Publications by authors named "Bing Cheng"

96 Publications

Selection Signatures in Chinese Sorghum Reveals Its Unique Liquor-Making Properties.

Front Plant Sci 2022 9;13:923734. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Institute of Crop and Nuclear Technology Utilization, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

Chinese sorghum (S. bicolor) has been a historically critical ingredient for brewing famous distilled liquors ever since Yuan Dynasty (749 ∼ 652 years BP). Incomplete understanding of the population genetics and domestication history limits its broad applications, especially that the lack of genetics knowledge underlying liquor-brewing properties makes it difficult to establish scientific standards for sorghum breeding. To unravel the domestic history of Chinese sorghum, we re-sequenced 244 Chinese sorghum lines selected from 16 provinces. We found that Chinese sorghums formed three distinct genetic sub-structures, referred as the Northern, the Southern, and the Chishui groups, following an obviously geographic pattern. These sorghum accessions were further characterized in liquor brewing traits and identified selection footprints associated with liquor brewing efficiency. An importantly selective sweep region identified includes several homologous genes involving in grain size, pericarp thickness, and architecture of inflorescence. Our result also demonstrated that pericarp strength rather than grain size determines the ability of the grains to resist repeated cooking during brewing process. New insight into the traits beneficial to the liquor-brewing process provides both a better understanding on Chinese sorghum domestication and a guidance on breeding sorghum as a multiple use crop in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.923734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218943PMC
June 2022

Determination of 18 Intact Glucosinolates in Vegetables by UHPLC-MS/MS: Comparing Tissue Disruption Methods for Sample Preparation.

Molecules 2021 Dec 30;27(1). Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Institute of Agri-Food Processing and Nutrition, Beijing Vegetable Research Center, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China.

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important precursor compounds with anticancer activities in vegetables and are readily hydrolyzed by myrosinase. Given the diversity of these species, establishing an accurate and universal method to quantify intact GSLs in different plant tissues is necessary. Here, we compared and optimized three tissue disruption methods for sample preparation. After microwave treatment for 90 s, 13 GSLs in homogenized Chinese cabbage samples were recovered at 73-124%. However, a limitation of this method was that different tissues could not be processed under the same microwave conditions. Regarding universality, GSLs in vegetables could be extracted from freeze-dried sample powder with 70% methanol (/) or frozen-fresh sample powder with 80% methanol (/). Moreover, heating extraction is necessary for GSLs extracted from frozen-fresh sample powder. Average recoveries of the two optimized methods were 74-119% with relative standard deviations ≤ 15%, with the limits of quantification 5.72-17.40 nmol/g dry weight and 0.80-1.43 nmol/g fresh weight, respectively. Notably, the method for analyzing intact GSLs was more efficient than that for desulfo-GSLs regarding operational complexity, detection speed and quantification accuracy. The developed method was applied to identify the characteristic GSLs in 15 vegetables, providing a foundation for further research on GSLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8746615PMC
December 2021

Colorectal cancer-associated fibroblasts promote metastasis by up-regulating LRG1 through stromal IL-6/STAT3 signaling.

Cell Death Dis 2021 12 20;13(1):16. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Key laboratory of Colorectal and Pelvic Floor Disease, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510655, China.

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been shown to play a strong role in colorectal cancer metastasis, yet the underlying mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Using CRC clinical samples together with ex vivo CAFs-CRC co-culture models, we found that CAFs induce expression of Leucine Rich Alpha-2-Glycoprotein 1(LRG1) in CRC, where it shows markedly higher expression in metastatic CRC tissues compared to primary tumors. We further show that CAFs-induced LRG1 promotes CRC migration and invasion that is concomitant with EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) induction. In addition, this signaling axis has also been confirmed in the liver metastatic mouse model which displayed CAFs-induced LRG1 substantially accelerates metastasis. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that CAFs-secreted IL-6 (interleukin-6) is responsible for LRG1 up-regulation in CRC, which occurs through a direct transactivation by STAT3 following JAK2 activation. In clinical CRC tumor samples, LRG1 expression was positively correlated with CAFs-specific marker, α-SMA, and a higher LRG1 expression predicted poor clinical outcomes especially distant metastasis free survival, supporting the role of LRG1 in CRC progression. Collectively, this study provided a novel insight into CAFs-mediated metastasis in CRC and indicated that therapeutic targeting of CAFs-mediated IL-6-STAT3-LRG1 axis might be a potential strategy to mitigate metastasis in CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04461-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8688517PMC
December 2021

The Role of Talker Variability in Nonnative Phonetic Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 12 11;64(12):4802-4825. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences and Center for Neurobehavioral Development, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis.

Purpose: High-variability phonetic training (HVPT) has been found to be effective on adult second language (L2) learning, but results are mixed in regards to the benefit of multiple talkers over single talker. This study provides a systematic review with meta-analysis to investigate the talker variability effect in nonnative phonetic learning and the factors moderating the effect.

Method: We collected studies with keyword search in major academic databases including EBSCO, ERIC, MEDLINE, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, Elsevier, Scopus, Wiley Online Library, and Web of Science. We identified potential participant-, training-, and study-related moderators and conducted a random-effects model meta-analysis for each individual variable.

