Publications by authors named "Binbin Pan"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Large-Area Vertically Aligned Bismuthene Nanosheet Arrays from Galvanic Replacement Reaction for Efficient Electrochemical CO Conversion.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 24:e2100910. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China.

There is a lack of straightforward methods to prepare high-quality bismuthene nanosheets, or, even more challengingly, to grow their arrays due to the low melting point and high oxophilicity of bismuth. This synthetic obstacle has hindered their potential applications. In this work, it is demonstrated that the galvanic replacement reaction can do the trick. Under well-controlled conditions, large-area vertically aligned bismuthene nanosheet arrays are grown on Cu substrates of various shapes and sizes. The product features small nanosheet thickness of two to three atomic layers, large surface areas, and abundant porosity between nanosheets. Most remarkably, bismuthene nanosheet arrays grown on Cu foam can enable efficient CO reduction to formate with high Faradaic efficiency of >90%, large current density of 50 mA cm , and great stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100910DOI Listing
July 2021

Metagenomic Insights Into the Structure and Function of Intestinal Microbiota of the Hadal Amphipods.

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:668989. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Sustainable Exploitation of Oceanic Fisheries Resources, Ministry of Education, College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China.

Hadal trenches are the deepest known areas of the ocean. Amphipods are considered to be the dominant scavengers in the hadal food webs. The studies on the structure and function of the hadal intestinal microbiotas are largely lacking. Here, the intestinal microbiotas of three hadal amphipods, , , and , from Mariana Trench, Marceau Trench, and New Britain Trench, respectively, were investigated. The taxonomic analysis identified 358 microbial genera commonly shared within the three amphipods. Different amphipod species possessed their own characteristic dominant microbial component, in and in and . Functional composition analysis showed that "Carbohydrate Metabolism," "Lipid Metabolism," "Cell Motility," "Replication and Repair," and "Membrane Transport" were among the most represented Gene Ontology (GO) Categories in the gut microbiotas. To test the possible functions of "Bacterial Chemotaxis" within the "Cell Motility" category, the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein () gene involved in the "Bacterial Chemotaxis" pathway was obtained and used for swarming motility assays. Results showed that bacteria transformed with the gut bacterial gene showed significantly faster growths compared with the control group, suggesting MCP promoted the bacterial swimming capability and nutrient utilization ability. This result suggested that hadal gut microbes could promote their survival in poor nutrient conditions by enhancing chemotaxis and motility. In addition, large quantities of probiotic genera were detected in the hadal amphipod gut microbiotas, which indicated that those probiotics would be possible contributors for promoting the host's growth and development, which could facilitate adaptation of hadal amphipods to the extreme environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.668989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216301PMC
June 2021

Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase Activates Wnt/β-Catenin Inducing Kidney Fibrosis after Acute Kidney Injury.

Gerontology 2021 Jun 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Nephrology, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Introduction: As disorder of tryptophan metabolism is common in CKD, the rate-limiting enzyme of tryptophan, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), has been reported to be involved in CKD, while the accurate mechanism remains unknown. This study was designed to explore correlations between IDO and kidney fibrosis after ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).

Methods: Wild-type (WT) mice and IDO knockout (IDO-/-) mice were divided into the sham group and acute kidney injury (AKI) group. Mice in the sham group underwent dorsal incision and exposure of renal pedicle without clamping renal artery, while mice in the AKI group received unique renal artery IRI, and the contralateral kidney was removed at day 13 after IRI. Blood and IRI kidneys were collected at day 14. Kidney function was analyzed by measuring serum Cr and BUN. Morphology was analyzed by tissue periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and Masson staining. Further, fibrosis markers and Wnt/β-catenin pathway proteins were determined by Western blot. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was administrated for 2 weeks after the IRI mice model was established to observe whether it ameliorates kidney fibrosis after IRI.

Results: WT AKI mice revealed elevated expression of IDO compared with WT sham mice. Kidney function of IDO-/- AKI mice showed better than that of WT AKI mice. PAS staining exhibited less loss of tubular epithelial cells and atrophy tubules in IDO-/- AKI mice. Furthermore, kidney fibrosis areas and the expressions of fibrosis markers, including α-SMA, fibronectin, and vimentin, were increased in WT AKI mice. In addition, GSK-3β and β-catenin were significantly declined in IDO-/- AKI mice. On top of that, PGE2 administration revealed inhibited IDO expression and that reducing GSK-3β and β-catenin resulting in lower expressions of α-SMA, fibronectin, and vimentin in WT AKI mice.

Conclusions: IRI could increase IDO expression to activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway resulting kidney fibrosis. PGE2 could ameliorate kidney fibrosis via inhibiting IDO expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515041DOI Listing
June 2021

Size-Dependent Selectivity of Electrochemical CO Reduction on Converted In O Nanocrystals.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 14;60(29):15844-15848. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China.

