Publications by authors named "Bin Zhang"

4,228 Publications

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Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis in a neonate.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, China, Beijing, China

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2021-321719DOI Listing
May 2021

Autologous platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of refractory wounds in cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis complicated with hypertension (grade 2 moderate risk): A case report.

Transfus Apher Sci 2021 May 6:103157. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Blood Transfusion, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis is an inflammatory variant of vasculitis with a variety of causes that only affects the skin. Its pathological manifestations include neutrophil infiltration and nuclear fragmentation. Clinically, it is characterised by a pleomorphic rash, including erythema, purpuric skin lesions, reticulocytosis, necrosis and ulceration. Once formed, local ulcerations are very difficult to heal.

Case Presentation: A 46-year-old female was diagnosed with cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient's legs exhibited ulcers with a black eschar on the surface. The largest wound was 4.5 × 4.0 cm and the deepest wound was 1.7 × 1.8 × 1.0 cm. The ulcers had been present for 6 months and did not exhibit signs of healing. Treatment was commenced with platelet-rich plasma, and the wounds healed within 1 month.

Conclusion: Topical application of autologous platelet-rich plasma gel exerts beneficial effects in cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis with regard to wound size reduction, and it induces granulation tissue formation. Platelet-rich plasma may represent a safe and cost-effective treatment for managing cutaneous wound healing to reduce the length of the recovery period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2021.103157DOI Listing
May 2021

Distinct Brain-derived TDP-43 Strains from FTLD-TDP Subtypes Induce Diverse Morphological TDP-43 Aggregates and Spreading Patterns in vitro and in vivo.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research (CNDR), Institute on Aging, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Aim: The heterogeneity in the distribution and morphological features of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) pathology in the brains of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) patients and their different clinical manifestations suggest that distinct pathological TDP-43 strains could play a role in this heterogeneity between different FTLD-TDP subtypes (A-E). Our aim was to evaluate the existence of distinct TDP-43 strains in the brains of different FTLD-TDP subtypes and characterize their specific seeding properties in vitro and in vivo.

Methods And Results: We used an inducible stable cell line expressing a mutant cytoplasmic TDP-43 (iGFP-NLSm) to evaluate the seeding properties of distinct pathological TDP-43 strains. Brain-derived TDP-43 protein extracts from FTLD-TDP types A (n=6) and B (n=3) cases induced the formation of round/spherical phosphorylated TDP-43 aggregates that morphologically differed from the linear and wavy wisps and bigger heterogeneous filamentous (skein-like) aggregates induced by type E (n=3) cases. These morphological differences correlated with distinct biochemical banding patterns of sarkosyl-insoluble TDP-43 protein recovered from the transduced cells. Moreover, brain-derived TDP-43 extracts from type E cases showed higher susceptibility to PK digestion of full-length TDP-43 and the most abundant C-terminal fragments that characterize type E extracts. Finally, we showed that intracerebral injections of different TDP-43 strains induced a distinctive morphological and subcellular distribution of TDP-43 pathology and different spreading patterns in the brains of CamKIIa-hTDP-43 Tg mice.

Conclusions: We show the existence of distinct TDP-43 strains in the brain of different FTLD-TDP subtypes with distinctive seeding and spreading properties in the brains of experimental animal models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nan.12732DOI Listing
May 2021

Nitrate electroreduction: mechanism insight, characterization, performance evaluation, and challenges.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Institute of Molecular Plus, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Science, Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Excessive nitrate ions in the environment break the natural nitrogen cycle and become a significant threat to human health. So far, many physical, chemical, and biological techniques have been developed for nitrate remediation, but most of them require high post-processing costs and rigorous treatment conditions. In contrast, nitrate electroreduction is promising because it utilizes green electrons as reductants under ambient conditions. The recognition and mastering of the nitrate reaction mechanism is the premise for the design and synthesis of efficient electrocatalysts for the selective reduction of nitrate. In this regard, this review aims to provide an insight into the electrocatalytic mechanism of nitrate reduction, especially combined with in situ electrochemical characterization and theoretical calculations over different kinds of materials. Moreover, the performance evaluation parameters and standard test methods for nitrate electroreduction are summarized to screen efficient materials. Finally, an outlook on the current challenges and promising opportunities in this research area is discussed. This review provides a guide for development of electrocatalysts for selective nitrate reduction with a fascinating performance and accelerates the development of sustainable nitrogen chemistry and engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cs00116gDOI Listing
May 2021

Analysis of the relationship between geography and body color with the genetic diversity in the Echiura worm based on the mitochondrial and D-loop sequences.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Apr 15;6(4):1380-1386. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Dalian Modern Agricultural Production Development Service Center, Dalian Aquatic Technology Promotion Station, Dalian, China.

is the only species distributed in Bohai Gulf of China. The wild populations of this species have sharply declined in China due to overfishing. Over 150 samples from Bohai Gulf were collected in the present study, which were classified into five populations according to their geographic areas and body colors. The genetic diversity and population structure of these populations were investigated by mitochondiral and D-loop sequences. The haplotype diversity of based on and D-loop sequences were still high. In addition, the evolution rate of D-loop region could faster than the gene of . Meanwhile, over 99% genetic diversity was contributed by different individuals within populations. Moreover, phylogenetic trees did not show clear geographic or color cluster. Our findings indicated that this species in Bohai Gulf of China should be treated as a whole population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1910082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078999PMC
April 2021

Artificial intelligence in gastroenterology and hepatology: Status and challenges.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(16):1664-1690

Department of General Surgery, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016, Zhejiang Province, China.

