Publications by authors named "Bin Su"

403 Publications

Ferromagnetic Liquid Droplet on a Superhydrophobic Surface for the Transduction of Mechanical Energy to Electricity Based on Electromagnetic Induction.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, P.R. China.

Ferromagnetic liquids undergo reversible magnetization changes upon varying external magnetic field levels. The movement of ferromagnetic liquid droplets across a coil under an external magnetic field holds promise as an energy transducer from mechanical force to electricity; however, it suffers from an adhesive issue between the ferromagnetic liquid and the solid pedestal. We introduce a superhydrophobic support that uses antiwetting surfaces to remarkably reduce adhesion during the movement of ferromagnetic liquid droplets. Maxwell numerical simulation was utilized to analyze the working mechanism and improve further electrical outputs. By controlling the droplet size, the strength of the magnetic bottom and the tilting speed of the test condition, we generated a ferromagnetic liquid droplet-based superhydrophobic magnetoelectric energy transducer (FLD-SMET) that can convert vibrational energy to electricity. When a 100 μL ferromagnetic liquid droplet was used for FLD-SMET under a 13 mT magnetic field, an electrical voltage response of 280 μV and electrical current response of ∼7.5 μA were generated using a shaking machine with a tilting speed of 9.5°/s. We thus show that such a device can serve as a self-powered light buoy floating on a water surface. Our study presents an applied concept for the design of droplet-based energy harvesters to convert surrounding vibrational energy to electricity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c03539DOI Listing
June 2021

Facile, scalable, and adaptive infrared reflection towards soft systems by blowing a Janus rubber film.

iScience 2021 May 16;24(5):102430. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, P. R. China.

Controllable IR-reflection systems can be applied to displays, adaptive military camouflages, thermal managements, and many other fields. However, current reported controllable IR-reflection systems suffer from utilizing rigid materials, complicated devices, or high working temperature/voltage, which are not suitable for their widespread applications toward soft systems. Herein, inspired by cephalopods, we demonstrate a facile and scalable method for adaptive IR reflection based on a Janus rubber film, which is composed of aluminum-coated microsheets (AMSs)/rubber composite top and a rubber only bottom. Expansion of the Janus rubber film causes random arrangement of AMSs to stay planar, resulting in the change from IR scattering to concentrated IR reflection. By fixing the Janus rubber films upon the arranged tubes, as-prepared arrays could display complex and changeable patterns by selectively pumping tubes. Being facile and of general validity, our strategies broaden the scope of future controllable IR reflecting applications for environmental IR camouflages and displays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169794PMC
May 2021

Humoral immune response to circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants elicited by inactivated and RBD-subunit vaccines.

Cell Res 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

SARS-CoV-2 variants could induce immune escape by mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domain (NTD). Here we report the humoral immune response to circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as 501Y.V2 (B.1.351), of the plasma and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) elicited by CoronaVac (inactivated vaccine), ZF2001 (RBD-subunit vaccine) and natural infection. Among 86 potent NAbs identified by high-throughput single-cell VDJ sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vaccinees and convalescents, near half anti-RBD NAbs showed major neutralization reductions against the K417N/E484K/N501Y mutation combination, with E484K being the dominant cause. VH3-53/VH3-66 recurrent antibodies respond differently to RBD variants, and K417N compromises the majority of neutralizing activity through reduced polar contacts with complementarity determining regions. In contrast, the 242-244 deletion (242-244Δ) would abolish most neutralization activity of anti-NTD NAbs by interrupting the conformation of NTD antigenic supersite, indicating a much less diversity of anti-NTD NAbs than anti-RBD NAbs. Plasma of convalescents and CoronaVac vaccinees displayed comparable neutralization reductions against pseudo- and authentic 501Y.V2 variants, mainly caused by E484K/N501Y and 242-244Δ, with the effects being additive. Importantly, RBD-subunit vaccinees exhibit markedly higher tolerance to 501Y.V2 than convalescents, since the elicited anti-RBD NAbs display a high diversity and are unaffected by NTD mutations. Moreover, an extended gap between the third and second doses of ZF2001 leads to better neutralizing activity and tolerance to 501Y.V2 than the standard three-dose administration. Together, these results suggest that the deployment of RBD-vaccines, through a third-dose boost, may be ideal for combating SARS-CoV-2 variants when necessary, especially for those carrying mutations that disrupt the NTD supersite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00514-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138844PMC
May 2021

Pharmacokinetic study of an anti-trypanosome agent with different formulations and administration routes in mice by HPLC-MS/MS.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 May 12:e5169. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemistry, Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, College of Sciences and Health Professions, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Previously compound 12 showed great anti-trypanosome activity without toxicity in an in vivo study. In the current study, a sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to investigate its pharmacokinetics in mouse plasma. A protein precipitation method was applied to extract the compound, and it was then separated using a Kinetex C column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid water (50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 300 μl/min. The analytes were detected with the multiple reaction monitoring in negative electrospray ionization source for quantitative response of the compounds. Compound 12 was detected at m/z 477.0 → 367.2, while the internal standard compound 14 was detected at m/z 499.2 → 268.2. Inter- and intra-day precision was <5.22 and 2.79% respectively, while the accuracy range was within ±9.65%. The method was successfully applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of compound 12 in mouse plasma with two formulations (20% Cremophor EL or sesame oil) and drug administration routes (oral and intraperitoneal injection). We observed a better drug serum concentration with the Cremophor formulation, and the two different drug administration routes did not show significant differences from the drug distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5169DOI Listing
May 2021

The expression of mimecan in adrenal tissue plays a role in an organism's responses to stress.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 05 10;13(9):13087-13107. Epub 2021 May 10.

