Publications by authors named "Bin-Nan Wu"

82 Publications

BK Channel Inhibition by Peripheral Nerve Injury Is Restored by the Xanthine Derivative KMUP-1 in Dorsal Root Ganglia.

Cells 2021 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Drug Development and Value Creation Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

This study explored whether KMUP-1 improved chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced BK current inhibition in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sham, sham + KMUP-1, CCI, and CCI + KMUP-1 (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.). DRG neuronal cells (L4-L6) were isolated on day 7 after CCI surgery. Perforated patch-clamp and inside-out recordings were used to monitor BK currents and channel activities, respectively, in the DRG neurons. Additionally, DRG neurons were immunostained with anti-NeuN, anti-NF200 and anti-BK. Real-time PCR was used to measure BK mRNA levels. In perforated patch-clamp recordings, CCI-mediated nerve injury inhibited BK currents in DRG neurons compared with the sham group, whereas KMUP-1 prevented this effect. CCI also decreased BK channel activity, which was recovered by KMUP-1 administration. Immunofluorescent staining further demonstrated that CCI reduced BK-channel proteins, and KMUP-1 reversed this. KMUP-1 also changed CCI-reduced BK mRNA levels. KMUP-1 prevented CCI-induced neuropathic pain and BK current inhibition in a peripheral nerve injury model, suggesting that KMUP-1 could be a potential agent for controlling neuropathic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10040949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073306PMC
April 2021

The effectiveness comparisons of eugenosedin-A, glibenclamide and pioglitazone on diabetes mellitus induced by STZ/NA and high-fat diet in SHR.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Apr;73(6):835-845

Department of Nursing, Meiho University, Pingtung, Taiwan.

Objectives: Eugenosedin-A (Eu-A), an adrenergic and serotonergic antagonist, is known to have anti-metabolic syndrome effects. In this study, we evaluated its protective effects against diabetes mellitus (DM) in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and compared it with two anti-diabetes medications, glibenclamide (Gli) and pioglitazone (Pio).

Methods: We divided 10-week-old SHRs into five groups: a control group fed a normal diet; an untreated DM group induced by injecting the SHRs with STZ/NA and feeding them a high-fat diet (HFD); and three treated groups (after giving STZ/NA and HFD) gavage given with Eu-A, Gli or Pio (5 mg/kg per day) for 4 weeks.

Key Findings: The untreated DM group weighed less and had hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. They were also found to have aberrant glucose-dependent insulin pathways, glucose metabolism and lipid synthesis proteins, while the controls did not. Eu-A, Gli and Pio ameliorated the above biochemical parameters in the treatment groups. Eu-A and Pio, but not Gli, improved hypertension and tachycardia.

Conclusions: Taken together, Eu-A ameliorated DM, hypertension and tachycardia by improving glucose, lipid homeostasis and anti-adrenergic, serotonergic activities. We concluded that Eu-A could be used in the development of an effective agent for controlling DM and its complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgab029DOI Listing
April 2021

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Activator Ameliorates Severe Pulmonary Hypertension in a Rat Model of Left Pneumonectomy Combined With VEGF Inhibition.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 19;8:619133. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening and deteriorating disease with no promising therapy available currently due to its diversity and complexity. An imbalance between vasoconstriction and vasodilation has been proposed as the mechanism of PAH. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin (Ang) II into the vasodilator Ang-(1-7), has been shown to be an important regulator of blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. Herein we hypothesized diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an ACE2 activator, could ameliorate the development of PAH and pulmonary vascular remodeling. A murine model of PAH was established using left pneumonectomy (PNx) on day 0 followed by injection of a single dose of the VEGF receptor-2 inhibitor SU5416 (25 mg/kg) subcutaneously on day 1. All hemodynamic and biochemical measurements were done at the end of the study on day 42. Animals were divided into 4 groups ( = 6-8/group): (1) sham-operated group, (2) vehicle-treatment group (SuPNx), (3) early treatment group (SuPNx/DIZE) with DIZE at 15 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously from day 1 to day 42, and (4) late treatment group (SuPNx/DIZE) with DIZE from days 29-42. In both the early and late treatment groups, DIZE significantly attenuated the mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary arteriolar remodeling, and right ventricle brain natriuretic peptide BNP), as well as reversed the overexpression of ACE while up-regulating the expression of Ang-(1-7) when compared with the vehicle-treatment group. In addition, the early treatment group also significantly decreased plasma BNP and increased the expression of eNOS. ACE2 activator has therapeutic potentials for preventing and attenuating the development of PAH in an animal model of left pneumonectomy combined with VEGF inhibition. Activation of ACE2 may thus be a useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human PAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.619133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933511PMC
February 2021

The Preventive Effects of Xanthohumol on Vascular Calcification Induced by Vitamin D Plus Nicotine.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Oct 6;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

Vascular calcification (VC) is highly prevalent in patients with atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. In blood vessels, VC is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events. Xanthohumol (XN), a main prenylated chalcone found in hops, has antioxidant effects to inhibit VC. This study aimed to investigate whether XN attenuates VC through in vivo study. A rat VC model was established by four weeks oral administration of vitamin D plus nicotine in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. In brief, 30 male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, 25 mg/kg nicotine in 5 mL corn oil and 3 × 10 IU/kg vitamin D administration (VDN), and combination of VDN with 20 mg/L in 0.1% ethanol of XN (treatment group). Physiological variables such as body and heart weight and drinking consumption were weekly observed, and treatment with XN caused no differences among the groups. In comparison with the control group, calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were increased in calcified arteries, and XN treatment reduced these levels. Dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2',7'-dichloroflurescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining to identify Superoxide and reactive oxygen species generation from aorta tissue showed increased production in VDN group compared with the control and treatment groups. Hematoxylin eosin (HE) and Alizarin Red S staining were determined to show medial vascular thickness and calcification of vessel wall. Administration of VDN resulted in VC, and XN treatment showed improvement in vascular structure. Moreover, overexpression of osteogenic transcription factors bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) were significantly suppressed by XN treatment in VC. Moreover, downregulation of vascular phenotypic markers alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and smooth muscle 22 alpha (SM22α) were increased by XN treatment in VC. Furthermore, XN treatment in VC upregulated nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions. Otherwise, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) was alleviated by XN treatment in VC. In conclusion, our findings suggested that XN enhances antioxidant capacity to improve VC by regulating the Nrf2/Keap1/HO-1 pathway. Therefore, XN may have potential effects to decrease cardiovascular risk by reducing VC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599490PMC
October 2020

The beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) activator in pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction.