Originally proposed by John McCarthy in 1955, artificial intelligence (AI) has achieved a breakthrough and revolutionized the processing methods of clinical medicine with the increasing workloads of medical records and digital images. Doctors are paying attention to AI technologies for various diseases in the fields of gastroenterology and hepatology. This review will illustrate AI technology procedures for medical image analysis, including data processing, model establishment, and model validation. Furthermore, we will summarize AI applications in endoscopy, radiology, and pathology, such as detecting and evaluating lesions, facilitating treatment, and predicting treatment response and prognosis with excellent model performance. The current challenges for AI in clinical application include potential inherent bias in retrospective studies that requires larger samples for validation, ethics and legal concerns, and the incomprehensibility of the output results. Therefore, doctors and researchers should cooperate to address the current challenges and carry out further investigations to develop more accurate AI tools for improved clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072192PMC
April 2021

Neuropeptide Y prevents nucleus pulposus cells from cell apoptosis and IL‑1β‑induced extracellular matrix degradation.

Cell Cycle 2021 May 8:1-18. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Spine Center, Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is characterized by excessive inflammatory reaction, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) was reported to have anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of NPY on NP cells has not been investigated up to date. This study aimed to clarify the role of NPY on the process of IDD. Fourteen fresh human lumbar intervertebral discs were harvested, and degeneration-related proteins were examined. Pfirrmann grading system was used to evaluate IDD. Rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were used to investigate the effect of NPY on the proliferation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) in NP cell induced by IL-1βin vitro. The expression levels of NPY and its receptors (type 1 receptor, Y1R, and type 2 receptor, Y2R) were detected via immunohistochemical analysis, western blot, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cell viability and proliferation were explored using cell counting kit-8 assay, western blot, and immunofluorescence analysis. Cell apoptosis was investigated by Hoechst staining, JC-1 Staining, annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, and western blot. The secretion of NPY from NP cells was determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of anabolic and catabolic gene was analyzed by qRT-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence analysis, and ELISA. The expression of Y2R was significantly increased in both human degenerative intervertebral discs and IL-1β-induced NP cells. Although no positive results for NPY indicated by western blot both in vivo and in vitro, ELISA results demonstrated that the secretion of NPY from NP cells was increased by low-concentration IL-1β, but was decreased when the concentration of IL-1β was 30 ng/ml and above. In addition, NPY could promote NP cells proliferation and protect NP cells against IL‑1β‑induced apoptosis via suppressing mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway. What's more, NPY can suppress the expression of catabolic gene and ameliorate IL-1β- induced matrix degeneration in NP cells. In conclusion, NPY could promote NP cell proliferation and alleviate IL‑1β‑induced cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway. In addition, NPY can suppress the expression of ECM‑catabolic proteinases and ameliorate IL-1β- induced ECM degeneration in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2021.1911914DOI Listing
May 2021

Perioperative management of a morbidly obese patient undergoing right upper lobectomy with poor pulmonary function: a case report.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr;10(4):4959-4964

Department of Lung Cancer, Lung Cancer Center, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Tianjin, China.

The incidence and prevalence of obesity is drastically increasing worldwide. Clinical surgeons treating cancer patients often encounter obese patients. However, cases of surgical lung cancer patients with morbid obesity and poor pulmonary function undergoing lobectomy have not been reported. A 75-year-old woman was referred to our hospital on June 25, 2014 with a cough with blood in phlegm for 1 week. Staging positron emission tomography revealed an abnormal lesion indicating malignancy under the pleura of the upper lobe of the right lung. As the patient had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and was morbidly obese [body mass index (BMI): 40.1 kg/m2], she had preoperative poor pulmonary function with a forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) of 1.06l and diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide of 52.2. After 2 weeks of rehabilitation and treatment, respiratory function improved before surgery. The patient required thoracotomy so that right upper lobectomy with lymph node dissection under general anesthesia could be performed. However, on postoperative day 3, the patient was diagnosed with postoperative severe pneumonia with respiratory failure and cardiac insufficiency, and was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU). After 72 postoperative days, the patient was discharged from hospital. The pathological diagnosis was invasive adenocarcinoma. Although the patient experienced severe postoperative complications, this case is useful for surgeons treating cancer patients because there are few reports discussing the perioperative management of morbidly obese patients with poor pulmonary function undergoing lung cancer radical resection. Further studies on lobectomy for morbidly obese lung cancer patients with poor pulmonary function are warranted to improve the treatment methods of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2554DOI Listing
April 2021

Molecular identity of human limbal heterogeneity involved in corneal homeostasis and privilege.

Ocul Surf 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shandong Eye Institute, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Qingdao, China; Qingdao Eye Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Qingdao, China; Eye Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: The corneal limbus maintains the homeostasis, immune and angiogenic privilege of cornea. This study aimed to depict the landscape of human limbus tissues by single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq).

Methods: Single cells of human limbus collected from donor corneas were performed scRNA-seq using 10x Genomics platform, followed by clustering cell types through the t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) and unbiased computational informatic analysis. Immunofluorescent staining using human corneas to validate the analysis results.