Results: On the basis of 18 studies with a total of 549 participants, we obtained a small-level summary effect size (Hedges' = 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.08, 0.84]) for the immediate training outcomes, which was greatly reduced ( = -0.04, 95% CI [-0.46, 0.37]) after removal of outliers and correction for publication bias, whereas the effect size for immediate perceptual gains was nearly medium ( = 0.56, 95% CI [0.13, 1.00]) compared with the nonsignificant production gains. Critically, the summary effect sizes for generalizations to new talkers ( = 0.72, 95% CI [0.15, 1.29]) and for long-term retention ( = 1.09, 95% CI [0.39, 1.78]) were large. Moreover, the training program length and the talker presentation format were found to potentially moderate the immediate perceptual gains and generalization outcomes.

Conclusions: Our study presents the first meta-analysis on the role of talker variability in nonnative phonetic training, which demonstrates the heterogeneity and limitations of research on this topic. The results highlight the need for further investigation of the influential factors and underlying mechanisms for the presence or absence of talker variability effects. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.16959388.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2021_JSLHR-21-00181DOI Listing
December 2021

Metrological traceability method for atomic absolute gravimeters.

Appl Opt 2021 Sep;60(26):7910-7920

Cold atomic gravimeters are attracting more and more attention and activity in the area of gravity measurement and comparison, and the corresponding methods for measurement and traceability need to be explored. Based on two self-developed cold atomic gravimeters, research on the comparison and traceability methods of absolute gravity measurement was carried out. The entire gravity measurement traceability process is divided into two stages: the preliminary traceability in the laboratory and the formal traceability in the absolute gravity reference station. Through comparison of two atomic gravimeters (ZAG-E and ZAG-B) in the laboratory, the degree of equivalence and the normalized deviation of ZAG-E are obtained, which are -2.7±7.6µ (=2) and -0.3599, respectively. Relative to the absolute gravity reference at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM) in China, and of ZAG-E are 0.5±12.0µ (=2) and 0.0417, respectively. ||≤1 in the two traceability stages, so the results of two traceability stages are acceptable, which indicates the consistency of the comparisons is good. Finally, the absolute gravity measurement value of ZAG-E is traced to the SI units, ensuring its accuracy. A gravity traceability method for atomic gravimeters is given and is very beneficial for the applications of atomic gravimeters in metrology and other fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.430370DOI Listing
September 2021

Stromal induction of BRD4 phosphorylation Results in Chromatin Remodeling and BET inhibitor Resistance in Colorectal Cancer.

Nat Commun 2021 07 21;12(1):4441. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Cancer Precision Medicine, Genome Institute of Singapore, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Singapore, 138672, Singapore.

BRD4, a Bromodomain and Extraterminal (BET) protein family member, is a promising anti-cancer drug target. However, resistance to BET inhibitors targeting BRD4 is common in solid tumors. Here, we show that cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-activated stromal signaling, interleukin-6/8-JAK2, induces BRD4 phosphorylation at tyrosine 97/98 in colorectal cancer, resulting in BRD4 stabilization due to interaction with the deubiquitinase UCHL3. BRD4 phosphorylation at tyrosine 97/98 also displays increased binding to chromatin but reduced binding to BET inhibitors, resulting in resistance to BET inhibitors. We further show that BRD4 phosphorylation promotes interaction with STAT3 to induce chromatin remodeling through concurrent binding to enhancers and super-enhancers, supporting a tumor-promoting transcriptional program. Inhibition of IL6/IL8-JAK2 signaling abolishes BRD4 phosphorylation and sensitizes BET inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Our study reveals a stromal mechanism for BRD4 activation and BET inhibitor resistance, which provides a rationale for developing strategies to treat CRC more effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24687-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295257PMC
July 2021

A NO/ROS/RNS cascaded-releasing nano-platform for gas/PDT/PTT/immunotherapy of tumors.

Biomater Sci 2021 Sep 16;9(17):5824-5840. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China.

Nitric oxide (NO) gas treatment offers a promising strategy for tumor therapy; however, its practical application is still limited due to its poor efficacy and biotoxicity which were caused by gas leakage during blood delivery. Herein, a nano-platform (CMH-OBN) composed of chlorin e6-melanin-hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (Ce6-MNP-HA, CMH) and oxidized bletilla striata polysaccharide microcapsules (Oxi-BSP) carrying NO donors was prepared for responsive and cascaded release of NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its secondary metabolite reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in tumor sites. Melanin not only endowed CMH with good photothermal properties, but also helped Ce6 to produce a large number of ROS under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation. OBN microcapsules, which were sensitive to ROS, can release NO donors under the stimulation of ROS released by CMH nanoparticles under NIR irradiation and can further release NO in the tumor microenvironment (TME) with high expression of glutathione (GSH). NO could further up-regulate soluble guanylate cyclase-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (sGC-cGMP) signal pathways to relieve hypoxia, thus further enhancing the photodynamic therapy (PDT). Moreover, the cascaded release of ROS and NO could produce RNS with higher lethality, which could sequentially initiate the cellular apoptotic procedure and promote immunotherapy by activating T cells at the tumor sites. More interestingly, the CMH-OBN nano-platform could supply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and infrared photothermal imaging guidance for tumor therapy. In conclusion, the development of a CMH-OBN nano-platform provides a satisfactory demonstration by combining NO therapy with photothermal therapy (PTT), PDT and immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00726bDOI Listing
September 2021

Dihydroartemisinin Inhibits mTORC1 Signaling by Activating the AMPK Pathway in Rhabdomyosarcoma Tumor Cells.

Cells 2021 06 1;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932, USA.

Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an anti-malarial drug, has been shown to possess potent anticancer activity, partly by inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. However, how DHA inhibits mTORC1 is still unknown. Here, using rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) as a model, we found that DHA reduced cell proliferation and viability in RMS cells, but not those in normal cells, which was associated with inhibition of mTORC1. Mechanistically, DHA did not bind to mTOR or FK506 binding protein 12 (FKBP12). In addition, DHA neither inhibited insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase ½ , nor activated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the cells. Rather, DHA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Pharmacological inhibition of AMPK, ectopic expression dominant negative or kinase-dead AMPK, or knockdown of AMPKa attenuated the inhibitory effect of DHA on mTORC1 in the cells. Additionally, DHA was able to induce dissociation of regulatory-associated protein of (raptor) from mTOR and inhibit mTORC1 activity. Moreover, treatment with artesunate, a prodrug of DHA, dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth and concurrently activated AMPK and suppressed mTORC1 in RMS xenografts. The results indicated that DHA inhibits mTORC1 by activating AMPK in tumor cells. Our finding supports that DHA or artesunate has a great potential to be repositioned for treatment of RMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10061363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226784PMC
June 2021

Degeneration in the Zygapophysial Joint of the Fifth Lumbar Vertebra: The V-Shaped Sign Revealed by Bone Scintigraphy.

Int J Gen Med 2021 3;14:2275-2280. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the nature of a V-shaped sign in the backbone of the fifth lumbar vertebra revealed by whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBBS).

Methods: A local single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan plus a computed tomography (CT) scan were performed on 41 patients in our department who had a V-shaped sign in the backbone of the fifth lumbar vertebra detected by WBBS. Image fusion was conducted to understand the manifestations of the changes in the V-shaped sign in the CT images in WBBS and to determine the nature of the lesion.

Results: All 41 patients presented with degenerative changes observed in the bilateral posterior zygapophysial joint of the fifth lumbar vertebra in the CT imaging bone window, bone hyperplasia of the articular process, joint surface hardening, and a joint gap. The vacuum sign could also be seen in some of these patients.

Conclusion: The typical V-shaped sign in the posterior zygapophysial joint of the fifth lumbar vertebra revealed by WBBS suggests degenerative changes in the zygapophysial joint of the fifth lumbar vertebra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S305769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184140PMC
June 2021

LncRNA LOC100129620 promotes osteosarcoma progression through regulating CDK6 expression, tumor angiogenesis, and macrophage polarization.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 05 18;13(10):14258-14276. Epub 2021 May 18.

Orthopedic Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor with high mortality in children and adolescents. The mechanism of osteosarcoma metastasis is currently unclear. Abnormal expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays an important role in tumor metastasis. We used bioinformatics to analyze the differences in gene expression between osteosarcoma and osteosarcoma lung metastases. CCK-8 was used to detect the effect of lncRNA LOC100129620 on the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells. The effect of LOC100129620 on the invasion of osteosarcoma cells was assessed by Transwell assay. The regulatory effect of LOC100129620 on miR-335-3p was examined using RNA pull-down and luciferase reporter gene assays. The effect of LOC100129620 on the polarization of macrophages was detected by quantitative real-time fluorescent PCR. The results show that LOC100129620 can promote the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells. LOC100129620 can promote the proliferation of osteosarcoma . LOC100129620 can bind to miR-335-3p and regulate its function. MiR-335-3p mediates the regulatory effects of LOC100129620 on CDK6. LOC100129620 promotes the formation of blood vessels and the polarization of macrophages. The LOC100129620/miR-335-3p/CDK6 signaling pathway promotes the metastasis of osteosarcoma by regulating the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, angiogenesis, and macrophage polarization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202873PMC
May 2021

Epigallocatechin Gallate Enhances Inhibition Effect of DDP on the Proliferation of Gastric Cancer BGC-823 Cells by Regulating p19Arf-p53-p21Cip1 Signaling Pathway.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Apr 1;22(4):1263-1270. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, China.

Objective: To indicate the effect of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and Cisplatin (DDP) on proliferation of gastric cancer BGC-823 cells and the relative underlying mechanism.

Methods: Cultured BGC-823 cells were treated by 5 μg/mL DDP, 25 μg/mL EGCG and combined 5 μg/mL DDP with 25 μg/mL EGCG, a blank group was used as control. Cell morphology was observed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The ability of cell proliferation was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)assay. The cell cloning rate was determined by colony formation assay. The ability of cell migration was detected by cell scratch test. The cell cycle distributions and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry, The expression of p19Arf, p53, p21Cip1 mRNA was determined by RT-qPCR. The protein levels of p19Arf, p53, p21Cip1 were measured by Western blot.

Results: Compared with DDP or EGCG treatment alone, EGCG combined with DDP treatment significantly caused nuclear shrinkage, reduced the proliferation rate, the ability of cell clone and migration. EGCG combined with DDP treatment caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase in BGC-823 cells, increase of apoptosis (21.3%) vs EGCG (7.25%) and DDP (3.86%) single-use group (p <0.01), up-regulated gene and protein expressions of p19Arf, p53, p21Cip1 (p <0.01).

Conclusion: EGCG can enhance the effect of DDP on inhibiting BGC-823 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via activating the p19Arf-p53-p21Cip1 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.4.1263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325134PMC
April 2021

Probing charge pumping and relaxation of the chiral anomaly in a Dirac semimetal.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 16;7(16). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.