Int J Med Sci 2020 16;17(16):2594-2602. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a lethal and rapidly progressing disorder if left untreated, but there is still no definitive therapy. An imbalance between vasoconstriction and vasodilation has been proposed as the mechanism underlying PH. Among the vasomediators of the pulmonary circulation is the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the involvement of which in the development of PH has been proposed. Within the RAS, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which converts angiotensin (Ang) II into Ang-(1-7), is an important regulator of blood pressure, and has been implicated in cardiovascular disease and PH. In this study, we investigated the effects of the ACE2 activator diminazene aceturate (DIZE) on the development of PH secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. A model of PH secondary to left ventricular dysfunction was established in 6-week-old Wistar rats by ascending aortic banding for 42 days. The hemodynamics and pulmonary expression of ACE, Ang II, ACE2, Ang-(1-7), and the Ang-(1-7) MAS receptor were investigated in the early treatment group, which was administered DIZE (15 mg/kg/day) from days 1 to 42, and in the late treatment group, administered DIZE (15 mg/kg/day) from days 29 to 42. Sham-operated rats served as controls. DIZE ameliorated mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary arteriolar remodeling, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels, in addition to reversing the overexpression of ACE and up-regulation of both Ang-(1-7) and MAS, in the early and late treatment groups. DIZE has therapeutic potential for preventing the development of PH secondary to left ventricular dysfunction through ACEII activation and the positive feedback of ANG-(1-7) on the MAS receptor. A translational study in humans is needed to substantiate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.48096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532484PMC
September 2020

Loganin Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Schwann Cells Pyroptosis by Inhibiting ROS Generation and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation.

Cells 2020 08 23;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Drug Development and Value Creation Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is caused by hyperglycemia, which induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that damage nerve tissue. Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation trigger the inflammation and pyroptosis in diabetes. Schwann cell dysfunction further promotes DPN progression. Loganin has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory neuroprotective activities. This study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of loganin on high-glucose (25 mM)-induced rat Schwann cell line RSC96 injury, a recognized in vitro cell model of DPN. RSC96 cells were pretreated with loganin (0.1, 1, 10, 25, 50 μM) before exposure to high glucose. Loganin's effects were examined by CCK-8 assay, ROS assay, cell death assay, immunofluorescence staining, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot. High-glucose-treated RSC96 cells sustained cell viability loss, ROS generation, NF-κB nuclear translocation, P2 × 7 purinergic receptor and TXNIP (thioredoxin-interacting protein) expression, NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1) activation, IL-1β and IL-18 maturation and gasdermin D cleavage. Those effects were reduced by loganin pretreatment. In conclusion, we found that loganin's antioxidant effects prevent RSC96 Schwann cell pyroptosis by inhibiting ROS generation and suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9091948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564733PMC
August 2020

Effects of Secretome from Fat Tissues on Ion Currents of Cardiomyocyte Modulated by Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitor.

Molecules 2020 Aug 8;25(16). Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.

Sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors were shown to decrease mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the EMPA-REG trial. However, the effects of empagliflozin (EMPA) for cardiac arrhythmia are not yet clarified. A total of 20 C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: (1) The control group were fed standard chow, (2) the metabolic syndrome (MS) group were fed a high-fat diet, (3) the empagliflozin (EMPA) group were fed a high-fat diet and empagliflozin 10 mg/kg daily, and (4) the glibenclamide (GLI) group were fed a high-fat diet and glibenclamide 0.6 mg/kg daily. All mice were sacrificed after 16 weeks of feeding. H9c2 cells were treated with adipocytokines from the pericardial and peripheral fat from the study groups. The delayed-rectifier potassium current (I) and L-type calcium channel current (I) were measured by the whole-cell patch clamp techniques. Adipocytokines from the peripheral and pericardial fat tissues of mice with MS could decrease the I and increase the I of cardiomyocytes. After treating adipocytokines from pericardial fat, the I in the EMPA and GLI groups were significantly higher than that in the MS group. The I of the EMPA group was also significantly higher than the GLI group. The I of the EMPA and GLI groups were significantly decreased overload compared with that of the MS group. However, there was no significant difference of I and I among study groups after treating adipocytokines from peripheral fat. Adipocytokines from pericardial fat but not peripheral fat tissues after EMPA therapy attenuated the effects of I decreasing and I increasing in the MS cardiomyocytes, which may contribute to anti-arrhythmic mechanisms of sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465695PMC
August 2020

Vasculoprotective effects of , and decoction via the NOXs-ROS-NF-κB pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

J Tradit Complement Med 2020 Jul 24;10(4):378-388. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Background And Aim: , and decoction (CJID) is efficacious for hypertension. NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase (NOX)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation modulates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and thus mediates hypertension-induced vascular remodeling. This research aims to investigate the anti-remodeling effect of CJID through the mechanism of NOXs-ROS-NF-κB pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).

Experimental Procedure: CJID was orally administered once a day for five weeks in SHRs and normotensive-WKY (Wistar Kyoto) rats. All rats were sacrificed at the end of study and different assays were performed to determine whether CJID ameliorates vascular remodeling in SHRs, such as histological examination; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays; superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (HO) generation assays, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. . Changes in levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NF-κB-p65, NF-κB inhibitor alpha/IκBα (inhibitory kappa B- alpha), phosphorylation of IκBα (p-IκBα) and NOX1, NOX2, NOX4 in the thoracic aorta were determined.

Results: Vascular remodeling indicators, media thickness, collagen and elastic accumulation in the thoracic aorta, of SHRs-treated CJID were attenuated. Redox homeostasis, aortic superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation were decreased in SHRs-treated group. Aortic iNOS, p-IκBα, NF-κB-p65 and NOX1, NOX2, NOX4 expressions were suppressed.