Results: 47,627 cells acquired from six human limbus were performed scRNA-seq. 14 distinct clusters were identified and 8 cell types were annotated with representative markers. In-depth dissection revealed three limbal epithelial cell subtypes and refined the X-Y-Z hypothesis of corneal epithelial maintenance. We further unveiled two cell states with higher stemness (TP63 and CCL20 cells), and two other differentiated cell states (GPHA2 and KRT6B  cells) in homeostatic limbal stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs) that differ in transcriptional profiles. Cell-cell communication analysis revealed the central role of LSPCs and their bidirectional regulation with various niche cells. Moreover, comparative analysis between limbus and skin deciphered the pivotal contribution of limbal immune cells, vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells to corneal immune and angiogenic privilege.

Conclusions: The human limbus atlas provided valuable resource and foundations for understanding corneal biology, disease and potential interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtos.2021.04.010DOI Listing
May 2021

Application of a classifier combining bronchial transcriptomics and chest CT features facilitates the diagnostic evaluation of lung cancer in smokers and non-smokers.

Int J Cancer 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease of Zhejiang Province, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Lung cancer screening by computed tomography (CT) reduces mortality but exhibited high false-positive rates. We established a diagnostic classifier combining chest CT features with bronchial transcriptomics. Patients with CT-detected suspected lung cancer were enrolled. The sample collected by bronchial brushing was used for RNA sequencing. The e1071 and pROC packages in R software was applied to build the model. Eventually, a total of 283 patients, including 183 with lung cancer and 100 with benign lesions, were included into final analysis. When incorporating transcriptomic data with radiological characteristics, the advanced model yielded 0.903 AUC with 81.1% NPV. Moreover, the classifier performed well regardless of lesion size, location, stage, histologic type, or smoking status. Pathway analysis showed enhanced epithelial differentiation, tumor metastasis, and impaired immunity were predominant in smokers with cancer, whereas tumorigenesis played a central role in non-smokers with cancer. Apoptosis and oxidative stress contributed critically in metastatic lung cancer; by contrast, immune dysfunction was pivotal in locally advanced lung cancer. Collectively, we devised a minimal-to-noninvasive, efficient diagnostic classifier for smokers and non-smokers with lung cancer, which provides evidence for different mechanisms of cancer development and metastasis associated with smoking. A negative classifier result will help the physician make conservative diagnostic decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33675DOI Listing
May 2021

IL-6 regulates the bone metabolism and inflammatory microenvironment in aging mice by inhibiting Setd7.

Acta Histochem 2021 May 5;123(5):151718. Epub 2021 May 5.

Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, 56 Lingyuan West Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510055, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Engineering Research Center of Technology and Materials for Oral Reconstruction, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Aging, which has become a worldwide problem, leads to the degeneration of multiple organs and tissues. Two of the main changes in aging are dysregulation of the tissue microenvironment and abnormal functioning of specific stem cells. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) in the aging microenvironment are not only effector cells but also immunomodulatory cells that change the microenvironment. IL-6 is a primary inflammatory response factor associated with bone diseases. In this study, we stimulated BMSCs with IL-6 to investigate a novel mechanism of age-related osteoporosis. IL-6 activated the TLR2, TLR4 and AKT pathway as well as inhibited the expression of β-catenin and Setd7. In addition, Setd7 expression in the bone tissues of aged mice was suppressed. Setd7 not only promoted BMSC osteogenic differentiation but also mediated proinflammatory gene expression in BMSCs under IL-6 stimulation. Due to its dual functions in BMSCs, Setd7 may be a novel molecular target for age-related osteoporosis prevention and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2021.151718DOI Listing
May 2021

Brain dysfunction of methamphetamine-associated psychosis in resting state: Approaching schizophrenia and critical role of right superior temporal deficit.

Addict Biol 2021 May 6:e13044. Epub 2021 May 6.

Shenzhen Mental Health Center, Shenzhen Kangning Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Methamphetamine (MA)-associated psychosis (MAP) is highly debilitating and common among individuals who use the drug, yet the underlying neural mechanism is not clear. This study compared brain functions between patients with MAP and those with schizophrenia during resting state and investigated the effect of brain alteration on the association between MA use and psychosis in patients with MAP. Three groups, including 24 patients with MAP, 17 with schizophrenia in first-episode (SCZ) and 31 healthy controls (HCs), were included after receiving a resting-state functional MRI scan. The severity of psychosis was assessed with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Imaging data were analysed using regional homogeneity (ReHo) to measure individual's brain function. Compared with the HC subjects, the MAP and SCZ groups had significantly lower ReHo in the cortical regions including left postcentral cortex, right superior temporal gyrus and right rolandic operculum, while had higher ReHo in the left putamen, with brain dysfunctions being more pronounced in the SCZ group. Among the MAP subjects, a mediating effect of ReHo in the right superior temporal gyrus was found on the association between MA use frequency and PANSS positive score. MAP and schizophrenia had a common trend of brain alteration, with the dysfunction being more pronounced in schizophrenia. This finding implicated that MAP might be a condition with neuropathology approaching schizophrenia. The observed critical role of right superior temporal deficit between MA use and psychosis proposed a potential target for interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.13044DOI Listing
May 2021

First-line liposomal irinotecan with oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (NALIRIFOX) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A phase I/II study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 3;151:14-24. Epub 2021 May 3.

St John of God Subiaco Hospital, Subiaco, WA, Australia.

Background: This open-label, phase I/II study evaluated safety and efficacy for first-line liposomal irinotecan + oxaliplatin + 5-fluorouracil + leucovorin (NALIRIFOX).