The size modulation of catalyst particles represents a useful dimension to tune catalytic performances by impacting not only their surface areas but also local electronic structures. It, however, has remained inadequately explored and poorly elucidated. Here, we report the interesting size-dependent selectivity of electrochemical CO reduction on In O nanocrystals. 5-nm nanoparticles and 15-nm nanocubes with focused size distribution are prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction in oleylamine by carefully controlling a set of experimental parameters. They serve as the precatalysts, and are reduced to In nanocrystals while largely inherit the original size feature during electrochemical CO reduction. Catalyst derived from 15-nm nanocubes exhibits greater formate selectivity (>95 %) at lower overpotential and negligible side reactions compared to bulk-like samples (indium foil and 200-nm cubes) as well as the catalyst derived from smaller 5-nm nanoparticles. This unique size dependence is rationalized as a result of the competition among different reaction pathways by our theoretical computations. Smaller is not always better in the catalyst design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202105256DOI Listing
July 2021

Two-Dimensional Palladium-Copper Alloy Nanodendrites for Highly Stable and Selective Electrochemical Formate Production.

Nano Lett 2021 May 21;21(9):4092-4098. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.

Pd is the only metal that can catalyze electrochemical CO reduction to formate at close-to-zero overpotential. It is unfortunately subjected to severe poisoning by trace CO as the side product and suffers from deteriorating stability and selectivity with increasing overpotential. Here, we demonstrate that alloying Pd with Cu in the form of two-dimensional nanodendrites could enable highly stable and selective formate production. Such unique bimetallic nanostructures are formed as a result of the rapid in-plane growth and suppressed out-of-plane growth by carefully controlling a set of experimental parameters. Thanks to the combined electronic effect and nanostructuring effect, our alloy product catalyzes CO reduction to formate with remarkable stability and selectivity under the working potential as cathodic as -0.4 V. Our results are rationalized by computational simulations, evidencing that Cu atoms weaken the *CO adsorption and stabilize the *OCHO adsorption on neighboring Pd atoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01113DOI Listing
May 2021

Self-powered soft robot in the Mariana Trench.

Nature 2021 03 3;591(7848):66-71. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Zhejiang Lab, Hangzhou, China.

The deep sea remains the largest unknown territory on Earth because it is so difficult to explore. Owing to the extremely high pressure in the deep sea, rigid vessels and pressure-compensation systems are typically required to protect mechatronic systems. However, deep-sea creatures that lack bulky or heavy pressure-tolerant systems can thrive at extreme depths. Here, inspired by the structure of a deep-sea snailfish, we develop an untethered soft robot for deep-sea exploration, with onboard power, control and actuation protected from pressure by integrating electronics in a silicone matrix. This self-powered robot eliminates the requirement for any rigid vessel. To reduce shear stress at the interfaces between electronic components, we decentralize the electronics by increasing the distance between components or separating them from the printed circuit board. Careful design of the dielectric elastomer material used for the robot's flapping fins allowed the robot to be actuated successfully in a field test in the Mariana Trench down to a depth of 10,900 metres and to swim freely in the South China Sea at a depth of 3,224 metres. We validate the pressure resilience of the electronic components and soft actuators through systematic experiments and theoretical analyses. Our work highlights the potential of designing soft, lightweight devices for use in extreme conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03153-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Correlation of Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Pilot Study.

J Immunol Res 2021 6;2021:8132569. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Nephrology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Objective: To explore the correlation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: A total of 154 CKD patients and 42 non-CKD patients were recruited. Patients were grouped into ACR1~ACR3 (<30 mg/g, 30-300 mg/g, and >300 mg/g). Biomarkers in different groups were compared by ANOVA. Correlation was calculated by Pearson or Spearman analysis and binary logistic regression. The ROC curve was also performed.

Results: The levels of albumin, serum creatinine (sCr), and IDO in non-CKD patients were significantly different from those in CKD3-CKD5 stages ( < 0.05). IDO was correlated with age, proteinuria, ACR, and eGFR ( < 0.01). After adjusting for CKD-related indices, ln(IDO) was an independent risk factor for CKD (3.48, < 0.05). The analysis of ROC curve revealed a best cut-off for IDO was 0.0466 and yielded a sensitivity of 83.8% and a specificity of 75%. Hemoglobin, total protein, and albumin in the ACR1 group were significantly higher than those in the ACR2 and ACR3 groups ( < 0.01), while sCr and IDO levels were significantly lower than those in the ACR2 and ACR3 groups ( < 0.01 or < 0.05). After adjusting for CKD-related indices, ln(IDO) was still an independent risk factor for ACR (OR = 2.7, < 0.05). The analysis of ROC curve revealed a best cut-off for IDO was 0.075 and yielded a sensitivity of 71.9% and a specificity of 72.2%.