Conclusions: CJI treatment diminishes oxidative stress response in the thoracic aorta of SHRs via regulation of NOXs-ROS-NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings indicate that CJI possess protective effect against hypertension-induced vascular remodeling in SHRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2019.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365787PMC
July 2020

Therapeutic effects of Low intensity extracorporeal low energy shock wave therapy (LiESWT) on stress urinary incontinence.

Sci Rep 2020 04 2;10(1):5818. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Low intensity extracorporeal low energy shock wave therapy (LiESWT) on stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The investigation was a single-arm, open-label, multicentre study conducted in Taiwan. 50 female patients with SUI received LiESWT-treated with 0.25 mJ/mm intensity, 3000 pulses, and 3 pulses/second, once weekly for 4-weeks (W4) and 8-weeks (W8). The pad test, uroflowmetry, life quality questionnaires, and 3-day urinary diary measurement were performed before and after LiESWT intervention. The results revealed that 8-week of LiESWT treatment meaningfully improved urine leakage (pad test), maximum flow rate, post-voided residual urine, average urine volume, functional bladder capacity, urinary frequency, urgency symptom, and nocturia, which also persisted to show significant improvements at 1-month follow up (F1). Moreover, bothersome questionnaires scores were significantly improved at W4, W8, and F1 as compared to the baseline (W0). These results indicated that 8 weeks of LiESWT attenuated SUI symptoms on physical activity, reduced bladder leaks and overactive bladder (OAB), implying that LiESWT brought significant improvement in the quality of life. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04059133).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62471-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118154PMC
April 2020

Effects of Trans, Trans-2,4-decadienal on the Ions Currents of Cardiomyocytes: Possible Mechanisms of Arrhythmogenesis Induced by Cooking-oil Fumes.

Sci Rep 2020 04 1;10(1):5771. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Household air pollution has adverse effects on cardiovascular health. One of the major sources of household air pollutants is the combustion of cooking oils during cooking. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal (tt-DDE) is a type of dienaldehyde that is present in a wide range of food and food products. It is a byproduct of the peroxidation of linoleic acid following the heating of oil during cooking. The mechanisms of the associations between household air pollution and cardiac arrhythmias are currently unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of tt-DDE on the ion currents in H9c2 cells. The I and I in H9c2 cells treated with and without tt-DDE were measured using the whole-cell patch clamp method. Expressions of Kv2.1 and Cav1.2 in H9c2 cells treated with and without tt-DDE were measured by western blot analysis. After the H9c2 cells had been exposed to tt-DDE, the I and I were significantly decreased. The expression of Kv2.1, unlike that of Cav1.2, was also significantly decreased in these cells. These changes in I and I that were induced by tt-DDE may help to explain the association between cardiac arrhythmogenesis and cooking-oil fumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62733-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113283PMC
April 2020

Loganin prevents chronic constriction injury-provoked neuropathic pain by reducing TNF-α/IL-1β-mediated NF-κB activation and Schwann cell demyelination.

Phytomedicine 2020 Feb 30;67:153166. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Drug Development and Value Creation Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Peripheral nerve injury can produce chronic and ultimately neuropathic pain. The chronic constriction injury (CCI) model has provided a deeper understanding of nociception and chronic pain. Loganin is a well-known herbal medicine with glucose-lowering action and neuroprotective activity.

Purpose: This study investigated the molecular mechanisms by which loganin reduced CCI-induced neuropathic pain.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, sham+loganin, CCI and CCI+loganin. Loganin (1 or 5 mg/kg/day) was injected intraperitoneally once daily for 14 days, starting the day after CCI. For behavioral testing, mechanical and thermal responses were assessed before surgery and on d1, d3, d7 and d14 after surgery. Sciatic nerves (SNs) were collected to measure proinflammatory cytokines. Proximal and distal SNs were collected separately for Western blotting and immunofluorescence studies.

Results: Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were reduced in the loganin-treated group as compared to the CCI group. Loganin (5 mg/kg/day) prevented CCI from inducing proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β), inflammatory proteins (TNF-α, IL-1β, pNFκB, pIκB/IκB, iNOS) and receptor (TNFR1, IL-1R), adaptor protein (TRAF2) of TNF-α, and Schwann cell demyelination and axonal damage. Loganin also blocked IκB phosphorylation (p-IκB). Double immunofluorescent staining further demonstrated that pNFκB/pIκB protein was reduced by loganin in Schwann cells on d7 after CCI. In the distal stumps of injured SN, Schwann cell demyelination was correlated with pain behaviors in CCI rats.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that loganin improves CCI-induced neuroinflammation and pain behavior by downregulating TNF-α/IL-1β-dependent NF-κB activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2019.153166DOI Listing
February 2020

Very Low-Density Lipoproteins of Metabolic Syndrome Modulates STIM1, Suppresses Store-Operated Calcium Entry, and Deranges Myofilament Proteins in Atrial Myocytes.

J Clin Med 2019 Jun 20;8(6). Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Center for Lipid Biosciences, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are at high risk for atrial myopathy and atrial fibrillation. Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) of MetS (MetS-VLDLs) are cytotoxic to atrial myocytes in vivo and in vitro. The calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) pathway, which is regulated by stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1)/ calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (Orai1)-mediated store-operated Ca entry (SOCE), is a pivotal mediator of adaptive cardiac hypertrophy. We hypothesized that MetS-VLDLs could affect SOCE and the calcineurin-NFAT pathway. Normal-VLDL and MetS-VLDL samples were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and individuals with MetS. VLDLs were applied to HL-1 atrial myocytes for 18 h and were also injected into wild-type C57BL/6 male mouse tails three times per week for six weeks. After the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca store was depleted, SOCE was triggered upon reperfusion with 1.8 mM of Ca. SOCE was attenuated by MetS-VLDLs, along with reduced transcriptional and membranous expression of STIM1 ( = 0.025), and enhanced modification of -GlcNAcylation on STIM1 protein, while Orai1 was unaltered. The nuclear translocation and activity of calcineurin were both reduced ( < 0.05), along with the alteration of myofilament proteins in atrial tissues. These changes were absent in normal-VLDL-treated cells. Our results demonstrated that MetS-VLDLs suppressed SOCE by modulating STIM1 at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels, resulting in the inhibition of the calcineurin-NFAT pathway, which resulted in the alteration of myofilament protein expression and sarcomere derangement in atrial tissues. These findings may help explain atrial myopathy in MetS. We suggest a therapeutic target on VLDLs to prevent atrial fibrillation, especially for individuals with MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6617489PMC
June 2019

KMUP-1 Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis through the NO⁻cGMP⁻MAPK Signaling Pathways.