Methods: Patients (aged ≥18 years) had locally advanced/metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC), with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0/1 and adequate organ function. Primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate safety and tolerability. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were graded using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03. Efficacy end-points included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS); disease assessments used Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1.

Results: The MTD (liposomal irinotecan 50 mg/m [free-base equivalent], oxaliplatin 60 mg/m, 5-fluorouracil 2400 mg/m, leucovorin 400 mg/m every 2 weeks) was based on dose-limiting toxicities and cumulative safety data in four dose-exploration cohorts. The MTD was received by 32 of 56 patients, seven during dose exploration and 25 during dose expansion (median age 58.0 years [range, 39-76], 28 [87.5%] with metastatic disease at diagnosis [29 at study entry], and one receiving study treatment at data cutoff [26 February 2020]). Of these patients, 22 of 32 had grade ≥3 treatment-related TEAEs, most commonly neutropenia (31.3%), febrile neutropenia (12.5%) and hypokalaemia (12.5%); ten had serious treatment-related TEAEs; and three died from TEAEs considered unrelated to treatment. Median PFS and OS were 9.2 (95% CI: 7.69-11.96) and 12.6 (8.74-18.69) months, respectively.

Conclusion: First-line NALIRIFOX for patients with locally advanced/mPDAC was generally manageable and tolerable. A randomised, controlled phase III study is underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.03.028DOI Listing
May 2021

Pulsed electric field assisted process for extraction of bioactive compounds from custard apple (Annona squamosa) leaves.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 28;359:129976. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

International Center of Excellence in Seafood Science and Innovation, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand. Electronic address:

Impact of pulsed electric field (PEF) assisted process on preparation of custard apple leaf extract (CALE) using ethanol (70%, v/v) was studied. Different electric field strengths (2-6 kV/cm), pulse numbers (100-300 pulses) with specific energies (45-142 kJ/kg) for 2.5 to 5 min were implemented. Cell disintegration index was higher in CALE when PEF 6 kV/cm, 300 pulses, 142 kJ/kg for 5 min was applied. Extraction yield was higher (+5.2%) than the untreated counterpart (13.28%). Chlorophyll A and B contents were negligible in PEF pre-treated CALE. PEF improved radical scavenging activities assessed by DPPH, ABTS radical scavening activities and FRAP. The antibacterial properties of CALE against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were highest. Purpureacin 2 and rutin were abundant in PEF pre-treated CALE. Therefore PEF was the potential aid in augmenting extraction yield and bioactivities of the extract from custard apple leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129976DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of porosity on drug release kinetics of swellable and erodible porous pharmaceutical solid dosage forms fabricated by hot melt droplet deposition 3D printing.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 3:120626. Epub 2021 May 3.

School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

3D printing has the unique ability to produce porous pharmaceutical solid dosage forms on-demand. Although using porosity to alter drug release kinetics has been proposed in the literature, the effects of porosity on the swellable and erodible porous solid dosage forms have not been explored. This study used a model formulation containing hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), polyethylene oxide (PEO) and paracetamol and a newly developed hot melt droplet deposition 3D printing method, Arburg plastic free-forming (APF), to examine the porosity effects on in vitro drug release. This is the first study reporting the use of APF on 3D printing porous pharmaceutical tablets. With the unique pellet feeding mechanism of APF, it is important to explore its potential applications in pharmaceutical additive manufacturing. The pores were created by altering the infill percentages (%) of the APF printing between 20 and 100% to generate porous tablets. The printing quality of these porous tablets was examined. The APF printed formulation swelled in pH 1.2 HCl and eroded in pH 6.8 PBS. During the dissolution at pH 1.2, the swelling of the printing pathway led to the gradual decreases in the open pore area and complete closure of pores for the tablets with high infills. In pH 6.8 buffer media, the direct correlation between drug release rate and infills was observed for the tablets printed with infill at and less than 60%. The results revealed that drug release kinetics were controlled by the complex interplay of the porosity and dynamic changes of the tablets caused by swelling and erosion. It also implied the potential impact of fluid hydrodynamics on the in vitro data collection and interpretation of porous solids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120626DOI Listing
May 2021

Visible-Light-Induced Meerwein Fluoroarylation of Styrenes.

Org Lett 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Technical Institute of Fluorochemistry (TIF), Institute of Advanced Synthesis, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing 211816, P. R. China.

An unprecedented approach for assembling a broad range of 1,2-diarylethane derivatives with fluorine-containing fully substituted carbon centers was developed. The protocol features straightforward operation, proceeds under metal-free condition, and accommodates a large variety of synthetically useful functionalities. The critical aspect to the success of this novel transformation lies in using aryldiazonium salts as both aryl radical progenitor and also as single electron acceptor which elegantly enables a radical-polar crossover manifold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01249DOI Listing
May 2021

Indium metal-organic frameworks based on pyridylcarboxylate ligands and their potential applications.

Dalton Trans 2021 May;50(17):5713-5723

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, P. R. China.

