Publications by authors named "Bindhu Oommen"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prehospital response to respiratory distress by the public ambulance system in a Ukrainian city.

World J Emerg Med 2019 ;10(1):42-45

Center of Emergency Medical Care and Disaster Medicine, Kyiv, Ukraine.

Background: The capability of the public ambulance system in Ukraine to address urgent medical complaints in a prehospital environment is unknown. Evaluation using reliable sources of patient data is needed to provide insight into current treatments and outcomes.

Methods: We obtained access to de-identified computer records from the emergency medical services (EMS) dispatch center in Poltava, a medium-sized city in central Ukraine. Covering a five-month period, we retrieved data for urgent calls with a patient complaint of respiratory distress. We evaluated ambulance response and treatment times, field diagnoses, and patient disposition, and analyzed factors related to fatal outcomes.

Results: Over the five-month period of the study, 2,029 urgent calls for respiratory distress were made to the Poltava EMS dispatch center. A physician-led ambulance typically responded within 10 minutes. Seventy-seven percent of patients were treated and released, twenty percent were taken to hospital, and three percent died in the prehospital phase. On univariate analysis, age over 60 and altered mental status at the time of the call were strongly associated with a fatal outcome.

Conclusion: The EMS dispatch center in a medium-sized city in Ukraine has adequate organizational infrastructure to ensure that a physician-led public ambulance responds rapidly to complaints of respiratory distress. That EMS system was able to manage most patients without requiring hospital admission. However, a prehospital fatality rate of three percent suggests that further research is warranted to determine training, equipment, or procedural needs of the public ambulance system to manage urgent medical conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2019.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264978PMC
January 2019

How often do surgeons obtain the critical view of safety during laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

Surg Endosc 2017 01 3;31(1):142-146. Epub 2016 May 3.

Carolinas Simulation Center, Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Background: The reported incidence (0.16-1.5 %) of bile duct injury (BDI) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is higher than during open cholecystectomy and has not decreased over time despite increasing experience with the procedure. The "critical view of safety" (CVS) technique may help to prevent BDI when certain criteria are met prior to division of any structures. This study aimed to evaluate the adherence of practicing surgeons to the CVS criteria during LC and the impact of a training intervention on CVS identification.

Methods: LC procedures of general surgeons were video-recorded. De-identified recordings were reviewed by a blinded observer and rated on a 6-point scale using the previously published CVS criteria. A coaching program was conducted, and participating surgeons were re-assessed in the same manner.

Results: The observer assessed ten LC videos, each involving a different surgeon. The CVS was adequately achieved by two surgeons (20 %). The remaining eight surgeons (80 %) did not obtain adequate CVS prior to division of any structures, despite two surgeons dictating that they did; the mean score of this group was 1.75. After training, five participating surgeons (50 %) scored > 4, and the mean increased from 1.75 (baseline) to 3.75 (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The CVS criteria were not routinely used by the majority of participating surgeons. Further, one-fourth of those who claimed to obtain the CVS did so inadequately. All surgeons who participated in training showed improvement during their post-assessment. Our findings suggest that education of practicing surgeons in the application of the CVS during LC can result in increased implementation and quality of the CVS. Pending studies with larger samples, our findings may partly explain the sustained BDI incidence despite increased experience with LC. Our study also supports the value of direct observation of surgical practices and subsequent training for quality improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-016-4943-5DOI Listing
January 2017

Acute Colonic Pseudo-obstruction: Defining the Epidemiology, Treatment, and Adverse Outcomes of Ogilvie's Syndrome.

Am Surg 2016 Feb;82(2):102-11

Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.

Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is a rare but often fatal disease. Herein, we present the largest study to date on ACPO. The National Inpatient Sample was queried for ACPO diagnoses from 1998 to 2011. Patients were analyzed by treatment into four groups: medical management (MM), colonoscopy alone [(endoscopy-only group) ENDO], surgery alone (SURG), or surgery and colonoscopy (SAC). Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of adverse outcomes by treatment group. There were 106,784 cases of ACPO: 96,657 (90.5%) MM, 2,915 (2.7%) ENDO, 6,731 (6.3%) SURG, and 481 (0.5%) SAC. The medical complication (45.7%), procedural complication (15.9%), and mortality rates (7.7%) were high. Increasing procedure invasiveness was independently associated with higher odds of medical complications, procedural complications, and death (P < 0.0125). The odds of death were significantly higher in the ENDO [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2], SURG (OR 1.4), and SAC (OR = 1.8) groups (P < 0.0125). Those who fail MM and require procedures have increasing morbidity and mortality with increasing invasiveness, likely reflecting the severity of their conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000313481608200211DOI Listing
February 2016

Defining surgical outcomes and quality of life in massive ventral hernia repair: an international multicenter prospective study.

Am J Surg 2015 Nov 20;210(5):801-13. Epub 2015 Aug 20.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Carolinas Hernia Center, 1025 Morehead Medical Drive, Suite 300, Charlotte, NC 28204, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Our goal was to set criteria for massive ventral hernia and to compare surgical outcomes and quality of life after ventral hernia repair (VHR).

Methods: The International Hernia Mesh Registry was queried for patients undergoing VHR from 2007 to 2013. Defect was categorized as massive if the width or length was greater than 15 cm or area greater than 150 cm(2). Massive VHR was compared to regular VHR.

Results: A total of 878 patients underwent VHR: 436 open, 442 laparoscopic with 13 deaths (1.5%) and 45 hernia recurrences (5.1%). Of those, 158 patients (18%) met criteria for massive VHR. Massive VHR patients had longer length of stay (LOS) and operative time and more hematomas, wound infections, wound complications, and pneumonias (P < .05). On multivariate analysis, LOS was longer, and early postoperative pain and activity limitation were greater in massive VHRs (P < .01). Massive VHR in the laparoscopic approach resulted in greater long-term mesh sensation (P < .01).

Conclusions: VHR in massive hernias have increased rates of complications and longer LOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2015.06.020DOI Listing
November 2015

National Outcomes for Open Ventral Hernia Repair Techniques in Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction.

Am Surg 2015 Aug;81(8):778-85

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.

Modern adjuncts to complex, open ventral hernia repair often include component separation (CS) and/or panniculectomy (PAN). This study examines nationwide data to determine how these techniques impact postoperative complications. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried from 2005 to 2013 for inpatient, elective open ventral hernia repairs (OVHR). Cases were grouped by the need for and type of concomitant advancement flaps: OVHR alone (OVHRA), OVHR with CS, OVHR with panniculectomy (PAN), or both CS and PAN (BOTH). Multivariate regression to control for confounding factors was conducted. There were 58,845 OVHR: 51,494 OVHRA, 5,357 CS, 1,617 PAN, and 377 BOTH. Wound complications (OVHRA 8.2%, CS 12.8%, PAN 14.4%, BOTH 17.5%), general complications (15.2%, 24.9%, 25.2%, 31.6%), and major complications (6.9%, 11.4%, 7.2%, 13.5%) were different between groups (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in mortality. Multivariate regression showed CS had higher odds of wound [odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-2.0], general (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3-1.8), and major complications (OR 2.1, 95%, CI: 1.8-2.4), and longer length of stay by 2.3 days. PAN had higher odds of wound (OR 1.5, 95%, CI: 1.3-1.8) and general complications (OR 1.7, 95%CI: 1.5-2.0). Both CS and PAN had higher odds of wound (OR 2.2, 95%, CI: 1.5-3.2), general (OR 2.5, 95%, CI: 1.8-3.4), and major complications (OR 2.2, 95%CI: 1.4-3.4), and two days longer length of stay. In conclusion, patients undergoing OVHR that require CS or PAN have a higher independent risk of complications, which increases when the procedures are combined.
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August 2015

National outcomes of laparoscopic Heller myotomy: operative complications and risk factors for adverse events.

Surg Endosc 2015 Nov 15;29(11):3097-105. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1025 Morehead Medical Drive, Suite 300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA.