Molecules 2019 Apr 8;24(7). Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.

To test whether KMUP-1 (7-[2-[4-(2-chlorophenyl) piperazinyl]ethyl]-1,3-dimethylxanthine) prevents myocardial ischemia-induced apoptosis, we examined KMUP-1-treated H9c2 cells culture. Recent attention has focused on the activation of nitric oxide (NO)-guanosine 3', 5'cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway triggered by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 in the mechanism of cardiac protection during ischemia-induced cell-death. We propose that KMUP-1 inhibits ischemia-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells culture through these pathways. Cell viability was assessed using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and apoptotic evaluation was conducted using DNA ladder assay and Hoechst 33342 staining. The level of intracellular calcium was detected using - Fura2-acetoxymethyl (Fura2-AM) staining, and mitochondrial calcium with Rhod 2-acetoxymethyl (Rhod 2-AM) staining under fluorescence microscopic observation. The expression of endothelium NO synthase (eNOS), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), soluble guanylate cyclase α1 (sGCα1), PKG, Bcl-2/Bax ratio, ERK1/2, p38, and JNK proteins were measured by Western blotting assay. KMUP-1 pretreatment improved cell viability and inhibited ischemia-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cells. Calcium overload both in the intracellular and mitochondrial sites was attenuated by KMUP-1 pretreatment. Moreover, KMUP-1 reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased plasma NOx (nitrite and nitrate) level, and the expression of eNOS. Otherwise, the iNOS expression was downregulated. KMUP-1 pretreatment upregulated the expression of sGCα1 and PKG protein. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression was increased by the elevated level of Bcl2 and decreased level of Bax. In comparison with the ischemia group, KMUP-1 pretreatment groups reduced the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2, p-p38, and p-JNK as well. Therefore, KMUP-1 inhibits myocardial ischemia-induced apoptosis by restoration of cellular calcium influx through the mechanism of NO-cGMP-MAPK pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6479774PMC
April 2019

Decreased Ambient Oxygen Tension Alters the Expression of Endothelin-1, iNOS and cGMP in Rat Alveolar Macrophages.

Int J Med Sci 2019 28;16(3):443-449. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Hypoxia plays an important role in the vascular tone of pulmonary circulation via the vasculature and parenchymal tissue. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictive peptide, plays a role in inflammation in mononuclear cells. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which generates nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP), is coexpressed with ET-1 in many cell types. The aim of this study was to assess whether hypoxia induces the production of ET-1 and associated expression of NOS, NO/cGMP and chemokines in rat alveolar macrophages (AMs). NR8383 cells were cultured under hypoxic (1% oxygen) conditions for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours. Levels of ET-1, inducible NOS (iNOS), phosphorylated iNOS (p-iNOS), nitrite/nitrate (NOx), cGMP and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. ET-1, p-iNOS, NOx, and cGMP increased significantly in AMs after 4 hours of hypoxia (p < 0.05). ET-1 and MCP-1 mRNA increased after 8 hours (p < 0.05). The protein expression of ET-1, MCP-1, and p-iNOS increased in a time-dependent manner, while iNOS expression decreased with time. The changes in ET-1, p-iNOS, and the NO/cGMP pathway in AMs may help elucidate the mechanisms in the hypoxic lung. Understanding changes in the endothelin axis in hypoxic AMs is a crucial first step to unravel its role in pulmonary circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.28353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428981PMC
July 2019

Valproate reduces neuroinflammation and neuronal death in a rat chronic constriction injury model.

Sci Rep 2018 11 7;8(1):16457. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Valproate (VPA) is a well-known drug for treating epilepsy and mania, but its action in neuropathic pain is unclear. We used a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model to explore whether VPA prevents neuropathic pain-mediated inflammation and neuronal death. Rats were treated with or without VPA. CCI + VPA rats were intraperitoneally injected with VPA (300 mg/kg/day) from postoperative day (POD) 1 to 14. We measured paw withdrawal latency (PWL) and paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) 1 day before surgery and 1, 3, 7, 14 days after CCI and harvested the sciatic nerves (SN), spinal cord (SC) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) on POD 3, 7, and 14. PWL and PWT were reduced in CCI rats, but increased in CCI + VPA rats on POD 7 and POD 14. VPA lowered CCI-induced inflammatory proteins (pNFκB, iNOS and COX-2), pro-apoptotic proteins (pAKT/AKT and pGSK-3β/GSK-3β), proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and nuclear pNFκB activation in the SN, DRG and SC in CCI rats. COX-2 and pGSK-3 proteins were decreased by VPA on immunofluorescence analysis. VPA attenuated CCI-induced thermal and mechanical pain behaviors in rats in correlation with anti-neuroinflammation action involving reduction of pNFκB/iNOS/COX-2 activation and inhibition of pAKT/pGSK-3β-mediated neuronal death from injury to peripheral nerves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34915-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220313PMC
November 2018

KMUP-1, a GPCR Modulator, Attenuates Triglyceride Accumulation Involved MAPKs/Akt/PPARγ and PKA/PKG/HSL Signaling in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.

