirds of the superior turbinate (ST) and in the nasal septum (NS) just opposite to the ST; the OE was not detected within the mucosa of the superior meatus. The density of mature OSNs was high at the ethmoid tegmen but gradually decreased with distance from the ethmoid tegmen. The extent of cell death and proliferation was relatively even across the OE. Analysis of airflow profiles revealed that resection of inferior ST does not decrease airflow to the OC.

Conclusion: The results indicate that the distribution and degree of differentiation of mature OSNs are heterogenous throughout the OE. Epithelial resection of the anterior or superior ST has the potential to damage olfactory function. Resection of the inferior or posterior ST or widening of the superior meatus is a safer alternative that does not damage mature OSNs or alter airflow to the OC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alr.22885DOI Listing
September 2021

Modified Valsalva maneuver for treatment of supraventricular tachycardias: A Meta-analysis.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Aug 31;50:507-512. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Heart Center, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Medical College of Lanzhou University, Chengguan District, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China; Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Diseases of Gansu Province, Medical College of Lanzhou University, Chengguan District, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China. Electronic address:

Backgroud: Valsalva maneuver (VM) is a simple and easy method for acute termination of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), while a postural modification to the VM has been suggested to be superior to the standard VM (SVM). The objective of this meta-analysis is to explore the efficacy and safety of the modified VM (MVM) to terminate SVT compared with the SVM.

Methods: Extensive literature was conducted using the database such as PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane library and included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy and safety of the MVM and SVM for SVT. Meta-analysis was performed using mean difference (MD), relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.4.1 software. The quality of the published studies was evaluated using the Oxford quality scoring system (Jadad scale).

Results: Six RCTs involving 1208 patients were reviewed, including 603 patients in the MVM group and 605 patients in the SVM group. The results of the meta-analysis showed that MVM was found to significantly increase the success rate of the sinus rhythm after single VM (RR = 2.83; 95% CI = 2.19 to 3.66; P < 0.00001), sinus rhythm after multiple VM (RR = 3.83; 95% CI = 2.26 to 6.50; P < 0.00001), and single and multiple VM (RR = 2.85, 95% CI = 2.35 to 3.45; P < 0.00001). MVM also decreased the emergency anti-arrhythmic treatments (RR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.79; P < 0.00001), and use of adenosine and verapamil (RR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.78; P < 0.00001). There was no significant difference in adverse events (RR = 1.48; 95% CI = 0.91 to 2.42; P = 0.11) and time in emergency department (ED) (RR = 0.03; 95% CI = -0.17 to 0.23, P = 0.79) between MVM and SVM.

Conclusion: Compared with MVM, the conversion rate of SVT to sinus rhythm was more effective than SVM. MVM also reduced the use of anti-arrhythmic measures and drugs, and had no increased time in ED and adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2021.08.067DOI Listing
August 2021

[Endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatic stellate cells induced by tunicamycin promotes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Sep;37(9):794-800

Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathogensis & Drug Research for Common Chronic Diseases, Department of Pathophysiology, College of Basic Medicine, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550000, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To investigate the effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) induced by tunicamycin on proliferation, activation, and apoptosis of HSC-T6 rat hepatic stellate cells and its possible mechanism. Methods With the expression level of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) as an indicator to explore the optimal concentration and time, a cell model of tunicamycin-induced ERS in HSC-T6 cells was established. HSC-T6 cells were randomized into control group, treatment group with 1 mL/L of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and treatment group with 1 μg/mL of tunicamycin, and the cells were treated for 12 h. MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation, flow cytometry to detect apoptosis and cell cycle, and Western blot to detect the protein expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), C/EBP cAMP homologous protein (CHOP), caspase-12, and cyclin D1. Results The optimal dose of tunicamycin to induce ERS in HSC-T6 cells was 1 μg/mL and the optimal time was 12 hours. Compared with the control group and treatment group with DMSO, the treatment group with 1 μg/mL of tunicamycin had no significant change in cell proliferation, but the expression of α-SMA was up-regulated with the apoptosis increased, the proportion of G1 phase cells was significantly increased and that of S phase cells decreased, the ERS induced apoptosis related signal proteins CHOP and caspase-12 were significantly up-regulated, and the expression of cyclin D1 was significantly down-regulated. Conclusion Tunicamycin treatment of HSC-T6 cells for 12 hours induces significant ERS and activation of the cells. The insignificant change in the number of cells during the activation may be related to the increased apoptosis and the cell cycle arrest induced by the activation of the GRP78/CHOP/caspase-12 pathway.
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September 2021

The Gaps Between the Self and Professional Evaluation in Mental Health Assessment of COVID-19 Cluster Cases.