Conclusion: IDO may be a promising biomarker to predict CKD and assess kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8132569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806403PMC
January 2021

Serum cystatin C: A potential predictor for hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.

Chron Respir Dis 2020 Jan-Dec;17:1479973120940677

Department of Nephrology, 385685Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) is associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we evaluated whether serum cystatin C on admission could predict AKI in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). The retrospective study was conducted using data on adult inpatients with AECOPD from January 2014 to January 2017. A total of 1035 patients were included, among which 79 (7.6%) with HA-AKI were identified. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate predictors of HA-AKI in patients with AECOPD. HA-AKI was associated with poor prognosis, and patients with HA-AKI had higher inpatient mortality (34.2% vs. 2.6%, < 0.001). Furthermore, after adjusting for confounders, HA-AKI was an independent risk factor for inpatient mortality for patients with AECOPD (odds ratio (OR) 11.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.77-25.45; < 0.001). Four independent risk factors for HA-AKI (age, levels of urea and cystatin C, and platelet count on admission) were identified in patients with AECOPD. Cystatin C (OR 5.22; 95% CI 2.49-10.95; < 0.001) was a significant independent predictor of AKI in patients with AECOPD. HA-AKI in patients with AECOPD could be identified with a sensitivity of 73.5% and a specificity of 75.9% (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.803, 95% CI 0.747-0.859) by cystatin C level (cutoff value = 1.3 mg/L) and with a sensitivity of 75.9% and a specificity of 82.0% (AUC = 0.853, 95% CI 0.810-0.896) using a model comprising all significant predictors. Serum cystatin C has the potential for use to predict the risk of HA-AKI in patients with AECOPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479973120940677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493270PMC
September 2020

Toward Highly Selective Electrochemical CO Reduction using Metal-Free Heteroatom-Doped Carbon.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Aug 30;7(16):2001002. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM) Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices Soochow University Suzhou 215123 China.

There are growing interests in metal-free heteroatom-doped carbons for electrochemical CO reduction. Previous studies extensively focus on the effect of N-doping, and their products severely suffer from low current density (mostly <2 mA cm) and limited selectivity (<90%). Here, it is reported that heteroatom codoping offers a promising solution to the above challenge. As a proof of concept, N,P-codoped mesoporous carbon is prepared by annealing phytic-acid-functionalized ZIF-8 in NH. In CO-saturated 0.5 m NaHCO, the catalyst enables CO reduction to CO with great selectivity close to 100% and large CO partial current density (≈8 mA cm), which are, to the best of knowledge, superior to all other relevant competitors. Theoretical simulations show that the improved activity and selectivity are stemmed from the enhanced surface adsorption of *COOH and *CO intermediates as a result of the synergy of N and P codoping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202001002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7435239PMC
August 2020

Comparison between the Beta-2 Microglobulin-Based Equation and the CKD-EPI Equation for Estimating GFR in CKD Patients in China: ES-CKD Study.

Kidney Dis (Basel) 2020 May 25;6(3):204-214. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Nephrology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) and cystatin C are novel glomerular filtration markers that have a stronger association with adverse outcomes than creatinine. The B2M-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equation was built in 2016. Several new creatinine and cystatin C equations were developed in 2019 in China. However, external validation of these new equations remains to be seen.

Methods: This is a prospective cohort study. The equations were validated in a population totaling 830 participants (median age 62 years). These equations include the B2M-based equation (built in 2016), three CKD-EPI equations (built in 2009 and 2012), three Yang-Du equations (C-CKD-EPIscr, C-CKD-EPIcys, and C-CKD-EPIscr-cys equations, all of which were Chinese-modified CKD-EPI equations developed by Yang et al. in 2019), and a Xiangya equation (a creatinine-based equation built in the Third Xiangya Hospital in 2019). The estimated GFR (eGFR) calculated separately by 8 equations (B2M GFR, CKD-EPIscr, CKD-EPIcys, CKD-EPIscr-cys, C-CKD-EPIscr, C-CKD-EPIcys, C-CKD-EPIscr-cys, and Xiangya equations) was compared with the reference GFR (rGFR) measured by the 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging method. Participants were divided into CKD stage 1-5 specific subgroups. The primary outcomes of this study were bias, precision (interquartile range of difference, IQR), and accuracy (the proportion of eGFR within 30% of rGFR [P30] and root mean square error [RMSE]) of eGFR versus rGFR.

Results: The B2M-based equation was worse than CKD-EPI equations and Yang-Du equations in most outcomes. CKD-EPIscr and C-CKD-EPIscr equations had a larger area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROCAUC). The CKD-EPIscr equation had the highest sensitivity (83.3%) and the Xiangya equation the highest specificity (89.5%) to diagnose CKD. The bias was the lowest in CKD-EPIcys and C-CKD-EPIscr-cys equations by median and mean difference (1.23 and -1.42, respectively). The Xiangya equation yielded the highest bias by both median and mean difference (8.29 and 6.52, respectively). The C-CKD-EPIscr equation was the most accurate with the highest P30 value (68.1%) and most precise with the lowest IQR (19). The Xiangya equation had the best RMSE (lowest RMSE, 0.56), and gave the best performance in the CKD stage 2 subgroup. The C-CKD-EPIscr-cys equation achieved the lowest bias in CKD stage 3-5 ( = 0.663, 0.104, and 0.130, respectively, compared with rGFR).