The linear band crossings of 3D Dirac and Weyl semimetals are characterized by a charge chirality, the parallel or antiparallel locking of electron spin to its momentum. These materials are believed to exhibit an E · B chiral magnetic effect that is associated with the near conservation of chiral charge. Here, we use magneto-terahertz spectroscopy to study epitaxial CdAs films and extract their conductivities σ(ω) as a function of E · B. As field is applied, we observe a markedly sharp Drude response that rises out of the broader background. Its appearance is a definitive signature of a new transport channel and consistent with the chiral response, with its spectral weight a measure of the net chiral charge and width a measure of the scattering rate between chiral species. The field independence of the chiral relaxation establishes that it is set by the approximate conservation of the isospin that labels the crystalline point-group representations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abg0914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051870PMC
April 2021

Dynamic Tensile Properties and Energy Dissipation of High-Strength Concrete after Exposure to Elevated Temperatures.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Nov 24;13(23). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

State Key Laboratory of Mining Response and Disaster Prevention and Control in Deep Mine, Anhui University of Science &Technology, Huainan 232001, China.

In view of the devastating outcomes of fires and explosions, it is imperative to research the dynamic responses of concrete structures at high temperatures. For this purpose, the effects of the strain rate and high temperatures on the dynamic tension behavior and energy characteristics of high-strength concrete were investigated in this paper. Dynamic tests were conducted on high-strength concrete after exposure to the temperatures of 200, 400, and 600 °C by utilizing a 74 mm diameter split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus. We found that the quasi-static and dynamic tensile strength of high-strength concrete gradually decreased and that the damage degree rose sharply with the rise of temperature. The dynamic tensile strength and specific energy absorption of high-strength concrete had a significant strain rate effect. The crack propagation law gradually changed from directly passing through the coarse aggregate to extending along the bonding surface between the coarse aggregate and the mortar matrix with the elevation of temperature. When designing the material ratio, materials with high-temperature resistance and high tensile strength should be added to strengthen the bond between the mortar and the aggregate and to change the failure mode of the structure to resist the softening effect of temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13235313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727677PMC
November 2020

[Epigallocatechin gallate induces gene demethylation to promote acute myeloid leukemia cell apoptosis by regulating p19-p53-p21 signaling pathway].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2020 Sep;40(9):1230-1238

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002, China.

Objective: To investigate the mechanism by which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) induces gene demethylation and promotes the apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia KG-1 and THP-1 cell lines.

Methods: KG-1 and THP-1 cells treated with 25, 50, 75, 100 or 150 μg/mL EGCG for 48 h were examined for gene methylation using MSP and for cell proliferation using MTT assay. The changes in cell cycle and apoptosis of the two cell lines after treatment with EGCG for 48 h were detected using flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expressions of DNMT1, CHD5, p19, p53 and p21 in the cells were detected using RT-quantitative PCR and Western blot.

Results: EGCG dose-dependently reversed hypermethylation of gene and reduced the cell viability in both KG-1 and THP-1 cells ( < 0.05). EGCG treatment caused obvious cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, significantly increased cell apoptosis, downregulated the expression of DNMT1 and upregulated the expressions of CHD5, p19, p53 and p21 in KG-1 and THP-1 cells ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: EGCG reduces hypermethylation of gene in KG-1 and THP-1 cells by downregulating DNMT1 to restore its expression, which results in upregulated expressions of p19, p53 and p21 and induces cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2020.09.02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7544577PMC
September 2020

Molecular signature for senile and complicated cataracts derived from analysis of sumoylation enzymes and their substrates in human cataract lenses.

Aging Cell 2020 10 22;19(10):e13222. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Sumoylation is one of the key regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. Our previous studies reveal that sumoylation plays indispensable roles during lens differentiation (Yan et al. 2010. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 107:21034-21039; Gong et al. 2014. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 111:5574-5579). Whether sumoylation is implicated in cataractogenesis, a disease largely derived from aging, remains elusive. In the present study, we have examined the changing patterns of the sumoylation ligases and de-sumoylation enzymes (SENPs) and their substrates including Pax6 and other proteins in cataractous lenses of different age groups from 50 to 90 years old. It is found that compared with normal lenses, sumoylation ligases 1 and 3, de-sumoylation enzymes SENP3/7/8, and p46 Pax6 are clearly increased. In contrast, Ubc9 is significantly decreased. Among different cataract patients from 50s to 70s, male patients express more sumoylation enzymes and p46 Pax6. Ubc9 and SENP6 display age-dependent increase. The p46 Pax6 displays age-dependent decrease in normal lens, remains relatively stable in senile cataracts but becomes di-sumoylated in complicated cataracts. In contrast, sumoylation of p32 Pax6 is observed in senile cataracts and increases its stability. Treatment of rat lenses with oxidative stress increases Pax6 expression without sumoylation but promotes apoptosis. Thus, our results show that the changing patterns in Ubc9, SENP6, and Pax6 levels can act as molecular markers for senile cataract and the di-sumoylated p46 Pax6 for complicated cataract. Together, our results reveal the presence of molecular signature for both senile and complicated cataracts. Moreover, our study indicates that sumoylation is implicated in control of aging and cataractogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576240PMC
October 2020

Refractive Predictability Using the IOLMaster 700 and Artificial Intelligence-Based IOL Power Formulas Compared to Standard Formulas.

J Refract Surg 2020 Jul;36(7):466-472

Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulas using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT).