Indium metal-organic frameworks (In-MOFs) based on pyridylcarboxylate ligands represent a subclass of MOFs featuring diverse structures, a high stability, and various properties. This review discusses the different aspects of In-MOFs including their design, synthesis and structures as well as their typical potential applications in adsorption and separation, catalysis, and chemical sensors. Importantly, the effect of pyridine on the properties and stability of frameworks has been carefully studied. The introduction of a pyridine group not only significantly enriches clusters of In3+ ions, but also enables flexible, controllably synthesized ionic or neutral frameworks to be fabricated. Based on this, we suggest that this type of In-metal organic framework (MOF) should receive more attention in the field of MOF design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00504aDOI Listing
May 2021

Characterization of common breast MRI abnormalities: comparison between abbreviated and full MRI protocols.

Clin Imaging 2021 Apr 29;79:125-132. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, 234 Goodman Street ML 0772, Cincinnati, OH 45219-0772, United States of America. Electronic address:

Rationale And Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of abbreviated MRI (AB-MRI) in comparison to a full protocol MRI (FP-MRI) when evaluating common MRI abnormalities of a mass, non-mass enhancement and focus.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective reader study was Institutional Review Board approved and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant. AB-MRIs were reviewed from May 2018-December 2019 to identify women with an abnormal AB-MRI, FP-MRI within six months of the AB-MRI and an elevated risk for breast cancer. Six breast radiologists initially interpreted and recorded findings from the AB-MRI. Immediately after reviewing the AB-MRI, the same radiologists interpreted and recorded findings from the FP-MRI. Findings were recorded in an electronic data collection form. Cohen's Kappa test was used to calculate agreement. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Of 119 patients who had an AB-MRI, our final study comprised of 32 patients who had 64 breast MRIs (32 AB-MRI and 32 FP-MRI). The amount of fibroglandular tissue for AB-MRI and FP-MRI showed excellent intra-reader agreement [Kappa: 0.89-1.00 (P < 0.0001)]. Substantial to excellent intra-reader agreement [Kappa: 0.74-0.93 (P < 0.0001)] was demonstrated for all 6 readers when identifying abnormalities seen on AB-MRI and FP-MRI. Moderate to excellent intra-reader agreement [Kappa: 0.41-0.87(P < 0.0001)] was demonstrated between the AB-MRI and FP-MRI for the final BI-RADS assessment.

Conclusion: AB-MRI has acceptable intra-reader agreement with FP-MRI when characterizing common MRI abnormalities such as a mass, non-mass enhancement and focus suggesting that subsequent FP-MRI may not be needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.04.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Protein Loop Conformational Free Energy Changes via an Alchemical Path without Reaction Coordinates.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 3:4368-4377. Epub 2021 May 3.

Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology and Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, United States.

We introduce a method called restrain-free energy perturbation-release 2.0 (R-FEP-R 2.0) to estimate conformational free energy changes of protein loops via an alchemical path. R-FEP-R 2.0 is a generalization of the method called restrain-free energy perturbation-release (R-FEP-R) that can only estimate conformational free energy changes of protein side chains but not loops. The reorganization of protein loops is a central feature of many biological processes. Unlike other advanced sampling algorithms such as umbrella sampling and metadynamics, R-FEP-R and R-FEP-R 2.0 do not require predetermined collective coordinates and transition pathways that connect the two endpoint conformational states. The R-FEP-R 2.0 method was applied to estimate the conformational free energy change of a β-turn flip in the protein ubiquitin. The result obtained by R-FEP-R 2.0 agrees with the benchmarks very well. We also comment on problems commonly encountered when applying umbrella sampling to calculate protein conformational free energy changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00778DOI Listing
May 2021

Comprehensive Metabolomics Identified the Prominent Role of Glycerophospholipid Metabolism in Coronary Artery Disease Progression.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 14;8:632950. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

Coronary stenosis severity determines ischemic symptoms and adverse outcomes. The metabolomic analysis of human fluids can provide an insight into the pathogenesis of complex disease. Thus, this study aims to investigate the metabolomic and lipidomic biomarkers of coronary artery disease (CAD) severity and to develop diagnostic models for distinguishing individuals at an increased risk of atherosclerotic burden and plaque instability. Widely targeted metabolomic and lipidomic analyses of plasma in 1,435 CAD patients from three independent centers were performed. These patients were classified as stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), unstable angina (UA), and myocardial infarction (MI). Associations between CAD stages and metabolic conditions were assessed by multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. Furthermore, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic-based classifiers were used to identify biomarkers and to develop prediagnostic models for discriminating the diverse CAD stages. On the basis of weighted correlation network analysis, 10 co-clustering metabolite modules significantly ( < 0.05) changed at different CAD stages and showed apparent correlation with CAD severity indicators. Moreover, cross-comparisons within CAD patients characterized that a total of 72 and 88 metabolites/lipid species significantly associated with UA (vs. SCAD) and MI (vs. UA), respectively. The disturbed pathways included glycerophospholipid metabolism, and cysteine and methionine metabolism. Furthermore, models incorporating metabolic and lipidomic profiles with traditional risk factors were constructed. The combined model that incorporated 11 metabolites/lipid species and four traditional risk factors represented better discrimination of UA and MI (C-statistic = 0.823, 95% CI, 0.783-0.863) compared with the model involving risk factors alone (C-statistic = 0.758, 95% CI, 0.712-0.810). The combined model was successfully used in discriminating UA and MI patients ( < 0.001) in a three-center validation cohort. Differences in metabolic profiles of diverse CAD subtypes provided a new approach for the risk stratification of unstable plaque and the pathogenesis decipherment of CAD progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.632950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080796PMC
April 2021