Front Psychol 2021 31;12:614193. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

To analyze the discrepancy between self-rating and professional evaluation of mental health status in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cluster cases. A total of 65 COVID-19 cluster cases admitted to Beijing Ditan Hospital Capital Medical University from June 14, 2020 to June 16, 2020 were included in the study. Mental health assessment was completed by self-rating and professional evaluation. The gaps between self-rating and professional evaluation in different demographic characteristics were compared. The results of self-rating were inconsistent with those of professional evaluation. The gap was statistically different among certain demographic subgroups. As for anxiety, the gaps had remarkable statistics differences in subgroups of sex, monthly income, infection way, and anxiety/depression medical history. Similarly, in the terms of depression, the gaps had significant statistic differences in the subgroups of the medical history of anxiety/depression, history of physical disease, employment status and the insurance type, marriage, education (year), residing in Beijing (year), and the monthly income. Compared to the professional evaluation, patients had a higher self-rating, which may be related to some demographic characteristics. It suggests that screening can be conducted in patients with COVID-19 by self-rating first, and then professional evaluation should be carried out in the patients with suspicious or positive results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.614193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438176PMC
August 2021

CDC20 regulates the cell proliferation and radiosensitivity of P53 mutant HCC cells through the Bcl-2/Bax pathway.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 19;17(13):3608-3621. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Transplantation, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely high, and China accounts for approximately 50% of global liver cancer cases. Previous studies reported that CDC20 is involved in the occurrence and progression of a variety of malignant tumors. So, whether CDC20 will affect the development of HCC, we have conducted in-depth research on this. We selected Hep3B and HepG2 for cell culture, and performed siRNA transfection, lentiviral infection, western blot, MTS determination, cell cycle determination, apoptosis test, immunodeficiency test, clone survival test and subcutaneous parthenogenesis in nude mice. Knockdown of CDC20 greatly enhanced the radiation efficacy on the growth retardation in HepG2, and protein level of CDC20 was decreased for the activation of P53 by radiation. Downregulation of CDC20 combined with radiation can inhibit proliferation, aggravate DNA damage, increase G2/M arrest, and promote apoptosis of HCC cells to a greater extent, and the relative survival fraction of HCC cells was gradually reduced with radiation dose increased in P53 mutated Hep3B cells. After knocking down CDC20 in HCC, Bcl-2 was down-regulated and Bax expression increased. Down-regulation of CDC20 can inhibit further invasion by promoting the radiosensitivity of HCC. In this study, we found that that CDC20 was highly expressed in HCC and participated in radio resistance of HCC cells with P53 mutation Bcl-2/Bax via signaling pathway. This study is the first to present evidence that CDC20 may play a role in improving the efficacy of radiotherapy in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.64003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416732PMC
August 2021

Enabling Atomic-Scale Imaging of Sensitive Potassium Metal and Related Solid Electrolyte Interphases Using Ultralow-Dose Cryo-TEM.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 9:e2102666. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech), Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Potassium-based solid electrolyte interphases (SEIs) have a much smaller damage threshold than their lithium counterpart; thus, they are significantly more beam sensitive. Here, an ultralow-dose cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) technique (≈8 e Å s  × 10 s), which enables the atomic-scale chemical imaging of the electron-beam-sensitive potassium metal and SEI in its native state, is adapted. The potassium-based SEI consists of large brackets of diverse inorganic phases (≈hundreds of nanometers) interspersed with amorphous phases, which are different from the tiny nanocrystalline inorganic phases (≈a few nanometers) formed in a lithium-based SEI. Organic phosphate-based electrolyte solvents induce the formation of a thin and stable SEI layer for enhanced cycling performance, while the carbonate ester-based electrolytes result in large quantities of metastable KHCO , and K CO products in the SEI, depleting the potassium reserves in the battery. The findings provide deep insights and guidance in the selection of optimum electrolytes that should be used for potassium batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202102666DOI Listing
September 2021

In Situ Programmable DNA Circuit-Promoted Electrochemical Characterization of Stemlike Phenotype in Breast Cancer.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Oct 8;143(39):16078-16086. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Center for Molecular Recognition and Biosensing, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, P. R. China.