Molecules 2018 Sep 23;23(10). Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

Xanthine-based KMUP-1 was shown to inhibit phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and modulate G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to lower hyperlipidemia and body weight. This study further investigated whether KMUP-1 affects adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. KMUP-1 (1⁻40 µM) concentration-dependently attenuated Oil Red O (ORO) staining and decreased triglyceride (TG) accumulation, indicating adipogenesis inhibition in 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, the β-agonist ractopamine increased ORO staining and TG accumulation and adipogenesis. KMUP-1 (1⁻40 µM) also reduced MAPKs/Akt/PPARγ expression, PPARγ1/PPARγ2 mRNA, and p-ERK immunoreactivity at the adipogenesis stage, but enhanced hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) immunoreactivity at the lipolysis stage. Addition of protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase G (PKG) antagonist (KT5720 or KT5728) to adipocytes did not affect HSL immunoreactivity. However, KMUP-1 did increase HSL immunoreactivity and the effect was reduced by PKA or PKG antagonist. Simvastatin, theophylline, caffeine, and sildenafil, like KMUP-1, also enhanced HSL immunoreactivity. Phosphorylated HSL (p-HSL) was enhanced by KMUP-1, indicating increased lipolysis in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Decreases of MAPKs/Akt/PPARγ during adipogenesis contributed to inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and increases of PKA/PKG at lipolysis contributed to HSL activation and TG hydrolysis. Taken together, the data suggest that KMUP-1 can inhibit hyperadiposity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6222827PMC
September 2018

B-type natriuretic peptide prevents postnatal closure of ductus arteriosus by both vasodilation and anti-remodeling in neonatal rats.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2018 09 18;132(18):2045-2058. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

The physiologic process of postnatal ductus arteriosus (DA) closure consists of vasoconstriction followed by vascular remodeling. We have recently reported that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a potent vasodilator, also has anti-remodeling effects in pulmonary vasculature. However, its effects on DA have not been elucidated. We investigated whether BNP can prevent DA closure, and if so, the underlying mechanisms. Using studies, we examined effects of BNP (10 mg/kg, ip at birth) on DA closure in neonatal rats within 4 h after birth. We found that in control rats, the DA spontaneously closed at 4 h with a decreased DA diameter, enhanced intimal thickening, and luminal occlusion. BNP prevented DA closure at 4 h with a preserved DA diameter, attenuated intimal thickening, and preserved luminal patency. , BNP attenuated oxygen-induced vasoconstriction of isolated DA rings of newborn rats. These vasodilating effects were blunted by Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS, a cGMP inhibitor. , BNP inhibited angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation and migration of DA smooth muscle cells (DASMCs). BNP inhibited Ang II-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and calcium overload in DASMCs. Finally, BNP inhibited Ang II-induced ERK1/2 activation. These effects were antagonized by Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS. In conclusion, BNP prevents postnatal DA closure by both vasodilation and anti-remodeling through the cGMP pathway. The mechanisms underlying anti-remodeling effects include anti-poliferation and anti-migration, with attenuation of mitochondrial ROS production and intracellular calcium and ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, the BNP/cGMP pathway can be a promising therapeutic target for clinical management of DA patency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20180201DOI Listing
September 2018

Exogenous Heat Shock Cognate Protein 70 Suppresses LPS-Induced Inflammation by Down-Regulating NF-κB through MAPK and MMP-2/-9 Pathways in Macrophages.

Molecules 2018 Aug 23;23(9). Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

Heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), a molecular chaperone, is constitutively expressed by mammalian cells to regulate various cellular functions. It is associated with many diseases and is a potential therapeutic target. Although HSC70 also possesses an anti-inflammatory action, the mechanism of this action remains unclear. This current study aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of HSC70 in murine macrophages RAW 264.7 exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and to explain its pathways. Mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) in 0.1 µg/mL LPS incubation were pretreated with recombinant HSC70 (rHSC70) and different assays (Griess assay, enzyme-linked immune assay/ELISA, electrophoretic mobility shift assay/EMSA, gelatin zymography, and Western blotting) were performed to determine whether rHSC70 blocks pro-inflammatory mediators. The findings showed that rHSC70 attenuated the nitric oxide (NO) generation, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expressions in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, rHSC70 preconditioning suppressed the activities and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. Finally, rHSC70 diminished the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt). We demonstrate that rHSC70 preconditioning exerts its anti-inflammatory effects through NO production constriction; TNF-α, and IL-6 suppression following down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and MMP-2/MMP-9. Accordingly, it ameliorated the signal transduction of MAPKs, Akt/IκBα, and NF-κB pathways. Therefore, extracellular HSC70 plays a critical role in the innate immunity modulation and mechanisms of endogenous protective stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225271PMC
August 2018

KMUP-1 protects against streptozotocin-induced mesenteric artery dysfunction via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

Pharmacol Rep 2018 Aug 21;70(4):746-752. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Lipid Science and Aging Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia accompanied by impaired vascular and endothelial function. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K) channels can protect endothelial function against hypertension and hyperglycemia. KMUP-1, a xanthine derivative, has been demonstrated to modulate K-channel activity in smooth muscles. This study investigated protective mechanisms of KMUP-1 in impaired mesenteric artery (MA) reactivity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

Methods: Rats were divided into three groups: control, STZ (65 mg/kg, ip) and STZ + KMUP-1 (5 or 10 mg/kg/day, ip). MA reactivity was measured by dual wire myograph. MA smooth muscle cells (MASMCs) were enzymatically dissociated and the K currents recorded by a whole-cell patch-clamp technique.

Results: STZ decreased MA K currents in a time-course dependent manner and achieved steady inhibition at day 14. In the MASMCs of STZ-treated rats, KMUP-1 partially recovered the K currents, suggesting that vascular K channels were activated by KMUP-1. K (80 mM KCl)-induced MA contractions in STZ-treated rats were higher than those of control rats. KMUP-1 significantly attenuated STZ-stimulated MA contractions in response to high K, suggesting that KMUP-1 may partly restore the vascular reactivity of MAs. In addition, STZ decreased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and this effect was reversed by KMUP-1, suggesting that KMUP-1 could improve STZ-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

Conclusion: KMUP-1 prevents STZ impairment of MA reactivity, eNOS levels and K channels, and accordingly protects against vascular dysfunction in diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2018.02.017DOI Listing
August 2018

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate alleviates bladder overactivity in a rat model with metabolic syndrome and ovarian hormone deficiency through mitochondria apoptosis pathways.