Comparison of Clinical Features and CT Temporal Changes Between Familial Clusters and Non-familial Patients With COVID-19 Pneumonia.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 15;8:630802. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and chest computed tomography (CT) findings of familial cluster (FC) and non-familial (NF) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. This retrospective study included 178 symptomatic adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. The 178 patients were divided into FC ( = 108) and NF ( = 70) groups. Patients with at least two confirmed COVID-19 cases in their household were classified into the FC group. The clinical and laboratory features between the two groups were compared and so were the chest CT findings on-admission and end-hospitalization. Compared with the NF group, the FC group had a longer period of exposure (13.1 vs. 8.9 days, < 0.001), viral shedding (21.5 vs. 15.9 days, < 0.001), and hospital stay (39.2 vs. 22.2 days, < 0.001). The FC group showed a higher number of involved lung lobes on admission (3.0 vs. 2.3, = 0.017) and at end-hospitalization (3.6 vs. 1.7, < 0.001) as well as higher sum severity CT scores at end-hospitalization (4.6 vs. 2.7, = 0.005) than did the NF group. Conversely, the FC group had a lower lymphocyte count level ( < 0.001) and a significantly lower difference in the number of involved lung lobes (Δnumber) between admission and discharge ( < 0.001). Notably, more cases of severe or critical illness were observed in the FC group than in the NF group ( = 0.036). Patients in the FC group had a worse clinical course and outcome than those in the NF group; thus, close monitoring during treatment and follow-ups after discharge would be beneficial for patients with familial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.630802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081848PMC
April 2021

Predictors of Clinical Outcomes in Pediatric Appendicitis: Role of the Individual Sonographer and Radiologist When Using a First-Line Ultrasound Approach.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Objective: To determine if differences between individual sonographers and radiologists performing and interpreting appendix ultrasound affect clinically important outcomes in children with suspected acute appendicitis.

Methods: Patients less than 18 years of age who presented to our emergency department with suspected acute appendicitis and underwent an appendix ultrasound were identified. Sonographers who performed fewer than 100 examinations and radiologists who interpreted fewer than 100 examinations during the study period were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the effect of sonographer, radiologist, clinical variables, and system factors on key clinical outcomes, including hospital admission and appendectomy.

Results: In all, 9,283 appendix ultrasounds (mean age, 9.9 ± 4.2 years; 5,400 [58.2%] boys) performed by 31 sonographers (mean number of examinations, 299 ± 140 [range, 115-610]) and interpreted by 31 radiologists (mean number of examinations, 299 ± 157 [range, 101-845]) were included. Mean admission frequency per sonographer was 34.0% ± 3.3% (range, 27.8%-42.6%) and per radiologist was 33.5% ± 3.9% (range, 23.7%-41.6%). Mean appendectomy frequency per sonographer was 20.3% ± 2.6% (range, 14.9%-27.0%) and per radiologist was 20.3% ± 3.1% (range, 15.2%-28.7%). Significant multivariable predictors of hospital admission included temperature (P < .0001), white blood cell count (P < .0001), male gender (P = .002), imaging performed at the main hospital (versus satellite hospital) (P = .001), abdominal tenderness with ultrasound transducer compression (P < .0001), presence of rebound tenderness (P = .001), and presence of acute appendicitis by ultrasound (P < .0001), but not sonographer or radiologist. Predictors of appendectomy included weight (P < .0001), white blood cell count (P < .0001), male gender (P = .0004), abdominal tenderness with ultrasound transducer compression (P < .0001), and the presence of acute appendicitis by ultrasound (P < .0001), but not sonographer or radiologist.

Conclusion: Differences in individual sonographers and radiologists did not predict clinically important outcomes in children undergoing ultrasound in the ED for suspected acute appendicitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2021.03.026DOI Listing
April 2021

Utilization of Ogura CMS germplasm with the clubroot resistance gene by fertility restoration and cytoplasm replacement in Brassica oleracea L.

Hortic Res 2020 May 1;7(1):61. Epub 2020 May 1.

Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, #12 Zhong Guan Cun Nandajie Street, Beijing, 100081, China.

Clubroot disease, a major plant root disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, has become one of the most destructive diseases among cultivated cruciferous vegetables. However, clubroot-resistant Brassica oleracea materials are rare. A few clubroot-resistant cabbage varieties are available on the market, but all are Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) types. Therefore, in this study, to reutilize the clubroot-resistant Ogura CMS germplasm of cabbage, a new fertility-restored Ogura CMS material, 16Q2-11, was used as a bridge to transfer the clubroot resistance (CR) gene from the Ogura CMS cytoplasm to the normal cytoplasm by a two-step method (a fertility restoration and cytoplasm replacement method). In the first cross for fertility restoration of Ogura CMS clubroot-resistant cabbage (FRCRC), 16Q2-11 was used as a restorer to cross with Ogura CMS materials containing the CR gene CRb2. Eleven Rfo-positive progenies were generated, of which four contained CRb2: F8-514, F8-620, F8-732 and F8-839. After inoculation with race 4 of P. brassicae, these four CRb2-positive individuals showed resistance. Furthermore, F8-514 and F8-839 were then used as male parents in the second cross of FRCRC to cross with cabbage inbred lines, resulting in the successful introgression of the CRb2 gene into the inbred lines. All offspring produced from this step of cross, which had a normal cytoplasm, showed a high resistance to race 4 of P. brassicae and could be utilized for the breeding of clubroot-resistant cabbage varieties in the future. This is the first time that the Ogura CMS restorer has been used to restore the fertility of Ogura CMS clubroot-resistant cabbages, which could improve germplasm diversity in cabbage and provide a reference method for using CMS germplasm in Brassica crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0282-8DOI Listing
May 2020

DOTFL1 affects the floral transition in orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, 117543, Singapore.