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases among women worldwide, and the existence of breast cancer stem cells is closely associated with poor outcomes. Herein, we report an electrochemical phenotyping method to characterize the stemlike phenotype in breast cancer, offering a low-cost but robust choice other than the highly expensive and experience-dependent flow cytometry. Specially, after immune-magnetic beads-assisted enrichment, an in situ programmable DNA circuit is designed using capture probes to bring in the toeholds for DNA assembly and effector probes to accelerate the removal of background signals. The electrochemical phenotyping method could sensitively determine breast cancer stem cells in a wide linear range and exhibit desirable accuracy and reliability. The method can not only monitor the phenotypic transition of breast cancer cells and the drug-reversed effect but also determinate stemlike phenotype in the mice bearing breast cancer xenograft tumor. Overall, the electrochemical phenotyping method may provide promising technical support for precise management of breast tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c06436DOI Listing
October 2021

Probiotic yogurt blunts the increase of blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats remodeling of the gut microbiota.

Food Funct 2021 Oct 19;12(20):9773-9783. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Key Laboratory of Whole-Period Monitoring and Precise Intervention of Digestive Cancer (SMHC), Minhang Hospital, Fudan University, 201100 Shanghai, China.

Dietary intake of probiotic yogurt, which has beneficial effects on intestinal microecology, is associated with a lower incidence of hypertension. Recent studies have shown that the gut microbiota plays a vital role in the development of hypertension. However, the impact of the gut microbiota in the antihypertensive effect of probiotic yogurt remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the impact of the gut microbiota in the antihypertensive effect of probiotic yogurt in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR were treated with probiotic yogurt (0.2 mL per 100 g body weight) (SHR-Y group) for seven weeks and compared with whole milk-treated (0.2 mL per 100 g body weight) SHR (SHR group) and with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY group). The blood pressure and heart function of the rats in the WKY, SHR, and SHR-Y groups were measured. Fecal microbiota was assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing. To investigate whether probiotic yogurt prevents hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats through the gut microbiota, we co-housed SHR rats (SHR) with SHR-Y rats (SHR-Y), thus allowing the transfer of microbiota coprophagy. Compared with whole milk, supplementation of probiotic yogurt significantly reduced the blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and cardiac function. We found that the probiotic yogurt modified the gut microbiota populations and increased the alpha diversity. Gut microbiota remodeling by co-housing partly rescued the increase of blood pressure and impaired the cardiac function of SHR rats. Moreover, probiotic yogurt modulated the gut microbiota in mice by increasing the abundance of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria and SCFA levels (acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and valeic acid) in the feces. Together, the presented data revealed that probiotic yogurt exhibited antihypertensive effects in SHR rats remodeling of the gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01836aDOI Listing
October 2021

Estimating the Size of the Los Angeles County Jail Mental Health Population Appropriate for Release into Community Services.

Rand Health Q 2021 Aug 16;9(2). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

In 2015, the Office of Diversion and Reentry Division (ODR), an internal department of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, was created to redirect individuals with serious mental illness from the criminal justice system. Part of ODR's mission is to identify individuals currently incarcerated in a Los Angeles County jail who are experiencing a serious mental health disorder and, to the extent practical, provide them with appropriate community-based care with the goals of reducing recidivism and improving health outcomes. Such redirection from the traditional criminal justice process is often characterized as diversion. To better build and scale efforts to support this work, in 2018, the Los Angeles County's Board of Supervisors asked for a study of the existing county jail mental health population to identify those who would likely be eligible for diversion based on legal and clinical factors. Researchers found that an estimated 61 percent of the jail mental health population were likely appropriate candidates for diversion; 7 percent were potentially appropriate; and 32 percent were likely not appropriate candidates for diversion. These findings will help the county determine how it would need to scale community-based treatment programs to accommodate these individuals. The authors also provide recommendations for future programming and research. This study will be of interest to state and county governments as well as other organizations serving criminal justice-involved populations with serious mental illness.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383839PMC
August 2021

Effect of EDTA decalcification on estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor immunohistochemistry and HER2/neu fluorescence in situ hybridization in breast carcinoma.

Hum Pathol 2021 Nov 27;117:108-114. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Penn State Health Hershey Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA.