Conclusion: The B2M-based equation was worse than CKD-EPI and Yang-Du equations on the whole. CKD-EPIcys and C-CKD-EPIscr-cys equations had the lowest bias, whereas the Xiangya equation yielded the highest bias. The Xiangya equation gave the best performance in the CKD stage 2 subgroup, while the C-CKD-EPIscr-cys equation achieved the lowest bias in CKD stage 3-5. Further work to improve the performance of the GFR estimating equation is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000505850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265741PMC
May 2020

Kidney injury induced by elevated histones in community-acquired pneumonia.

Mol Cell Biochem 2020 Aug 9;471(1-2):155-163. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Nephrology, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 109 Longmian Road, Nanjing, 211166, Jiangsu, China.

Previous studies showed that extracellular histones could damage organs, but the role of extracellular histones in pneumonia patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. This study aims to investigate the impact of extracellular histones on patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) developed AKI. Blood samples were obtained within 24 h after admission to hospital from patients who were diagnosed with CAP. According to the discharge diagnosis, the patients were divided into 2 groups (Non-AKI and AKI). In vitro, A549 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and conditioned media were collected. HK2 cells were exposed to the conditioned media or not. Cells proliferation and apoptosis of HK2 were determined. Clinically, Log Histones (OR 3.068; 95% CI 1.544-6.097, P = 0.001) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (OR 0.945; 95% CI 0.914-0.978, P = 0.001) were predictors of AKI in CAP patients. Compared to the lower histones group, patients in the higher histones group were more likely to be admitted to ICU, receive mechanical ventilation, and have a longer length of in-hospital stay. In vitro, A549 cells injured by LPS released extracellular histones, in conditioned media which significantly promoted HK2 cells apoptosis. Extracellular histones was a high risk factor for developing AKI in CAP patients and a predictor of worse short-term outcomes. We also showed that extracellular histones in conditioned media damaged HK2 cells.Trial registration number: KY20181102-03; Date of registration: 20181102.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-020-03775-xDOI Listing
August 2020

Stem cell-based treatment of kidney diseases.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2020 05 11;245(10):902-910. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Impact Statement: Stem cells hold great promise in regenerative medicine. Pluripotent stem cells have been differentiated into kidney organoids to understand human kidney development and to dissect renal disease mechanisms. Meanwhile, recent studies have explored the treatment of kidney diseases using a variety of cells, including mesenchymal stem cells and renal derivatives. This mini-review discusses the diverse mechanisms underlying current renal disease treatment via stem cell therapy. We postulate that clinical applications of stem cell therapy for kidney diseases can be readily achieved in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1535370220915901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268929PMC
May 2020

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade is associated with higher risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with diabetes.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 04 2;12(7):5858-5877. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Nephrology, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu, China.

As the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular comorbidities continues to rise, driven by increased prevalence of obesity and an aging population, so does the demand for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to restore cardiac blood flow. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are commonly prescribed to hypertensive diabetic patients to prevent diabetic nephropathy. However, evidence suggests that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may increase the risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) following coronary angiography (CAG) and PCI. We therefore conducted a retrospective, multicenter study applying the propensity score matching method to evaluate the impact of RAAS inhibition on CIAKI in diabetic patients undergoing CAG/PCI. Among 2240 subjects that met the inclusion criteria, 704 patients in the ACEIs/ARBs group were successfully matched to eligible control patients. The incidence of CIAKI (serum creatinine increase ≥0.5 mg/dl or ≥25% from baseline within 72 h post-CAG/PCI) was significantly higher in the ACEIs/ARBs group than in the control group (26.6% vs. 16.2%, <0.001). However, control patients showed increased risk of overall adverse cardiovascular events (4.1% vs. 1.8% for ACEIs/ARBs; =0.016). These data indicate that RAAS inhibition increases the risk of CIAKI in diabetic patients, but confers protection against early cardiovascular events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.102982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185147PMC
April 2020

Complement C3 and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Pilot Study.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2020 22;45(1):61-69. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Nephrology, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China,

Context: Evidences have suggested complement C3 is a biomarker for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the general population.

Objective: The present study was conducted to explore the predictive function of C3 for NAFLD in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.

Design, Setting, And Participants: CKD patients were recruited for evaluation of their liver function, kidney function, serum lipids, glycated hemoglobin, blood, and immune function. The glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. NAFLD was diagnosed according to predefined ultrasonographic criteria.