Sci Rep 2018 03 29;8(1):5358. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and ovarian hormone deficiency could affect bladder storage dysfunction. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound in green tea, has been shown to protect against ovarian hormone deficiency induced overactive bladder (OAB). The present study investigated oxidative stress induced by MetS and bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), and elucidated the mechanism underlying the protective effect of EGCG (10 umol/kg/day) on bladder overactivity. Rats were fed with high fat high sugar (HFHS) diet to induce MetS and received ovariectomy surgery to deprive ovarian hormone. By dieting with HFHS for 6 months, rats developed MetS and OAB. MetS + OVX deteriorated bladder storage dysfunction more profound than MetS alone. MetS and MetS + OVX rats showed over-expression of inflammatory and fibrosis markers (1.7~3.8-fold of control). EGCG pretreatment alleviated storage dysfunction, and protected the bladders from MetS and OVX - induced interstitial fibrosis changes. Moreover, OVX exacerbated MetS related bladder apoptosis (2.3~4.5-fold of control; 1.8~2.6-fold of Mets group), enhances oxidative stress markers (3.6~4.3-fold of control; 1.8~2.2-fold of Mets group) and mitochondrial enzyme complexes subunits (1.8~3.7-fold of control; 1.5~3.4-fold of Mets group). EGCG pretreatment alleviated bladder apoptosis, attenuated oxidative stress, and reduced the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum apoptotic signals. In conclusions, HFHS feeding and ovarian hormone deficiency enhances the generation of oxidative stress mediated through mitochondrial pathway. EGCG reduced the generation of oxidative stress and lessened bladder overactivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23800-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5876359PMC
March 2018

Eugenosedin-A improves glucose metabolism and inhibits MAPKs expression in streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2018 Mar 29;34(3):142-149. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Lipid Science and Aging Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

This study examined the effects of eugenosedin-A (Eu-A) in a streptozotocin (STZ)/nicotinamide-induced rat model of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) RD group, normal rats fed a regular diet (RD), (2) DM group, T2DM rats fed a high-fat diet, and (3) Eu-A group, T2DM rats fed a high fat diet plus oral Eu-A (5 mg/kg/day). After 30 days, the DM group had higher body weight, higher blood glucose and lower insulin levels than the RD group. The DM group also had increased protein expression of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) in liver and skeletal muscle and decreased protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), IRS-2, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), glucokinase (GCK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ). STZ/nicotinamide-induced T2DM increased the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs: p38, ERK, JNK) and inflammatory p65 protein. In the Eu-A treated T2DM rats, however, blood glucose was attenuated and the insulin concentration stimulated. Changes in IR, IRS-1 and IRS-2 proteins as well as AMPK, GLUT-4, GCK, GSK, PPAR-γ, MAPKs, and inflammatory p65 proteins were ameliorated. These results suggested that Eu-A alleviates STZ/nicotinamide-induced hyperglycemia by improving insulin levels and glucose metabolism, and inhibiting the MAPKs- and p65-mediated inflammatory pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kjms.2017.11.003DOI Listing
March 2018

Xanthine-derived KMUP-1 reverses glucotoxicity-activated Kv channels through the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in rat pancreatic β cells.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Jan 26;279:171-176. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan; Lipid Science and Aging Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Hyperglycemia-associated glucotoxicity induces β-cell dysfunction and a reduction in insulin secretion. Voltage-dependent K (Kv) channels in pancreatic β-cells play a key role in glucose-dependent insulin secretion. KMUP-1, a xanthine derivative, has been demonstrated to modulate Kv channel activity in smooth muscles; however, the role of KMUP-1 in glucotoxicity-activated Kv channels in pancreatic β-cells remains unclear. In this study we examined the mechanisms by which KMUP-1 could inhibit high glucose (25 mM) activated Kv currents (IKv) in pancreatic β-cells. Pancreatic β-cells were isolated from Wistar rats and IKv was monitored by perforated patch-clamp recording. The peak IKv in high glucose-treated β-cells was ∼1.4-fold greater than for normal glucose (5.6 mM). KMUP-1 (1, 10, 30 μM) prevented high glucose-stimulated IKv in a concentration-dependent manner. Reduction of high glucose-activated IKv was also found for protein kinase A (PKA) activator 8-Br-cAMP (100 μM). Additionally, KMUP-1 (30 μM) current inhibition was reversed by the PKA inhibitor H-89 (1 μM). Otherwise, pretreatment with the PKC activator or inhibitor had no effect on IKv in high glucose exposure. In conclusion, glucotoxicity-diminished insulin secretion was due to IKv activation. KMUP-1 attenuated high glucose-stimulated IKv via the PKA but not the PKC signaling pathway. This finding provides evidence that KMUP-1 might be a promising agent for treating hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2017.11.017DOI Listing
January 2018

Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein of Metabolic Syndrome Modulates Gap Junctions and Slows Cardiac Conduction.

Sci Rep 2017 09 21;7(1):12050. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) is a hallmark of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and each manifestation of MetS is related to atrial fibrillation (AF) risks. Slowed atrial conduction is a mechanism of AF in MetS. We hypothesized that VLDL can modulate and reduce atrial gap junctions. VLDLs were separated from normal (Normal-VLDL) and MetS (MetS-VLDL) individuals. VLDLs (15 µg/g) and equivalent volumes of saline (CTL) were injected respectively to C57BL/6 mice for 6 weeks. Electrocardiograms demonstrated that MetS-VLDL induced prolongation of P wave (P = 0.041), PR intervals (P = 0.014), QRS duration and QTc interval (both P = 0.003), but Normal-VLDL did not. Optical mapping of perfused hearts confirmed slowed conduction on atria and ventricles of MetS-VLDL mice. Slowed cardiac conduction was associated with significant atrial and ventricular remodeling, along with systolic dysfunction and comparable intra-cardiac fibrosis. MetS-VLDL induced downregulation of Cx40 and Cx43 at transcriptional, translational and tissue levels, and it also enhanced O-GlcNAcylation of Cx40 and Cx43. Protein structure analyses predicted O-GlcNAcylation at serine 18 of Cx40 and Cx43 which may impair stability of gap junctions. In conclusion, MetS-VLDL modulates gap junctions and delays both atrial and ventricular conduction. VLDL may contribute to the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias in MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-11416-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5608762PMC
September 2017

Elucidating Mechanisms of Bladder Repair after Hyaluronan Instillation in Ketamine-Induced Ulcerative Cystitis in Animal Model.