Bone is the most common site of metastasis in breast carcinoma (BC). Treatments for metastatic BC depend on various factors, including the tumor's estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 status. Bone biopsies require decalcification which may affect the accuracy of ER and PR immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HER2 situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) decalcifying solutions have been theorized to have no significant impact on ER and PR IHC or HER2 FISH analyses. We completed a prospective study of the effect of EDTA decalcification on ER and PR IHC and HER2 FISH in 29 cases of BC. Samples from 29 BC resections were collected and formalin fixed between 12 and 24 h. Control samples were routinely processed, whereas test samples were placed in EDTA for 48 h. ER and PR slides were blinded, randomized, and evaluated. Blinded samples underwent HER2 FISH assays where an average HER2 copy number and HER2/CEP17 ratio were calculated. Paired differences between EDTA and control samples were compared for ER and PR positivity, average HER2 copy number, and HER2/CEP17 ratios using paired-samples t-tests (PST) and Wilcoxon signed-rank test (WSR). PST and WSR tests yielded no significant difference between EDTA and control tissue for ER% (PST: P = 1; WSR: P = 0.916), PR% (PST: P = 0.973; WSR: P = 0.984), HER2 copy number (PST: P = 0.124; WSR: P = 0.103), and HER2/CEP17 ratio (PST: P = 0.25; WSR: P = 0.105). The use of EDTA in bony tissue is therefore a valid decalcification method to ensure accurate assessment of ER and PR IHC and HER2 FISH in metastatic BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2021.08.007DOI Listing
November 2021

Metal-Organic-Framework Based Functional Materials for Uranium Recovery: Performance Optimization and Structure/Functionality-Activity Relationships.

Chempluschem 2021 Aug;86(8):1177-1192

MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, P. R. China.

Uranium recovery has profound significance in both uranium resource acquisition and pollution treatment. In recent years, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted much attention as potential uranium adsorbents owing to their tunable structural topology and designable functionalities. This review explores the research progress in representative classic MOFs (MIL-101, UiO-66, ZIF-8/ZIF-67) and other advanced MOF-based materials for efficient uranium extraction in aqueous or seawater environments. The uranium uptake mechanism of the MOF-based materials is refined, and the structure/functionality-property relationship is further systematically elucidated. By summarizing the typical functionalization and structure design methods, the performance improvement strategies for MOF-based adsorbents are emphasized. Finally, the present challenges and potential opportunities are proposed for the breakthrough of high-performance MOF-based materials in uranium extraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cplu.202100315DOI Listing
August 2021

Radical 1,4/5-Amino Shift Enables Access to Fluoroalkyl-Featured Primary β(γ)-Aminoketones under Metal-Free Conditions.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Lanzhou University, Department of Chemistry, 222 South Tianshui Rd., 730000, Lanzhou, CHINA.

A novel radical 1,4/5-amino shift from the oxygen center of alkene-tethered diphenyl ketoxime ethers to the carbon center to achieve high value-added fluoroalkyl-featured primary β(γ)-aminoketones is reported. This conversion is initiated by fluoroalkyl radical derived from the EDA (electron donor-acceptor) complex of Togni's reagent/fluoroalkyl iodides and quinuclidine. Mechanism studies reveal that the migration involves a unique 5(6)-exo-trig cyclization of the carbon-centered radical onto the N-atom of ketoxime ethers followed by a cascade N-O bond cleavage and dehydrogenation sequence. Notably, besides Togni's reagent/fluoroalkyl iodides, this protocol is also compatible with other radical precursors to provide various functionalized primary aminoketones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202110583DOI Listing
August 2021

Inhibition of autophagy promotes human RSV NS1-induced inflammation and apoptosis .

Exp Ther Med 2021 Oct 23;22(4):1054. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Xiangyang No. 1 People's Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Xiangyang, Hubei 441000, P.R. China.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major health challenge due to the lack of a safe and effective vaccine and antiviral drugs. RSV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is the main inhibitor of antiviral signaling pathways in RSV infection; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate of the role of NS1 and its relationship with autophagy. NS1-Flag plasmid was transfected into A549 cells and the levels of inflammatory cytokines, autophagy markers and apoptosis were detected. In addition, the cells were treated with an autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine for 12 h prior to transfection with the NS1 plasmid to explore the role of autophagy in NS1-transfected cells. The results showed that the production of inflammatory cytokines and autophagy was induced in NS1-transfected cells, and indicated that autophagy prevents the production of cytokines and the activation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that NS1 activated autophagy partly through the mTOR-p70 S6 kinase signaling pathway. The results suggest that autophagy induced by NS1 transfection through the mTOR pathway can hinder the production of inflammatory cytokines and interferon-α and inhibit cell apoptosis, which may help to explain why autophagy has been shown to be beneficial to viral replication in most studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353648PMC
October 2021

Perioperative and Oncological Outcomes of Robotic Versus Open Pancreaticoduodenectomy in Low-Risk Surgical Candidates: A Multicenter Propensity Score-Matched Study.