Introduction: Laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) has supplanted an open approach due to decreased operative morbidity. Our goal was to quantify the incidence of peri-operative complications and identify risk factors for adverse outcomes in LHM.

Methods: All LHM were queried from 2005 to 2011 from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Adverse outcomes were identified, and univariate and stepwise logistic regression (MVR) was then performed to quantify association.

Results: There were 1,237 LHM in the study period. Patient averages were: age 51.9 ± 16.8 years, BMI 27.3 ± 6.6 kg/m(2), Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) 0.2 ± 0.6. 15.3 % had >10 % body mass loss in the preoperative 6 months. During surgery, 10.2 % underwent concomitant EGD, and mean operative time was 141.6 ± 63.4 min. There were 7(0.06 %) wound complications, 22(1.8 %) general complications, and 30(2.4 %) major complications. Average length of stay (LOS) was 2.8 ± 5.5 days. The rate of readmission and reoperation were 3.1 and 2.3 %, respectively, and there were 4(0.03 %) deaths. General and major complications were associated with alcohol use, pack-years of smoking, weight loss, history of stroke, radiation therapy, and longer operative times (p < 0.05); however, these factors did not remain significant on MVR (p > 0.05). Operative time was found to be significantly longer by 35.3 min for inpatients, 43.1 min in functionally dependent patients, 50.0 min in preoperative septic patients, and 17.2 min with concomitant EGD (p < 0.01 for all). LOS was found to be longer by 1.9 days for inpatients, 1.8 days in ASA category ≥3, and 1.2 days per one point increase in CCI (p < 0.001 for all).

Conclusion: LHM is being performed nationally with a low incidence of operative complications and mortality. General and major complications following LHM are associated with patient alcohol use, pack-years of smoking, weight loss, history of stroke, radiation therapy, and longer operative times. Additionally, independent predictors of longer operative time and LOS were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-014-4054-0DOI Listing
November 2015

Erratum to: Tacks, staples, or suture: method of peritoneal closure in laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair effects early quality of life.

Surg Endosc 2015 Jul;29(7):1694

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1025 Morehead Medical Drive, Suite 300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-014-4047-zDOI Listing
July 2015

The current status of biosynthetic mesh for ventral hernia repair.

Surg Technol Int 2014 Nov;25:114-21

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina.

Although synthetic mesh has dramatically reduced recurrence in elective hernia repair, its use in contaminated surgical fields has been traditionally associated with complications such as wound sepsis, enterocutaneous fistulas, and chronic prosthetic infection. Biologic meshes emerged in the late 1990s with a rapid popularity fueled largely by the demand for an appropriate substitute in lieu of synthetic mesh in these complex cases; however, the high cost and rate of hernia recurrence have tempered the initial enthusiasm. Biosynthetic meshes were developed as a possible cost-effective alternative to both synthetic and tissue-derived products. Using biodegradable polymers instead of animal or cadaver tissue, they provide a temporary scaffold for deposition of proteins and cells necessary for tissue ingrowth, neovascularization, and host integration. Herein we review the current status of biosynthetic meshes for hernia repair.
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November 2014

Tacks, staples, or suture: method of peritoneal closure in laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair effects early quality of life.

Surg Endosc 2015 Jul 8;29(7):1686-93. Epub 2014 Oct 8.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1025 Morehead Medical Drive, Suite 300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA,

Introduction: TAPP inguinal hernia repair (IHR) entails the development of a peritoneal flap (PF) in order to reduce the hernia sac and create a preperitoneal space in which to place mesh. Many methods for closure of the PF exist including sutures, tacks, and staples. We hypothesized that patients who had PF closure with suture would have better short-term QOL outcomes.

Methods And Procedures: A prospective institutional hernia-specific database was queried for all adult, TAPP IHRs from July 2012 to August 2013. Unilateral and bilateral patients were included and each hernia was analyzed separately. The main outcome of interest was quality of life (QOL) at two- and four-week follow-up, as measured by the Carolinas Comfort Scale.