A major obstacle for orchid (Orchidaceae)breeding and production is a long juvenile phase before orchid reproductive development. The molecular basis for prolonged vegetative growth in orchids remains largely unclear despite many efforts to clarify the relevant mechanisms. In this study, we report functional characterization of Dendrobium Orchid TERMINAL FLOWER1 (DOTFL1), an ortholog of TFL1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), from the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. DOTFL1 is highly expressed in pseudobulbs and the shoot apical meristem (SAM) before and during the floral transition, but is downregulated in inflorescence apices and open flowers. Ectopic expression of DOTFL1 rescues the early-flowering and terminal-flower phenotypes of tfl1-20 in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of DOTFL1 in Dendrobium orchids delays flowering and produces defective inflorescence meristems and flowers with vegetative traits, whereas knockdown of DOTFL1 accelerates flowering and perturbs the maintenance of the inflorescence meristem. Notably, DOTFL1 suppresses orchid flowering and associated pseudobulb formation during the floral transition. We further reveal that two orchid MADS-box transcription factors, Dendrobium Orchid SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (DOSOC1) and AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 (DOAGL24), could interact with each other and bind to the CArG-box motif at DOTFL1, implying a regulatory hierarchy similar to their counterparts in Arabidopsis. Taken together, our findings suggest that DOTFL1 promotes vegetative growth, modulates successive developmental events required for reproductive success in Dendrobium orchids, and may have evolved with a previously unknown role in controlling pseudobulb formation in the Orchidaceae family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiab200DOI Listing
April 2021

Reduced Retinal Microvascular Perfusion in Patients With Stroke Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 13;13:628336. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Guangdong Eye Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Currently there is a shortage of biomarkers for stroke, one of the leading causes of death and disability in aging populations. Retinal vessels offer a unique and accessible "window" to study the microvasculature . However, the relationship between the retinal microvasculature and stroke is not entirely clear. To investigate the retinal microvascular characteristics in stroke, we recruited patients with stroke and age-matched control subjects from a tertiary hospital in China. The macular vessel density (VD) in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) metrics, and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) measured optic disc VD were recorded for analysis. A total of 189 patients with stroke and 195 control subjects were included. After adjusting for sex, visual acuity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, a history of smoking, levels of hemoglobulin (HbA1c), cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the macular VD of SCP and DCP in all sectors was decreased in patients with stroke. In the stroke group, the VD around the FAZ and the VD of the optic disk were lower. Logistic regression found the parafovea-superior-hemi VD of DCP > 54.53% [odds ratio (OR): 0.169] as a protective factor of stroke. Using the integration of all OCTA parameters and traditional risk factors, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve of distinguishing patients with stroke was 0.962, with a sensitivity of 0.944 and a specificity of 0.871. Our study demonstrates that the retinal VD is decreased in patients with stroke independently of the traditional risk factors of stroke, which may shed light on the monitoring of stroke using the retinal microvascular parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.628336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078175PMC
April 2021

MYC2 Transcription Factors TwMYC2a and TwMYC2b Negatively Regulate Triptolide Biosynthesis in Hairy Roots.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Triptolide, an important bioactive diterpenoid extracted from the plant , exhibits many pharmacological activities. MYC2 transcription factor (TF) plays an important role in the regulation of various secondary metabolites in plants. However, whether MYC2 TF could regulate the biosynthesis of triptolide in is still unknown. In this study, two homologous MYC2 TF genes, and , were isolated from hairy roots and functionally characterized. The analyses of the phylogenetic tree and subcellular localization showed that they were grouped into the IIIe clade of the bHLH superfamily with other functional MYC2 proteins and localized in the nucleus. Furthermore, yeast one-hybrid and GUS transactivation assays suggested that TwMYC2a and TwMYC2b inhibited the promoter activity of the miltiradiene synthase genes, and , by binding to the E-box (CACATG) and T/G-box (CACGTT) motifs in their promoters. Transgenic results revealed that RNA interference of significantly enhanced the triptolide accumulation in hairy roots and liquid medium by upregulating the expression of several key biosynthetic genes, including (), (), , and . In summary, our findings show that TwMYC2a and TwMYC2b act as two negative regulators of triptolide biosynthesis in hairy roots and also provide new insights on metabolic engineering of triptolide in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10040679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067133PMC
April 2021

Efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma in treating patients with burn wounds: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(17):e25650

Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, General Hospital of Southern Theater Command, PLA, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: Burns are still regarded among severe health problems related to high morbidity and mortality rates globally. In essence, health problems associated with burns can cause significant economic burden to society. Regardless of treatment available options, no best treatment was considered adequate for treating severe burns. In particular, only a few studies have focused on the effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma to treat burn wounds. The present study aim to systematically review existing literature to examine the effectiveness and safety of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to treat burn wounds.