Results: A total of 648 consecutive CKD patients were included, with 216 (33.3%) patients diagnosed with NAFLD. The NAFLD group had significant higher levels of serum protein, serum albumin, triglycerides, glycated hemoglobin, complement C3, hemoglobin (p = 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.002), estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.007), and C4 (p = 0.043) and lower levels of cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, proteinuria (p = 0.001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.008). In a logistic regression model, only complement C3 (OR = 1.003; 95% CI 1.002-1.004, p = 0.001) was associated with a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with NAFLD. Finally, we constructed ROC curves for complement C3 for prediction of having NAFLD. The best cut-off for complement C3 was 993.5 mg/L and it yielded a sensitivity of 63.9% and a specificity of 70.1%.

Conclusion: Our study revealed that complement C3 can be used as a surrogate biomarker of NAFLD in CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000504172DOI Listing
October 2020

Retrospective cohort analysis of heart rate variability in patients with high altitude pulmonary hypertension in Tibet.

Clin Cardiol 2020 Mar 19;43(3):298-304. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of High Altitude Sickness and Cardiovascular Disease, The People's Hospital of the Tibet Autonomous Region Heart Center, Tibet, Lisa, China.

Background: Studies from both humans and animals experiments have offered abundant evidence supporting that mountain sickness is associated with changes in autonomic nervous function (ANF), which can be measured by heart rate variability (HRV).

Hypothesis: We aimed to assess changes of ANF in chronic mountain disease by measuring HRV in patients with high altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH).

Methods: From November 2018 to March 2019, 120 patients in the cardiac care unit of the People's Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region were selected as the observation group, and 50 patients without organic heart disease served as the control group. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure was evaluated by echocardiography in patients with HAPH, divided into three groups: mild (30-49 mm Hg), moderate (50-69 mm Hg) and severity (≥70 mm Hg) groups. A 24-hour dynamic electrocardiogram (DCG) was obtained for each patient. HRV (SDNN, SDANN, RMSSD, PNN50, and HRVTI for time domain; TP, VLF, LF, HF, and LF/HF for frequency domain) indexes were measured and compared.

Results: Compared with the control group, time domain parameters including SDNN, SDANN, RMSSD, PNN50, and HRVTI were reduced, as well as frequency domain indexes such as TP, VLF, LF, and HF. LF/HF was highest in mild HAPH group and lowest in the moderate HAPH group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant.

Conclusions: The HRV of patients with chronic HAPH in high altitude areas in Tibet is significantly reduced relative to healthy controls, and significantly negatively correlated with the severity of pulmonary artery hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068065PMC
March 2020

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Analysis of Three Deep-Sea Amphipod Species from Geographically Isolated Hadal Trenches in the Pacific Ocean.

Biochem Genet 2020 Feb 13;58(1):157-170. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Hadal Science & Technology, College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 201306, China.

Amphipods of the superfamily Lysianassoidea that inhabit the hadal zone ( > 6000 m) have large bathymetric ranges and play a key role in deep ocean ecosystems. The endemism of these amphipod species makes them a good model for investigating potent natural selection and restricted dispersal in deep ocean trenches. Here, we describe genetic diversity and intraspecific population differentiation among three amphipod species from four Pacific trenches based on a mtDNA concatenated dataset (CO Ι and 16S rRNA genes) from 150 amphipod individuals. All amphipod populations had low genetic diversity, as indicated by haplotype and nucleotide diversity values. Population geographic relationship analysis of two Alicella gigantea populations revealed no genetic differentiation between these two localities (pairwise genetic differentiation coefficient = 0.00032, gene flow = 784.58), and the major variation (99.97%) was derived from variation within the populations. Historical demographic events were investigated using Tajima's D and Fu's F neutrality tests and analysis of mismatch distribution. Consistent results provided strong evidence to support the premise that demographic expansion occurred only for the Mariana population of Hirondellea gigas, possibly within the last 2.1-3.4 million years. These findings suggest that the formation of amphipod population structure might be the result of multiple factors including high hydrostatic pressure, food distribution, trench topographic forcing and potential ecological interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10528-019-09935-zDOI Listing
February 2020

Impact of affluence and fossil energy on China carbon emissions using STIRPAT model.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jun 7;26(18):18814-18824. Epub 2019 May 7.

College of Finance, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang, Guizhou, China.

Using the extended STIRPAT model, this research examines the influence of various factors on China carbon emission from 1971 to 2014, including total nuclear and alternative energy, total fossil energy, GDP per capita, total population, total urban population, merchandise trade of GDP, and services value added of GDP. Ridge regression was employed to perform the study. The research results show the positivity and significance of all factors on carbon emission. The estimated elastic coefficients reveal the most important factor influencing carbon emission is GDP per capita. Total fossil energy, total urban population, and nuclear energy of total energy use are also prominent influencing factors, while other factors such as value-added services of GDP and merchandise trade of GDP have less significant impacts on carbon emission in China. These findings of the research will be of great significance for China to control its carbon emission in the future and to mitigate global warming to some extent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04950-4DOI Listing
June 2019

Relationships of Chronic Kidney Disease and Thyroid Dysfunction in Non-Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Study.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2019 23;44(2):170-178. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Nephrology, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China,

Context: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) usually manifest with disorder of thyroid hormone; however, the correlation is unknown.