Am J Pathol 2017 Sep;187(9):1945-1959

Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis (KIC) initially damaged the bladder mucosa and induced contracted bladder thereafter. Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid; HA) instillation to the bladder has been used to treat KIC. The present study investigated bladder injury by urothelial defect and HA degeneration and bladder repair by urothelium proliferation and differentiation. This work was based on the hypothesis that HA treatment altered the bladder urothelial layer and the expression of hyaluronan-metabolizing enzymes and/or HA receptors in KIC. Cystometrogram study and tracing analysis of voiding behavior revealed that the ketamine-treated rats exhibited significant bladder hyperactivity with an increase in micturition frequency and a decrease in bladder capacity. The expression of inflammatory and fibrosis markers was also increased in the ketamine-treated group. Moreover, ketamine administration decreased the expression of urothelial barrier-associated protein, altered HA production, and induced abnormal urothelial differentiation, which might attribute to urothelial lining defects. However, HA instillation ameliorated bladder hyperactivity, lessened bladder mucosa damage, and decreased interstitial fibrosis. HA instillation also improved the level of HA receptors (CD44, Toll-like receptor-4, and receptor for HA-mediated motility) and HA synthases 1 to 3 and decreased the expression of hyaluronidases in the urothelial layer of bladder, resulting in enhanced mucosal regeneration. These findings suggested that HA could modulate inflammatory responses, enhance mucosal regeneration, and improve urothelial lining defects in KIC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2017.06.004DOI Listing
September 2017

Statins ameliorate pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction through the Rho-kinase pathway and NADPH oxidase.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2017 04 28;52(4):443-457. Epub 2016 Dec 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Sun-Ming District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating disorder, for which no therapy is curative. It has been reported that pulmonary vascular remodeling, associated with increasing mean pulmonary arterial pressure and upregulated expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), endothelin-1 (ET-1), RhoA/RhoH-kinase results in the development of PH. Oxidative stress and the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway are also thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of PH. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) with pleiotropic effects and are potential agents for the treatment of PH. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of simvastatin on the development of PH secondary to left ventricular dysfunction.

Methods: A PH secondary to left ventricular dysfunction model was established in 6-week-old aortic-banded rats. The pulmonary expression of Rho kinase, ET-1, eNOS, p-eNOS, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), cGMP, p47 , and p67 were investigated in the early-treatment group, to which was administered simvastatin (30 mg/kg/day) from days 1 to 42 or the late-treatment group, to which was administered simvastatin (30 mg/kg/day) from days 29 to 42.

Results: Simvastatin attenuated the mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary arteriolar remodeling, plasma brain natriuretic peptide, ET-1, reactive oxygen species, and the NADPH oxidase 2 regulatory subunits, p47 and p67 , and upregulated pulmonary p-eNOS, NOx, and cGMP in both the early- and late-treated groups.

Conclusions: Inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase may have therapeutic potential for preventing and attenuating the development of PH in left ventricular dysfunction through the Rho-kinase pathway and NADPH oxidase. A translational study in humans is needed to substantiate these findings. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:443-457. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.23610DOI Listing
April 2017

Restoration of uridine 5'-triphosphate-suppressed delayed rectifying K currents by an NO activator KMUP-1 involves RhoA/Rho kinase signaling in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2016 Dec 27;32(12):607-613. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Lipid Science and Aging Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

We have demonstrated that KMUP-1 (7-[2-[4-(2-chlorobenzene)piperazinyl]ethyl]-1,3-dimethylxanthine) blunts monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by altering Ca sensitivity, K-channel function, endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, and RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) expression. This study further investigated whether KMUP-1 impedes uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP)-inhibited delayed rectifying K (K) current in rat pulmonary arteries involved the RhoA/ROCK signaling. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were enzymatically dissociated from rat pulmonary arteries. KMUP-1 (30μM) attenuated UTP (30μM)-mediated membrane depolarization and abolished UTP-enhanced cytosolic Ca concentration. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to monitor K currents. A voltage-dependent K current was isolated and shown to consist of a 4-aminopyridine (5mM)-sensitive component and an insensitive component. The 4-aminopyridine sensitive K current was suppressed by UTP (30μM). The ROCK inhibitor Y27632 (30μM) abolished the ability of UTP to inhibit the K current. Like Y27632, KMUP-1 (30μM) similarly abolished UTP-inhibited K currents. Superfused protein kinase A and protein kinase G inhibitors (KT5720, 300nM and KT5823, 300nM) did not affect UTP-inhibited K currents, but the currents were restored by adding KMUP-1 (30μM) to the superfusate. KMUP-1 reversal of K current inhibition by UTP predominantly involves the ROCK inhibition. The results indicate that the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway plays a key role in eliciting PASMCs depolarization caused by UTP, which would result in pulmonary artery constriction. KMUP-1 blocks UTP-mediated PASMCs depolarization, suggesting that it would prevent abnormal pulmonary vasoconstriction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kjms.2016.09.008DOI Listing
December 2016

Gamma-secretase Inhibitor Prevents Proliferation and Migration of Ductus Arteriosus Smooth Muscle Cells through the Notch3-HES1/2/5 Pathway.

Int J Biol Sci 2016 18;12(9):1063-73. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

1. Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2. Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 3. Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause morbidity and mortality in neonates. Vascular remodeling, characterized by proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), is an essential process for postnatal DA closure. Notch signaling is an important mediator of vascular remodelling but its role in DA is unkonwn. We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, a Notch signaling inhibitor on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation and migration of DASMCs. Proliferation and migration of DASMCs cultured from neonatal Wistar rats were induced by Ang II, with or without DAPT pre-treatment. In addition, potential underlying mechanisms including cell cycle progression, Ca(2+) influx, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, signal transduction of MAPK and Akt, and Notch receptor with its target gene pathway were examined. We found that DAPT inhibited Ang II-induced DASMCs proliferation and migration dose dependently. DAPT also arrested the cell cycle progression in the G0/G1-phase, and attenuated calcium overload and ROS production caused by Ang II. Moreover, DAPT inhibited nuclear translocation of Notch3 receptor intracellular domain, with decreased expression of its down-stream genes including HES1, HES2 and HES5. Finally, Ang II-activated ERK1/2, JNK and Akt were also counteracted by DAPT. In conclusion, DAPT inhibits Ang II-induced DASMCs proliferation and migration. These effects are potentially mediated by decreased calcium influx, reduced ROS production, and down-regulation of ERK1/2, JNK and Akt, through the Notch3-HES1/2/5 pathway. Therefore, Notch signaling has a role in DA remodeling and may provide a target pathway for therapeutic intervention of PDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.16430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4997050PMC
November 2017