Ann Surg 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Faculty of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, the First Medical Center of Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital, Beijing, China Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, Liaoning, China Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, China Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China 1st Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Affiliated Jiujiang Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiujiang, Jiangxi, China Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, People Hospital of Cangzhou city, Cangzhou, Hebei, China Department of General Surgery, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu, China Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Chifeng Hospital, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China Department of Digestive Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, People Hospital of Huanghua city, Cangzhou, Hebei, China Department of Thyroid and Pancreatic Surgery, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to perform a multicenter comparison between robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy (RPD) and open pancreaticoduodenectomy (OPD).

Background: Previous comparisons of RPD versus OPD have only been carried out in small, single-center studies of variable quality.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent RPD (n = 1032) or OPD (n = 1154) at 7 centers in China between July 2012 and July 2020 were included. A 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) was performed.

Results: After PSM, 982 patients in each group were enrolled. The RPD group had significantly lower estimated blood loss (EBL) (190.0 vs 260.0 mL; P < 0.001), and a shorter postoperative 1length of hospital stay (LOS) (12.0 (9.0-16.0) days vs 14.5 (11.0-19.0) days; P < 0.001) than the OPD group. There were no significant differences in operative time, major morbidity including clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF), bile leakage, delayed gastric emptying, postoperative pancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH), reoperation, readmission or 90-day mortality rates. Multivariable analysis showed R0 resection, CR-POPF, PPH and reoperation to be independent risk factors for 90-day mortality. Subgroup analysis on patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) (n = 326 in each subgroup) showed RPD had advantages over OPD in EBL and postoperative LOS. There were no significant differences in median disease-free survival (15.2 vs 14.3 months, P = 0.94) or median overall survival (24.2 vs 24.1 months, P = 0.88) between the 2 subgroups.

Conclusions: RPD was comparable to OPD in feasibility and safety. For patients with PDAC, RPD resulted in similar oncologic and survival outcomes as OPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000005160DOI Listing
August 2021

High-Loading Pt Single-Atom Catalyst on CeO -Modified Diatomite Support.

Chem Asian J 2021 Sep 17;16(18):2622-2625. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, P. R. China.

Single-atom catalysis has become a new branch in heterogeneous catalysis. Although the naturally produced SiO -based materials are abundant and stable, fabrication of single-atom catalysts on such supports with high loading remains as a formidable challenge due to the lack of bonding sites to anchor the isolated metal species. Herein, modifying the diatomite, a kind of pure SiO mineral, with CeO nanoparticles is demonstrated to increase the defect sites on the support. The enhanced metal-support interaction maintains the atomic dispersion of Pt species with above 1 wt.% loading, exhibiting good performance in the selective hydrogenation of phenylacetylene to styrene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100730DOI Listing
September 2021

Ginsenoside Rg3 exerts a neuroprotective effect in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease mice via its anti-oxidative properties.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Oct 12;909:174413. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Center for Mitochondria and Healthy Aging, College of Life Science, Yantai University, Yantai, 264005, PR China. Electronic address:

Ginsenoside Rg3, extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been shown to possess neuroprotective properties. The present study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease mice. Rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, leads to the augmentation of reactive oxygen species production in cells. Male C57/BL6 mice were intragastrically administered rotenone (30 mg/kg) and then treated with ginsenoside Rg3 (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg). Pole, rotarod, and open field tests were performed to evaluate motor function. Ginsenoside Rg3 decreased the climbing time in the pole test (p < 0.01), whereas it increased the latency in the rotarod test (p < 0.01) and the total distance (p < 0.01) and mean speed in the open field test (p < 0.01). Ginsenoside Rg3 treatment augmented the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (p < 0.01), mean density of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nerve fibers (p < 0.01), and dopamine content (p < 0.01) in the striatum and reduced the reactive oxygen species level in the substantia nigra (p < 0.01). Glutathione cysteine ligase regulatory subunit and glutathione cysteine ligase modulatory subunit expression levels were elevated in the ginsenoside Rg3 groups. Ginsenoside Rg3 also improved motor function in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease mice. The neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg3 are at least partly associated with its anti-oxidative properties via regulation of glutathione cysteine ligase modulatory subunit and glutathione cysteine ligase regulatory subunit expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174413DOI Listing
October 2021

Causal inference under interference with prognostic scores for dynamic group therapy studies.