Objective: The study was designed to explore the relationships between CKD and thyroid dysfunction.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total number of 905 non-dialysis participants were collected at Nanjing First Hospital from August 2009 to October 2012 according to the case records system. Patients were grouped via the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) according to the KDIGO guideline. Levels of thyroid hormone and biomarkers in different CKD groups were compared by ANOVA. Prevalence of different thyroid diseases was calculated by χ2 test.

Results: We found that FT3 or T3 became more prevalent with increasing eGFR with the lowest level in CKD5 (p < 0.01). No significant differences were found between groups in FT4, T4, or TSH (p > 0.05). Frequency of euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) in CKD groups was high, especially in CKD stage 5 (69.1%, p < 0.01). eGFR had positive correlation with T3 and FT3 (r = 0.239, p = 0.0001; r = 0.292, p = 0.0001). ESS had correlations with prealbumin, β2-microglobin, eGFR, and C-reactive protein (r = 0.095, p = 0.004; r = -0.12, p = 0.001; r = 0.091, p = 0.007; r = -0.096, p = 0.008; r = 0.154, p = 0.001). After adjustment for prealbumin, uric acid, HbA1c, age, gender, eGFR, and β2-microglobin, binary regression revealed that hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, and albumin were independent influence factors of ESS (p = 0.016, r = 1.014; p = 0.023, r = 1.007; p = 0.029, r = 0.996).

Conclusion: CKD patients have a high morbidity of ESS, mainly low T3 syndrome. Anemia, inflammation, and malnutrition may contribute to ESS in CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499201DOI Listing
December 2019

Retinoic acid attenuates contrast-induced acute kidney injury in a miniature pig model.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 04 13;512(2):163-169. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Nephrology, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, China. Electronic address:

Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) has been the third leading cause of hospital-acquired AKI. Retinoic acid (RA), the main derivative of vitamin A, has preventative and therapeutic effects in ischemia-reperfusion-AKI and UUO models, but little is known about its effects on CI-AKI. This study aimed to explore the effects of RA on CI-AKI as well as the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: We established a new miniature pig model of CI-AKI by catheterizing the external jugular vein and injecting a single dose of iohexol after dehydration. Bun, Scr, serum and urinary RBP and β-MG levels were measured. Renal histological, TEM examination, LDH assays, TUNEL assays, GFP-LC3 plasmid transfection and western blotting were performed.

Results: The levels of Bun, Scr, serum and urinary RBP and β-MG were increased after CI-AKI and decreased by RA pretreatment. The renal histology showed foamy degeneration and dilated tubules after CI-AKI, and the tissue damage was alleviated significantly by RA pretreatment. RA mitigated renal fibrosis after CI-AKI. In vitro, RA protected proximal TECs against iohexol-induced injury. RA inhibited TECs apoptosis and activated autophagy in vivo and in vitro.

Conclusions: RA alleviates CI-AKI and mitigates renal fibrosis after CI-AKI. Autophagy activation and apoptosis inhibition are involved in the protective effect of RA on CI-AKI. RA may be a new agent for the prevention and therapeutic treatment of CI-AKI in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.03.013DOI Listing
April 2019

Semiparametric Clustering: A Robust Alternative to Parametric Clustering.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2019 Sep 28;30(9):2583-2597. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Clustering aims at naturally grouping the data according to the underlying data distribution. The data distribution is often estimated using a parametric or nonparametric model, e.g., Gaussian mixture or kernel density estimation. Compared with nonparametric models, parametric models are statistically stable, i.e., a small perturbation of data points leads to a small change in the estimated density. However, parametric models are highly sensitive to outliers because the data distribution is far away from the parametric assumptions in the presence of outliers. Given a parametric clustering algorithm, this paper shows how to turn this algorithm into a robust one. The idea is to modify the original parametric density into a semiparametric one. The high-density data that form the core of each cluster are modeled with the original parametric density. The low-density data are often far away from the cluster cores and may have an arbitrary shape, thus are modeled using a nonparametric density. A combination of parametric and nonparametric clustering algorithms is used to group the data modeled as a semiparametric density. From the robust statistical point of view, the proposed method has good robustness properties. We test the proposed algorithm on several synthetic and 70 UCI data sets. The results indicate that the semiparametric method could significantly improve the clustering performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2018.2884790DOI Listing
September 2019

Diet change of hadal amphipods revealed by fatty acid profile: A close relationship with surface ocean.