Methods: Eyes with biometry measurement by IOLMaster 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG), uncomplicated phacoemulsification, and IOL implantation were enrolled in this retrospective study. Newly released artificial intelligence-based formulas including Hill-Radial Basis Function (RBF) 2.0, Kane, and PEARL-DGS were compared with Gaussian optics-based standard formulas. The refraction predicted by each formula was compared with the actual refractive outcome in spherical equivalent.

Results: A total of 410 eyes of 410 patients were included in this study. Using optimized constants for SS-OCT biometry led to a significant decrease in median absolute error (MedAE) for Barrett, Haigis, and Hoffer Q formulas compared with using User Group for Laser Interference Biometry constants (P < .05). Overall, Olsen (0.283 diopters [D]) and Kane (0.286 D) formulas had significantly lower MedAEs than RBF 2.0 (0.314 D), Haigis (0.322 D), SRK/T (0.371 D), Holladay 1 (0.376 D), and Hoffer Q (0.379 D) formulas under constant optimization (P < .05). The first four formulas with the lowest standard deviations of prediction error were Kane (0.451 D), Olsen (0.456 D), EVO 2.0 (0.460 D), and Barrett (0.470 D). Olsen (47.1%), Barrett (45.9%), Kane (45.4%), and EVO 2.0 (45.1%) formulas had greater proportions of eyes within ±0.25 D of the predicted refraction than Hoffer Q (35.9%), SRK/T (35.9%), and Holladay 1 (33.4%) formulas (P < .05).

Conclusions: Constant optimization for SS-OCT biometry further improves the performance of formulas. The most accurate prediction of postoperative refraction can be achieved with Barrett, EVO 2.0, Kane, and Olsen formulas. [J Refract Surg. 2020;36(7):466-472.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/1081597X-20200514-02DOI Listing
July 2020

A Large Effective Phonon Magnetic Moment in a Dirac Semimetal.

Nano Lett 2020 Aug 10;20(8):5991-5996. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, United States.

We investigated the magnetoterahertz response of the Dirac semimetal CdAs and observed a particularly low frequency optical phonon as well as a very prominent and field-sensitive cyclotron resonance. As the cyclotron frequency is tuned with the field to pass through the phonon, the phonon becomes circularly polarized, as shown by a notable splitting in its response to right- and left-hand polarized light. This splitting can be expressed as an effective phonon magnetic moment that is approximately 2.7 times the Bohr magneton, which is almost 4 orders of magnitude larger than ab initio calculations predict for phonon magnetic moments in nonmagnetic insulators. This exceedingly large value is due to the coupling of the phonons to the cyclotron motion and is controlled directly by the electron-phonon coupling constant. This field-tunable circular-polarization-selective coupling provides new functionality for nonlinear optics to create light-induced topological phases in Dirac semimetals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c01983DOI Listing
August 2020

Active vibration isolation system based on the LADRC algorithm for atom interferometry.

Appl Opt 2020 Apr;59(11):3487-3493

A new, to the best of our knowledge, method based on the linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC) algorithm is proposed to design and build a vertical vibration isolator below ${0.1}\;{\rm Hz}$0.1Hz for cold-atom interferometry. This system combines the control system that is used to process and to reduce feedback vibrations measured by a seismometer and a voice coil that is used to cancel the motion of a commercial passive vibration isolation platform. When the feedback is on, the vertical vibration is reduced by an additional factor of up to 1000 from 0.1 to ${5}\;{\rm Hz}$5Hz, while the system has a steady oscillation with a natural period of 66 s. The experimental results show that the LADRC is an effective control algorithm for this application and performs better than the classic lag compensation filters in our case. In addition, there are fewer parameters to adjust in this method, and we only need to tune the feedback gain of the system state error for its application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.390168DOI Listing
April 2020

Refractive predictability using two optical biometers and refraction types for intraocular lens power calculation in cataract surgery.

Int Ophthalmol 2020 Jul 15;40(7):1849-1856. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in relation to optical biometry devices and refraction types.

Methods: Patients undergoing cataract phacoemulsification and insertion of the MX60 IOL were enrolled. Optical biometric measurements were performed with both IOLMaster 700 and Lenstar 900. Biometry measurements were compared between devices. A subsample of 133 eyes (81.1%) had examination for both autorefraction and subjective refraction postoperatively. The differences between the postoperative refraction and the refraction predicted by eight formulas (Kane, Hill-RBF 2.0, Barrett Universal II, Olsen, Haigis, SRK/T, Holladay 1 and Hoffer Q) were calculated.

Results: Overall, this study comprised 164 eyes of 164 patients. High agreement between the two biometers for axial length, average keratometry readings, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and central corneal thickness was found (interclass correlation confidents: 0.999, 0.988, 0.965, 0.865 and 0.972, respectively, all P < 0.001). The absolute prediction error calculated with IOLMaster 700 measurements was significantly lower than that calculated with Lenstar 900 measurements for Olsen (P = 0.003), Haigis (P < 0.001) and Hoffer Q (P = 0.028). OPD-Scan III gave slightly more negative readings than subjective refraction (mean difference - 0.107 ± 0.553, P = 0.003 for spherical equivalent). However, no significant difference in absolute prediction error was found between the two refraction types per each formula.