Int J Biostat 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Group therapy is a common treatment modality for behavioral health conditions. Patients often enter and exit groups on an ongoing basis, leading to dynamic therapy groups. Examining the effect of high versus low session attendance on patient outcomes is a research question of interest. However, there are several challenges to identifying causal effects in this setting, including the lack of randomization, interference among patients, and the interrelatedness of patient participation. Dynamic therapy groups motivate a unique causal inference scenario, as the treatment statuses are completely defined by the patient attendance record for the therapy session, which is also the structure inducing interference. We adopt the Rubin causal model framework to define the causal effect of high versus low session attendance of group therapy at both the individual patient and peer levels. We propose a strategy to identify individual, peer, and total effects of high attendance versus low attendance on patient outcomes by the prognostic score stratification. We examine performance of our approach via simulation and apply it to data from a group cognitive behavioral therapy trial for treating depression among patients in a substance use disorders treatment setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijb-2019-0126DOI Listing
August 2021

Involvement of noncoding RNA in blood-brain barrier integrity in central nervous system disease.

Noncoding RNA Res 2021 Sep 9;6(3):130-138. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu, China.

Given the important role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the central nervous system (CNS), increasing studies have been carried out to determine how the structural and functional integrity of the BBB impacts the pathogenesis of CNS diseases such as stroke, traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), and gliomas. Emerging studies have revealed that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) help to maintain the integrity and permeability of the BBB, thereby mediating CNS homeostasis. This review summarizes recent studies that focus on the effects of ncRNAs on the BBB in CNS diseases, including regulating the biological processes of inflammation, necrosis, and apoptosis of cells, affecting the translational dysfunction of proteins and regulating tight junctions (TJs). A comprehensive and detailed understanding of the interaction between ncRNAs and the BBB will lay a solid foundation for the development of early diagnostic methods and effective treatments for CNS diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncrna.2021.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8327137PMC
September 2021

Efficacy evaluation of PCSK9 monoclonal antibody (Evolocumab) in combination with Rosuvastatin and Ezetimibe on cholesterol levels in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD): A retrospective analysis from a single center in China.

Authors:
Yi Liu Bing Han

Transpl Immunol 2021 Aug 7:101444. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

MM, Cardiac Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Xuzhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9(PCSK9) monoclonal antibody (Mab; Evolocumab) has been reported to inhibit low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and Lipoprotein(a) [LP(a)] in coronary heart diseases (CHD) patients in America, Europe and Japan. However, little is known about the effect of Evolocumab in Chinese population. This retrospective study in Chinese CHD patients compared the efficacy without or with Evolocumab therapy added to the conventional treatment with a statin (Rosuvastatin) and a gut cholesterol absorption inhibitor (Ezetimibe).

Methods: CHD patients from our hospital were divided into three therapeutic groups, A) the statin monotherapy group (10 mg Rosuvastatin every night); B) the statin/cholesterol absorption inhibitor group (10 mg Rosuvastatin and 10 mg Ezetimibe daily); and C) the triple therapy with PCSK9 Mab group (10 mg Rosuvastatin daily, 10 mg Ezetimibe daily, and 140 mg Evolocumab once 2 weeks). The plasma lipid data were collected at 0, 4, 12, and 24 Week(s). The Graphpad Prism 7 program was used to perform all the statistical analysis.

Results: Out of 103 patients 91 were eligible for further evaluation with 31 in group A, 31 in group B, and 29 in group C. The plasma LDL-C levels were reduced only by 33.82% in the Rosuvastatin monotherapy group, 52.13% in the Rosuvastatin/Ezetimibe group, and 73.59% in the Evolocumab/Rosuvastatin/Ezetimibe group (P < 0.0001) at 24 weeks compared to the prior therapy levels. Neither the statin therapy alone (5.95%; P = 0.6), nor the double therapy (5.27%; P = 0.7) affected LP(a) levels. In contrast, addition of Evolocumab to the double therapy significantly decreased LP(a) level by 37.2% (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Addition of Evolocumab to the standard double therapy in Chinese CHD patients improved the efficacy in LDL-C reduction when compared to Rosuvastatin alone or in Rosuvastatin/Ezetimibe double therapy. Furthermore, the addition of Evolocumab lowered LP(a) level in Chinese CHD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2021.101444DOI Listing
August 2021
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