Mar Environ Res 2018 Nov 25;142:250-256. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Hadal Science & Technology, College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 201306, China; Key Laboratory of Sustainable Exploitation of Oceanic Fisheries Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 201306, China. Electronic address:

The diet of hadal organisms remains elusive because of the difficulty in sampling and monitoring at the great water depths (6-11 km). Here we analyzed fatty acids of the amphipods collected from three Pacific trenches, namely New Britain Trench (NBT; 8.2-8.9 km), Mariana Trench (MT; 11 km) and Massau Trench (MS; 6.9 km). A total of 35 fatty acids including saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated compounds were identified. The principal component analysis (PCA) divides major fatty acids into three groups indicative of carrion (C, C, C C and C), algae (C and C) and bacteria (C, isoC, isoC, anteisoC and C), respectively. The predominance of C, high C/C and high δN values suggest that hadal amphipods are necrophagous. The inter-trench comparisons based on C/C, C/C, ∑polyunsaturated/∑saturated fatty acids, ∑branched fatty acids and PCA show that the amphipods in the NBT are more dependent on high-quality organic matter (i.e., carrion), whereas those in the MT and MS utilize detritus and bacterial organic matter as supplementary food. This inter-trench difference has been attributed to a bottom-up effect of food availability that the NBT has higher net primary productivity (NPP) and a strong terrestrial influence, whereas the MT and MS have lower NPP and insignificant terrestrial influences. Our study demonstrates that the diet of hadal animals is closely related to surface ocean biogeochemical property.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2018.10.012DOI Listing
November 2018

A sparse representation and dictionary learning based algorithm for image restoration in the presence of Rician noise.

Neurocomputing 2018 19;286:130-140. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

College of Mathematics and Statistics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

Rician noise removal for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is very important because the MRI has been widely used in various clinical applications and the associated Rician noise deteriorates the image quality and causes errors in interpreting the images. Great efforts have recently been devoted to develop the corresponding noise-removal algorithms, particularly the development based on the newly-established Total Variation (TV) theorem. However, all the TV-based algorithms depend mainly on the gradient information and have been shown to produce the so called "blocky" artifact, which also deteriorates the image quality and causes image interpretation errors. In order to avoid producing the artifact, this paper presents a new de-noising model based on sparse representation and dictionary learning. The Split Bregman Iteration strategy is employed to implement the model. Furthermore, an appropriate dictionary is designed by the use of the Kernel Singular Value Decomposition method, resulting in a new Rician noise removal algorithm. Compared with other de-noising algorithms, the presented new algorithm can achieve superior performance, in terms of quantitative measures of the Structural Similarity Index and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, by a series of experiments using different images in the presence of Rician noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2018.01.066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6133329PMC
April 2018

Albuminuria is an independent risk factor of T4 elevation in chronic kidney disease.

Sci Rep 2017 01 24;7:41302. Epub 2017 Jan 24.

Department of Nephrology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, PR China.

This study was to explore the association between thyroid dysfunction and albuminuria. 581 cases with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were included in this study. The clinical characteristics consisted of sex, age, serum creatinine, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), thyroid function were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by CKD-EPI four-level race equation. Prevalence of different thyroid diseases was calculated by chi-square test. Levels of thyroid hormone were compared among different albuminuria groups by Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the association between albuminuria and thyroid hormone. Our study showed that total T4 and free T4 were significantly different among ACR < 30 mg/g, 30-300 mg/g and >300 mg/g (P < 0.001 and =0.007, respectively). Positive correlation between T4 (total T4 and free T4) and albuminuria was evaluated by correlation analysis (P = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Albuminuria was an independent influence factor of T4 after adjustment for age, sex, serum creatinine, albumin, hs-CRP, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, medication use for diabetes mellitus, eGFR, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, hypertension, and medication use for hypercholesterinemia. In conclusion, T4 was positively correlated with albuminuria, and it was completely not consistent with our anticipation. Further study is needed to elucidate the causation association between albuminuria and T4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep41302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5259789PMC
January 2017

Prediction of soft tissue deformations after CMF surgery with incremental kernel ridge regression.

Comput Biol Med 2016 08 7;75:1-9. Epub 2016 May 7.

Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. Electronic address:

Facial soft tissue deformation following osteotomy is associated with the corresponding biomechanical characteristics of bone and soft tissues. However, none of the methods devised to predict soft tissue deformation after osteotomy incorporates population-based statistical data. The aim of this study is to establish a statistical model to describe the relationship between biomechanical characteristics and soft tissue deformation after osteotomy. We proposed an incremental kernel ridge regression (IKRR) model to accomplish this goal. The input of the model is the biomechanical information computed by the Finite Element Method (FEM). The output is the soft tissue deformation generated from the paired pre-operative and post-operative 3D images. The model is adjusted incrementally with each new patient's biomechanical information. Therefore, the IKRR model enables us to predict potential soft tissue deformations for new patient by using both biomechanical and statistical information. The integration of these two types of data is critically important for accurate simulations of soft-tissue changes after surgery. The proposed method was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation using data from 11 patients. The average prediction error of our model (0.9103mm) was lower than some state-of-the-art algorithms. This model is promising as a reliable way to prevent the risk of facial distortion after craniomaxillofacial surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2016.04.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5279917PMC
August 2016

Out-of-Sample Extensions for Non-Parametric Kernel Methods.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2017 02 6;28(2):334-345. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Choosing suitable kernels plays an important role in the performance of kernel methods. Recently, a number of studies were devoted to developing nonparametric kernels. Without assuming any parametric form of the target kernel, nonparametric kernel learning offers a flexible scheme to utilize the information of the data, which may potentially characterize the data similarity better. The kernel methods using nonparametric kernels are referred to as nonparametric kernel methods. However, many nonparametric kernel methods are restricted to transductive learning, where the prediction function is defined only over the data points given beforehand. They have no straightforward extension for the out-of-sample data points, and thus cannot be applied to inductive learning. In this paper, we show how to make the nonparametric kernel methods applicable to inductive learning. The key problem of out-of-sample extension is how to extend the nonparametric kernel matrix to the corresponding kernel function. A regression approach in the hyper reproducing kernel Hilbert space is proposed to solve this problem. Empirical results indicate that the out-of-sample performance is comparable to the in-sample performance in most cases. Experiments on face recognition demonstrate the superiority of our nonparametric kernel method over the state-of-the-art parametric kernel methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2015.2512277DOI Listing
February 2017

A Novel Framework for Learning Geometry-Aware Kernels.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2016 May 5;27(5):939-51. Epub 2015 Jun 5.

The data from real world usually have nonlinear geometric structure, which are often assumed to lie on or close to a low-dimensional manifold in a high-dimensional space. How to detect this nonlinear geometric structure of the data is important for the learning algorithms. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in utilizing kernels to exploit the manifold structure of the data. Such kernels are called geometry-aware kernels and are widely used in the machine learning algorithms. The performance of these algorithms critically relies on the choice of the geometry-aware kernels. Intuitively, a good geometry-aware kernel should utilize additional information other than the geometric information. In many applications, it is required to compute the out-of-sample data directly. However, most of the geometry-aware kernel methods are restricted to the available data given beforehand, with no straightforward extension for out-of-sample data. In this paper, we propose a framework for more general geometry-aware kernel learning. The proposed framework integrates multiple sources of information and enables us to develop flexible and effective kernel matrices. Then, we theoretically show how the learned kernel matrices are extended to the corresponding kernel functions, in which the out-of-sample data can be computed directly. Under our framework, a novel family of geometry-aware kernels is developed. Especially, some existing geometry-aware kernels can be viewed as instances of our framework. The performance of the kernels is evaluated on dimensionality reduction, classification, and clustering tasks. The empirical results show that our kernels significantly improve the performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2015.2429682DOI Listing
May 2016

Ideal regularization for learning kernels from labels.

Neural Netw 2014 Aug 2;56:22-34. Epub 2014 May 2.

Department of Mathematics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA. Electronic address:

In this paper, we propose a new form of regularization that is able to utilize the label information of a data set for learning kernels. The proposed regularization, referred to as ideal regularization, is a linear function of the kernel matrix to be learned. The ideal regularization allows us to develop efficient algorithms to exploit labels. Three applications of the ideal regularization are considered. Firstly, we use the ideal regularization to incorporate the labels into a standard kernel, making the resulting kernel more appropriate for learning tasks. Next, we employ the ideal regularization to learn a data-dependent kernel matrix from an initial kernel matrix (which contains prior similarity information, geometric structures, and labels of the data). Finally, we incorporate the ideal regularization to some state-of-the-art kernel learning problems. With this regularization, these learning problems can be formulated as simpler ones which permit more efficient solvers. Empirical results show that the ideal regularization exploits the labels effectively and efficiently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2014.04.003DOI Listing
August 2014

Incremental kernel ridge regression for the prediction of soft tissue deformations.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2012 ;15(Pt 1):99-106

The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas, USA.

This paper proposes a nonlinear regression model to predict soft tissue deformation after maxillofacial surgery. The feature which served as input in the model is extracted with finite element model (FEM). The output in the model is the facial deformation calculated from the preoperative and postoperative 3D data. After finding the relevance between feature and facial deformation by using the regression model, we establish a general relationship which can be applied to all the patients. As a new patient comes, we predict his/her facial deformation by combining the general relationship and the new patient's biomechanical properties. Thus, our model is biomechanical relevant and statistical relevant. Validation on eleven patients demonstrates the effectiveness and efficiency of our method.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3754788PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33415-3_13DOI Listing
January 2013
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