Conclusion: IOLMaster 700 and Lenstar 900 showed good agreement in biometric measurements with a trend toward better refractive outcome using IOLMaster 700. The accuracy of IOL calculation assessed with OPD autorefraction was equivalent to that assessed with subjective refraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-020-01355-yDOI Listing
July 2020

Efficient Terahertz Harmonic Generation with Coherent Acceleration of Electrons in the Dirac Semimetal Cd_{3}As_{2}.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Mar;124(11):117402

The Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581, Japan.

We report strong terahertz (∼10^{12}  Hz) high harmonic generation at room temperature in thin films of Cd_{3}As_{2}, a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal. Third harmonics are detectable with a tabletop light source and can be as strong as 100  V/cm by applying a fundamental field of 6.5  kV/cm inside the film, demonstrating an unprecedented efficiency for terahertz frequency conversion. Our time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and calculations also clarify the microscopic mechanism of the nonlinearity originating in the coherent acceleration of Dirac electrons in momentum space. Our results provide clear insights for nonlinear currents of Dirac electrons driven by the terahertz field under the influence of scattering, paving the way toward novel devices for high-speed electronics and photonics based on topological semimetals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.117402DOI Listing
March 2020

Slower development of lower canopy beans produces better coffee.

J Exp Bot 2020 07;71(14):4201-4214

Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia.

The production of high-quality coffee is being challenged by changing climates in coffee-growing regions. The coffee beans from the upper and lower canopy at different development stages of the same plants were analyzed to investigate the impact of the microenvironment on gene expression and coffee quality. Compared with coffee beans from the upper canopy, lower canopy beans displayed more intense aroma with higher caffeine, trigonelline, and sucrose contents, associated with greater gene expression in the representative metabolic pathways. Global gene expression indicated a longer ripening in the lower canopy, resulting from higher expression of genes relating to growth inhibition and suppression of chlorophyll degradation during early bean ripening. Selection of genotypes or environments that enhance expression of the genes slowing bean development may produce higher quality coffee beans, allowing coffee production in a broader range of available future environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337091PMC
July 2020

Deceleration of Liver Regeneration by Knockdown of Heme Oxygenase-1 is Associated With Impairment of Liver Injury Recovery After Reduced-Size Liver Transplantation in Rats.

Transplant Proc 2020 Apr 5;52(3):1001-1006. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Aim: It has been reported that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is upregulated during hepatocyte proliferation. Herein, we used a half-size liver transplantation (HSLT) model to study the impact of HO-1 on liver grafts proliferation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that HO-1 has been characterized as a regulator of liver graft regeneration.

Materials And Methods: Saline and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor) were separately administered in vehicle and SnPP group before rats HSLT. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, and 5 days after HSLT for liver function analysis. Liver tissues were obtained at 0, 1, 3, and 5 days after HSLT for analyses of histologic, apoptosis, and proliferation index by immunohistochemical, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting.

Results: HO-1 level was upregulated by the treatment of HSLT along with accelerated liver proliferation, which was reversed by SnPP. The reduced regeneration by SnPP lead to higher Suzuki's scores, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels. The interleukin-6 levels, p-Stat3/t-Stat3, c-myc, and c-jun were decreased in the SnPP group than the vehicle group.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that inhibition of HO-1 mitigates liver regeneration in part by downregulation of an interleukin-6/Stat3 axis. Targeted specific pharmacologic induction of HO-1 may be applicable in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2019.11.051DOI Listing
April 2020

Blocking the autocrine regulatory loop of Gankyrin/STAT3/CCL24/CCR3 impairs the progression and pazopanib resistance of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Cell Death Dis 2020 02 12;11(2):117. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Urinary Surgery, Gongli Hospital, Second Military Medical University (Naval Medical University), 219 Miaopu Road, Shanghai, 200135, China.

The poor prognosis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients is due to progression and targeted drug resistance, but the underlying molecular mechanisms need further elucidation. This study examined the biological function and related mechanisms of gankyrin in ccRCC based on the results of our previous study. To this end, in vitro functional experiments; in vivo models of subcutaneous tumor formation, lung metastasis, and orthotopic ccRCC; and antibody chip detection, co-IP, ChIP assays were performed to examine the biological role and molecular mechanisms of gankyrin in ccRCC. Two hundred fifty-six ccRCC patients were randomly divided into training and validation cohorts to examine the prognostic value of gankyrin and other markers through IHC and statistical analyses. We observed that the gankyrin-overexpressing ccRCC cell lines 786-O and 769-P exhibited increased proliferation, invasion, migration, tumorigenicity, and pazopanib resistance and decreased apoptosis, while gankyrin knockdown achieved the opposite results. Mechanistically, gankyrin recruited STAT3 via direct binding, and STAT3 binding to the CCL24 promoter promoted its expression. Reciprocally, an increase in autocrine CCL24 enhanced the expression of gankyrin and STAT3 activation via CCR3 in ccRCC, forming a positive autocrine-regulatory loop. Furthermore, in vivo experimental results revealed that blocking the positive loop through gankyrin knockdown or treatment with the CCR3 inhibitor SB328437 reversed the resistance to pazopanib and inhibited lung metastasis in ccRCC. Moreover, a positive correlation between gankyrin and STAT3 or CCL24 expression in ccRCC specimens was observed, and improved accuracy for ccRCC patient prognosis was achieved by combining gankyrin and STAT3 or CCL24 expression with existing clinical prognostic indicators, including the TNM stage and SSIGN score. In summary, targeting the gankyrin/STAT3/CCL24/CCR3 autocrine-regulatory loop may serve as a remedy for patients with advanced ccRCC, and combining gankyrin and STAT3 or CCL24 expression with the current clinical indicators better predicts ccRCC patient prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2306-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7015941PMC
February 2020

Effectiveness of intraoperative intraocular lens use on improving surgical safety for dense cataract phacoemulsification: a randomized controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2020 01 31;10(1):1600. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060, P.R. China.