Methods: For this study, we will conduct a systematic search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, as well as Scopus to discover randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for the examination of effectiveness and safety of autologous PRP to treat burn wounds from their inception to March 2021 with no language restrictions. Additionally, we will search Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, as well as the reference lists of studies considered in the research to ascertain possibly eligible studies. We used two independent authors to evaluate studies for inclusion and conduct data extraction. We intend to assess study bias and quality utilizing the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias Tool 2.0. Also, we will pool study results using the fixed-effects model or random-effects model. Finally, any disagreements emanating from the process will be addressed through discussion or using a third author to mediate situations leading to disagreement.

Results: The study aims at assessing the effectiveness and safety of autologous PRP for treating burn wounds.

Conclusion: The study will provide specific substantiation to assess autologous PRP's effectiveness and safety in treating patients with burn wounds.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study does not require ethical approval since no published studies are used in it.

Osf Registration Number: March 29, 2021.osf.io/74z5u. (https://osf.io/74z5u/).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084026PMC
April 2021

Protein profiling identified mitochondrial dysfunction and synaptic abnormalities after dexamethasone intervention in rats with traumatic brain injury.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Dec;16(12):2438-2445

Department of Neurotrauma, Beijing Key Laboratory of Central Nervous System Injury, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute; Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University; Center for Nerve Injury and Repair, Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders; China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China.

Dexamethasone has been widely used after various neurosurgical procedures due to its anti-inflammatory property and the abilities to restore vascular permeability, inhibit free radicals, and reduce cerebrospinal fluid production. According to the latest guidelines for the treatment of traumatic brain injury in the United States, high-dose glucocorticoids cause neurological damage. To investigate the reason why high-dose glucocorticoids after traumatic brain injury exhibit harmful effect, rat controlled cortical impact models of traumatic brain injury were established. At 1 hour and 2 days after surgery, rat models were intraperitoneally administered dexamethasone 10 mg/kg. The results revealed that 31 proteins were significantly upregulated and 12 proteins were significantly downregulated in rat models of traumatic brain injury after dexamethasone treatment. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis results showed that differentially expressed proteins were enriched in the mitochondrial dysfunction pathway and synaptogenesis signaling pathway. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry results showed that Ndufv2, Maob and Gria3 expression and positive cell count in the dexamethasone-treated group were significantly greater than those in the model group. These findings suggest that dexamethasone may promote a compensatory increase in complex I subunits (Ndufs2 and Ndufv2), increase the expression of mitochondrial enzyme Maob, and upregulate synaptic-transmission-related protein Gria3. These changes may be caused by nerve injury after traumatic brain injury treatment by dexamethasone. The study was approved by Institutional Ethics Committee of Beijing Neurosurgical Institute (approval No. 201802001) on June 6, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.313047DOI Listing
December 2021

Effect of ligustrazine nanoparticles on Th1/Th2 balance by TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway in rats with postoperative peritoneal adhesion.

BMC Surg 2021 Apr 26;21(1):211. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Center of TCM External Medication Researching and Industrializing, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Background: Postoperative peritoneal adhesion (PPA) is regarded as fibrous bands connecting both injured abdominal wall and organs or adjacent tissues. It is associated with T helper (Th)1 and Th2 differentiation. However, the critical role of the immunopathogenesis of adhesion formation was precisely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a new agent polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles loaded with ligustrazine, that is, ligustrazine nanoparticles (LN) on PPA and identify the potential mechanism.

Methods: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham, model, LN, and sodium hyaluronate (SH) groups. The structure of LN, including entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC), and in vitro drug release were calculated. Adhesions were scored and the Masson's trichrome staining was used to determine the collagen deposition. The expressions of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB were measured by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot assay. Moreover, Th1-related cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-12), Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-6) in the cecum tissue and serum were conducted by ELISA.

Results: LN had good EE, LC, and control-release delivery characters with fairly uniform diameter and spherical morphology. It could effectively prevent adhesion formation after surgery. Besides, it could reduce collagen fibers accumulation, downregulate the expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB, and maintain Th1/Th2 balance.

Conclusions: Ligustrazine nanoparticles had effective effects on Th1/Th2 balance by regulating TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway in PPA rats. It may be served as a promising therapy on postoperative adhesion formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-021-01201-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077798PMC
April 2021

Atomic-Scale Visualization and Quantification of Configurational Entropy in Relation to Thermal Conductivity: A Proof-of-Principle Study in -GeSbTe.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Apr 8;8(8):2002051. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

College of Physics and Center for Quantum Materials and Devices Institute of Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies Chongqing University Chongqing 401331 P. R. China.

It remains a daunting task to quantify the configurational entropy of a material from atom-revolved electron microscopy images and correlate the results with the material's lattice thermal conductivity, which strides across statics, dynamics, and thermal transport of crystal lattice over orders of magnitudes in length and time. Here, a proof-of-principle study of atomic-scale visualization and quantification of configurational entropy in relation to thermal conductivity in single crystalline trigonal GeSbTe (aka -GeSbTe) with native atomic site disorder is reported. A concerted effort of large -GeSbTe single crystal growth, in-lab developed analysis procedure of atomic column intensity, the visualization and quantification of configurational entropy including corresponding modulation, and thermal transport measurements enable an entropic "bottom-up" perspective to the lattice thermal conductivity of -GeSbTe. It is uncovered that the configurational entropy increases phonon scattering and reduces phonon mean free path as well as promotes anharmonicity, thereby giving rise to low lattice thermal conductivity and promising thermoelectric performance. The current study sheds lights on an atomic scale bottom-up configurational entropy design in diverse regimes of structural and functional materials research and applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061353PMC
April 2021