Results: There were 227 patients who underwent TAPP, with 99 bilateral and 128 unilateral IHR, for a total of 326 IHR. PF closure was performed using tacks in 45.1%, suture in 19.0%, and staples in 35.9%. Patient characteristics were statistically similar between the tack, suture, and staple group. There were 32.9% direct, 46.5% indirect, and 20.6% pantaloon hernias, which were not significantly different when compared by PF closure method. Post-operative complications and length of stay were same for the three groups. There were no hernia recurrences. Post-operative activity limitation at two weeks was significantly better in the suture group when compared to the stapled group (p = 0.005). Additionally, sutured PF closure had less early post-operative pain when compared to the tack group (p = 0.038).

Conclusions: Following TAPP IHR, suture closure of the PF significantly improves 2-week post-operative movement limitation compared to stapled and tacked PF closure. Continued randomized studies are needed to determine the best surgical hernia repair methods for ideal post-op QOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-014-3857-3DOI Listing
July 2015

A little slower, but just as good: postgraduate year resident versus attending outcomes in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

Surg Endosc 2014 Nov 6;28(11):3092-100. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1025 Morehead Medical Drive, Suite 300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA,

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of residents on patient outcomes in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR).We hypothesized that increasing postgraduate year (PGY) level would correlate with better outcomes.

Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried from 2005 to 2011 for elective LVHR. Attending only cases were used as the control, and resident cases were stratified into junior (PGY 1-3), chief (4-5), and fellow (6+) cases. Standard statistical tests and multivariate regression controlling for age, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking, functional status, and inpatient cases were performed for trainee involvement and PGY level.

Results: There were 6,841 ventral hernia repairs that met inclusion criteria: 2,773 attending and 4,068 resident cases. There were 1,644 junior, 1,983 chief, and 441 fellow cases. Patients were similar between the attending and resident groups. The resident group had a higher rate of inpatient cases, general complications, longer operative time, and hospital length of stay. After controlling for confounders in multivariate analysis, only operative time was significantly different; resident cases were 17.7 min longer (CI 15.0-20.6; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the rate of wound or major complications, readmission, reoperation, or mortality between attending and resident cases. Demographics were not significantly different between the PGY level strata. On multivariate regression by PGY level with attending alone as the reference, only operative time was significantly different. Juniors (15.7 min, CI 12.2-19.2), chiefs (18.0 min, CI 14.7-21.3), and fellows (24.9 min, CI 19.1-30.7) had significantly longer cases than attending alone; all p < 0.001.

Conclusion: Trainee involvement during LVHR does not change the clinical outcomes for patients as compared to those performed by an attending only. Operative time is significantly longer with increasing PGY level, perhaps indicating the complexity of the operation or increasing trainee involvement as primary surgeon. However, patient care does not suffer, affirming the current surgical training curriculum is appropriate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-014-3586-7DOI Listing
November 2014

Components separation in complex ventral hernia repair: surgical technique and post-operative outcomes.

Surg Technol Int 2014 Mar;24:167-77

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of Surgery Carolinas Medical Center Charlotte, NC.

There are over 350,000 ventral hernia repairs (VHR) performed in the United States annually and a variety of laparoscopic and open surgical techniques are described and utilized. Complex ventral hernias such as recurrent hernias, those with infected mesh, open wounds, coexisting enteric fistulas, parastomal hernias, and massive hernias-especially those with loss of abdominal domain-require sophisticated repair techniques. Many of these repairs are performed via an open approach. Ideally, the aim is to place mesh under the fascia with a large overlap of the defect and obtain primary fascial closure. However, it is often impossible to bring together fascial edges in very large hernias. Component separation is an excellent surgical technique in selected patients which involves release of the different layers of the abdominal wall and in turn helps accomplish primary fascial approximation. The posterior rectus sheath, external oblique or the transverse abdominis fascia can be cut and allows for closure of fascia in a tension free manner in a majority of patients. In this chapter we describe the various techniques for component separation, indications for use, how to select an appropriate type of release and post-operative outcomes.
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March 2014