We designed this study to assess if surgical safety can be improved by intraoperative use of intraocular lens (IOL) for cataract phacoemulsification. We performed phacoemulsification cataract removal on 401 patients. We randomly assigned these patients into three groups: the standard setting (Group I, n = 134), with reduced vacuum and flow rate (Group II, n = 137), and with IOL insertion before the last quadrant was emulsified with standard setting (Group III, n = 130). The primary outcomes included the risk of posterior capsular rupture (PCR), ultrasound time, energy, and complications. The secondary outcomes included central corneal thickness (CCT), CCT changes, endothelial cells (ETC) counting, ETC loss, and the best corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA) measured on day 1, day 7 and day 30. If PCR occurred, we emulsified the residual lens materials after insertion of IOL and clean of the prolapsed vitreous. We found that the risk of PCR in Group III (0/130) was lower than Group I (9/134, corrected relative risk (RR) = 18.44, 95% CI: 1.08-313.56) and Group II (3/137, corrected RR = 6.64, 95% CI: 0.35-27.41). Group III showed better BCVA on day 1 and 7, less ECC loss on day 7 and 30, and less CCT increase on day 1 and 7. No cases converted to extracapsular cataract extraction. No residual lens materials misdirected into vitreous cavity. Intraoperative use of IOL can improve surgical safety for dense cataract phacoemulsification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58597-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994590PMC
January 2020

Mitochondrial genome and diverse inheritance patterns in Pleurotus pulmonarius.

J Microbiol 2020 Feb 29;58(2):142-152. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Mycological Research Center, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, P. R. China.

Pleurotus pulmonarius, a member of the Pleurotaceae family in Basidiomycota, is an edible, economically important mushroom in most Asian countries. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) of three P. pulmonarius strains - two monokaryotic commercial (J1-13 and ZA3) and one wild (X1-15) - were sequenced and analyzed. In ZA3 and X1-15, the mtDNA molecule was found to be a single circle of 68,305 bp and 73,435 bp, respectively. Both strains contain 14 core protein-coding genes and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) subunit genes. The ZA3 strain has 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and nine introns: eight in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coxl), and one in the rRNA large subunit (rnl). Monokaryotic J1-13 and ZA3 mtDNAs were found to be similar in their structure. However, the wild strain X1-15 contains 25 tRNA genes and only seven introns in coxl. Open reading frames (ORFs) of ZA3/J1-13 and X1-15 encode LAGLIDADG, ribosomal protein S3, and DNA polymerase II. In addition, mtDNA inheritance in J1-13, ZA3, and X1-15 was also studied. Results showed that the mtDNA inheritance pattern was uniparental and closely related to dikaryotic hyphal location with respect to the parent. Results also show that mtDNA inheritance is influenced by both the parental nuclear genome and mitogenome in the zone of contact between two compatible parents. In summary, this analysis provides valuable information and a basis for further studies to improve our understanding of the inheritance of fungal mtDNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-020-9318-xDOI Listing
February 2020

TRIM13 inhibits cell migration and invasion in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

Nutr Cancer 2020 24;72(7):1115-1124. Epub 2019 Nov 24.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

TRIM13, a member of the TRIM family, is a RING domain containing E3 ubiquitin ligase which plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes including cell death, cancer and antiviral immunity. However, its expression and molecular mechanism on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have not been characterized. This study explored the clinical significance and biological function of TRIM13 in human RCC. Western blot analyses and Immunohistochemical were performed in RCC tissues. The clinical relevance of TRIM13 in RCC was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining using tissue microarray. The role of TRIM13 in migration was studied in renal cell carcinoma cell lines of 786- through knocking down TRIM13 with siRNA and over-expression of TRIM13. The regulation of TRIM13 on migration and invasion were determined by wound-healing and transwell assays. Western blot analyses showed that TRIM13 expression was dramatically decreased in RCC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Up-regulation of TRIM13 in 786- cells resulted in decreased NF-kB, MMP-9 and p-AKT levels and the capability for migration and invasion. In contrast, the ectopic expression of TRIM13 decreased the migration and invasion ability of 786-O cells. These findings indicate that TRIM13 decreases RCC metastasis and invasion may serve as a candidate RCC prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2019.1675721DOI Listing
May 2021

The Role of Temporal Acoustic Exaggeration in High Variability Phonetic Training: A Behavioral and ERP Study.

Front Psychol 2019 24;10:1178. Epub 2019 May 24.

Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences, Center for Neurobehavioral Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

High variability phonetic training (HVPT) has been found to be effective in helping adult learners acquire non-native phonetic contrasts. The present study investigated the role of temporal acoustic exaggeration by comparing the canonical HVPT paradigm without involving acoustic exaggeration with a modified adaptive HVPT paradigm that integrated key temporal exaggerations in infant-directed speech (IDS). Sixty native Chinese adults participated in the training of the English /i/ and /i/ vowel contrast and were randomly assigned to three subject groups. Twenty were trained with the typical HVPT paradigm (the HVPT group), twenty were trained under the modified adaptive approach with acoustic exaggeration (the HVPT-E group), and twenty were in the control group. Behavioral tasks for the pre- and post- tests used natural word identification, synthetic stimuli identification, and synthetic stimuli discrimination. Mismatch negativity (MMN) responses from the HVPT-E group were also obtained to assess the training effects in within- and across- category discrimination without requiring focused attention. Like previous studies, significant generalization effects to new talkers were found in both the HVPT group and the HVPT-E group. The HVPT-E group, by contrast, showed greater improvement as reflected in larger progress in natural word identification performance. Furthermore, the HVPT-E group exhibited more native-like categorical perception based on spectral cues after training, together with corresponding training-induced changes in the MMN responses to within- and across- category differences. These data provide the initial evidence supporting the important role of temporal acoustic exaggeration with adaptive training in facilitating phonetic learning and promoting brain plasticity at the perceptual and pre-attentive neural levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6543854PMC
May 2019

Diagnostic Efficacy and Therapeutic Decision-making Capacity of an Artificial Intelligence Platform for Childhood Cataracts in Eye Clinics: A Multicentre Randomized Controlled Trial.

EClinicalMedicine 2019 Mar 17;9:52-59. Epub 2019 Mar 17.

The First Affiliated Hospital of the University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001, China.

Background: CC-Cruiser is an artificial intelligence (AI) platform developed for diagnosing childhood cataracts and providing risk stratification and treatment recommendations. The high accuracy of CC-Cruiser was previously validated using specific datasets. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy and treatment decision-making capacity between CC-Cruiser and ophthalmologists in real-world clinical settings.

Methods: This multicentre randomized controlled trial was performed in five ophthalmic clinics in different areas across China. Pediatric patients (aged ≤ 14 years) without a definitive diagnosis of cataracts or history of previous eye surgery were randomized (1:1) to receive a diagnosis and treatment recommendation from either CC-Cruiser or senior consultants (with over 5 years of clinical experience in pediatric ophthalmology). The experts who provided a gold standard diagnosis, and the investigators who performed slit-lamp photography and data analysis were blinded to the group assignments. The primary outcome was the diagnostic performance for childhood cataracts with reference to cataract experts' standards. The secondary outcomes included the evaluation of disease severity and treatment determination, the time required for the diagnosis, and patient satisfaction, which was determined by the mean rating. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03240848).

Findings: Between August 9, 2017 and May 25, 2018, 350 participants (700 eyes) were randomly assigned for diagnosis by CC-Cruiser (350 eyes) or senior consultants (350 eyes). The accuracies of cataract diagnosis and treatment determination were 87.4% and 70.8%, respectively, for CC-Cruiser, which were significantly lower than 99.1% and 96.7%, respectively, for senior consultants ( < 0.001, OR = 0.06 [95% CI 0.02 to 0.19]; and  < 0.001, OR = 0.08 [95% CI 0.03 to 0.25], respectively). The mean time for receiving a diagnosis from CC-Cruiser was 2.79 min, which was significantly less than 8.53 min for senior consultants ( < 0.001, mean difference 5.74 [95% CI 5.43 to 6.05]). The patients were satisfied with the overall medical service quality provided by CC-Cruiser, typically with its time-saving feature in cataract diagnosis.

Interpretation: CC-Cruiser exhibited less accurate performance comparing to senior consultants in diagnosing childhood cataracts and making treatment decisions. However, the medical service provided by CC-Cruiser was less time-consuming and achieved a high level of patient satisfaction. CC-Cruiser has the capacity to assist human doctors in clinical practice in its current state.

Funding: National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC0116500) and the Key Research Plan for the National Natural Science Foundation of China in Cultivation Project (91846109).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6510889PMC
March 2019

Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Interacts with CD209 Receptors To Promote Host Dissemination and Infection.

Infect Immun 2019 08 23;87(8). Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Division of Disease Control and Prevention for Endemic Diseases, Wenquan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xinjiang, China.

serovar Typhimurium, a Gram-negative bacterium, can cause infectious diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to systemic dissemination and infection. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this bacterial dissemination have yet to be elucidated. A study indicated that using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core as a ligand, Typhimurium was able to bind human dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (hCD209a), an HIV receptor that promotes viral dissemination by hijacking antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In this study, we showed that Typhimurium interacted with CD209s, leading to the invasion of APCs and potentially the dissemination to regional lymph nodes, spleen, and liver in mice. Shielding of the exposed LPS core through the expression of O-antigen reduces dissemination and infection. Thus, we propose that similar to HIV, Typhimurium may also utilize APCs via interactions with CD209s as a way to disseminate to the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver to initiate host infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00100-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6652768PMC
August 2019

Dependence of the sensitivity on the orientation for a free-fall atom gravimeter.

Opt Express 2019 Apr;27(8):11252-11263

The cold atom absolute gravimeters are intrinsically sensitive to its orientation due to the Coriolis effect, which should be understood clearly and compensated for field applications. The sensitivity on the orientation for a free-fall atom gravimeter is investigated in this paper. The apparatus is simplified and improved a lot such that fast adjustment and measurement could be carried out within 20 minutes. From the experimental results, it is found that the orientation angle has a dominant influence on the absolute gravity measurement, especially when the horizontal velocity of atoms is non-negligible. Besides, the magnitude and direction of average horizontal velocity of the detected atoms are obtained in this experiment. In particular, the direction of East-West has been measured by the atom gravimeter itself, such that gravity bias arising from Coriolis effect is estimated precisely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.011252DOI Listing
April 2019
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