Theophylline-Based KMUP-1 Improves Steatohepatitis via MMP-9/IL-10 and Lipolysis via HSL/p-HSL in Obese Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2016 Aug 17;17(8). Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Lipid Science and Aging Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

KMUP-1 (7-[2-[4-(2-chlorobenzene)piperazinyl]ethyl]-1,3-dimethylxanthine) has been reported to cause hepatic fat loss. However, the action mechanisms of KMUP-1 in obesity-induced steatohepatitis remains unclear. This study elucidated the steatohepatitis via matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and related lipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) by KMUP-1. KMUP-1 on steatohepatitis-associated HSL/p-HSL/ATGL/MMP-9/TNFα/interleukin-10 (IL-10) and infiltration of M1/M2 macrophages in obese mice were examined. KMUP-1 was administered by oral gavage from weeks 1-14 in high-fat diet (HFD)-supplemented C57BL/6J male mice (protection group) and from weeks 8-14, for 6 weeks, in HFD-induced obese mice (treatment group). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissues, oil globules number and size, infiltration and switching of M1/M2 macrophages were measured to determine the effects on livers. IL-10 and MMP-9 proteins were explored to determine the effects of KMUP-1 on M1/M2 macrophage polarization in HFD-induced steatohepatitis. Long-term administration of KMUP-1 reversed HFD-fed mice increased in body weight, sGOT/sGPT, triglyceride (TG) and glucose. Additionally, KMUP-1 decreased MMP-9 and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased HSL/p-HSL and IL-10 in HFD mice livers. In conclusion, KMUP-1, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDEI), was shown to reduce lipid accumulation in liver tissues, suggesting that it could be able to prevent or treat steatohepatitis induced by HFD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5000741PMC
August 2016

Activation of endothelial NO synthase by a xanthine derivative ameliorates hypoxia-induced apoptosis in endothelial progenitor cells.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2016 Jun 25;68(6):810-8. Epub 2016 Apr 25.

Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Objectives: Endothelial damage is strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis and hypertension. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are primitive bone marrow (BM) cells that possess the capacity to mature into endothelial cells and play a role in neovascularization and vascular remodelling. This study aimed to investigate whether KMUP-1, a synthetic xanthine-based derivative, atorvastatin and simvastatin, can prevent endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis induced by hypoxia and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Mononuclear cells were separated and were induced to differentiate into EPCs. KMUP-1, atorvastatin or simvastatin were administered prior to hypoxia.

Key Findings: We found that EPCs exposed to hypoxia increased apoptosis as well as diminished proliferation. Pretreatment with KMUP-1, atorvastatin and simvastatin significantly prevented hypoxia-induced EPCs death and apoptosis, with associated increased of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and reduced caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression. We also assessed the nitrite production and Ser(1177)-phospho-eNOS expression and found that KMUP-1, atorvastatin and simvastatin not only increased the secretion of NO compared with the hypoxia group but also upregulated the eNOS activation.

Conclusions: KMUP-1 inhibited hypoxia-induced dysfunction and apoptosis in EPCs, which may be mediated through suppressing oxidative stress, upregulating eNOS and downregulating the caspase-3 signalling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12555DOI Listing
June 2016

Phosphodiesterase inhibitor KMUP-3 displays cardioprotection via protein kinase G and increases cardiac output via G-protein-coupled receptor agonist activity and Ca(2+) sensitization.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2016 Feb 24;32(2):55-67. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Medicine and Education, Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

KMUP-3 (7-{2-[4-(4-nitrobenzene) piperazinyl]ethyl}-1, 3-dimethylxanthine) displays cardioprotection and increases cardiac output, and is suggested to increase cardiac performance and improve myocardial infarction. To determine whether KMUP-3 improves outcomes in hypoperfused myocardium by inducing Ca(2+) sensitization to oppose protein kinase (PK)G-mediated Ca(2+) blockade, we measured left ventricular systolic blood pressure, maximal rates of pressure development, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in rats, and measured contractility and expression of PKs/RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK)II in beating guinea pig left atria. Hemodynamic changes induced by KMUP-3 (0.5-3.0 mg/kg, intravenously) were inhibited by Y27632 [(R)-(+)-trans-4-1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-Pyridyl) cyclohexane carboxamide] and ketanserin (1 mg/kg, intravenously). In electrically stimulated left guinea pig atria, positive inotropy induced by KMUP-3 (0.1-100μM) was inhibited by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitors N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 7-nitroindazole, cyclic AMP antagonist SQ22536 [9-(terahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine], soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) antagonist ODQ (1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one), RhoA inhibitor C3 exoenzyme, β-blocker propranolol, 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A antagonist ketanserin, ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and KMUP-1 (7-{2-[4-(2-chlorobenzene) piperazinyl]ethyl}-1, 3-dimethylxanthine) at 10μM. Western blotting assays indicated that KMUP-3 (0.1-10μM) increased PKA, RhoA/ROCKII, and PKC translocation and CIP-17 (an endogenous 17-kDa inhibitory protein) activation. In spontaneous right atria, KMUP-3 induced negative chronotropy that was blunted by 7-nitroindazole and atropine. In neonatal myocytes, L-NAME inhibited KMUP-3-induced eNOS phosphorylation and RhoA/ROCK activation. In H9c2 cells, Y-27632 (50μM) and PKG antagonist KT5823 [2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10R- methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-1-oxo-9S,12R-epoxy-1H-diindolo(1,2,3-fg:3',2',1'-kl) pyrrolo(3,4-i)(1,6)benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid, methyl ester] (3μM) reversed KMUP-3 (1-100μM)-induced Ca(2+)-entry blockade. GPCR agonist activity of KMUP-3 appeared opposed to KMUP-1, and increased cardiac output via Ca(2+) sensitization, and displayed cardioprotection via cyclic GMP/PKG-mediated myocardial preconditioning in animal studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kjms.2016.01.005DOI Listing
February 2016