The Core Laboratory in Medical Center of Clinical Research, Department of Molecular Diagnostic and Endocrinology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiao tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

Mimecan encodes a secretory protein that is secreted into the human serum as two mature proteins with molecular masses of 25 and 12 kDa. We found 12-kDa mimecan to be a novel satiety hormone mediated by the upregulation of the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the hypothalamus. Mimecan was found to be expressed in human pituitary corticotroph cells and was up-regulated by glucocorticoids, while the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in pituitary corticotroph AtT-20 cells was induced by mimecan. However, the effects of mimecan in adrenal tissue on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functions remain unknown. We demonstrated that the expression of mimecan in adrenal tissues is significantly downregulated by hypoglycemia and scalded stress. It was down-regulated by ACTH, but upregulated by glucocorticoids through and studies. We further found that 12-kDa mimecan fused protein increased the corticosterone secretion of adrenal cells and . Interestingly, compared to litter-mate mice, the diurnal rhythm of corticosterone secretion was disrupted under basal conditions, and the response to restraint stress was stronger in mimecan knockout mice. These findings suggest that mimecan stimulates corticosterone secretion in the adrenal tissues under basal conditions; however, the down-regulated expression of mimecan by increased ACTH secretion after stress in adrenal tissues might play a role in maintaining the homeostasis of an organism's responses to stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148509PMC
May 2021

Association between medical male circumcision and HIV risk compensation among heterosexual men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Jul 30;9(7):e932-e941. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China; Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Medical male circumcision (MMC) reduces HIV infection among heterosexual men. There are concerns MMC might prompt higher-risk sexual behaviours because of lower self-perceived risk of HIV infection. We reviewed the published literature to examine associations between MMC and both condom use and number of sex partners among heterosexual men.

Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published before Nov 15, 2020. Interventional and observational studies were included if they contained original quantitative data describing the association between MMC and condom use or number of sex partners among heterosexual men. We excluded data from men whose circumcisions were ritual or religious and data from men who have sex with men. We extracted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the associations between MMC and condomless sex and MMC and multiple sex partners directly from the publications if available, selecting adjusted ORs when provided; when necessary, we calculated ORs and 95% CIs using original study data provided in the publication. We used the Mantel-Haenszel random effects model to calculate pooled ORs and 95% CIs.

Findings: Our search yielded 3035 results, of which 471 were duplicates and 2537 did not meet the inclusion criteria. From the remaining 27 eligible studies, we identified 99 292 men from 31 independent population samples. 24 studies were done in Africa. We found no statistically significant associations between MMC and condomless sex (OR 0·91, 95% CI 0·80-1·05; k=30; I=88·7%) or multiple sex partners (1·02, 0·88-1·18; k=27; I=90·1%). No associations between MMC and condomless sex or multiple sexual partners were found in any subgroup analyses by study design, income of country, age, recruitment setting, circumcision assessment, circumcision prevalence, and risk of publication bias.

Interpretation: The promotion of circumcision as an HIV preventive measure does not appear to increase higher-risk sexual behaviours in heterosexual men. Ongoing sexual health education should be maintained as a vital component of effective MMC programmes.

Funding: National Science and Technology Major Project of China, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission Basic Research Program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(21)00102-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Implantable platinum nanotree microelectrode with a battery-free electrochemical patch for peritoneal carcinomatosis monitoring.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Aug 22;185:113265. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Biosensor National Special Laboratory, Key Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of Education Ministry, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, PR China. Electronic address:

As a severe stage of cancers, peritoneal carcinomatosis should be frequently monitored by means of ascites analysis. Nevertheless, the analysis process is traumatic and time-consuming in clinical practice. In this study, an implantable platinum nanotree microelectrode with a wireless, battery-free and flexible electrochemical patch was developed for in vivo and real-time peritoneal glucose detection to monitor peritoneal carcinomatosis. As the core of implantable microelectrode, platinum trees were synthesized by one-step electrodeposition method and highly sensitive to glucose detection. The platinum nanotree microelectrode was implantable in peritoneal cavity in minimally invasive way. A flexible circuit patch could execute electrochemical test and realize wireless power harvesting and data interaction with a near field communication (NFC)-enabled smartphone. The whole system could detect glucose dynamics in vivo in rat peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, the accuracy of this system was validated in ascites of patients. In this way, the system could offer hassle-free, rapid and minimally invasive opportunities toward peritoneal carcinomatosis monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113265DOI Listing
August 2021

Construction and validation of an RNA-binding protein-associated prognostic model for colorectal cancer.

PeerJ 2021 5;9:e11219. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

The First Clinical Medical College, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent and fatal malignancies, and novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of CRC must be identified. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are essential modulators of transcription and translation. They are frequently dysregulated in various cancers and are related to tumorigenesis and development. The mechanisms by which RBPs regulate CRC progression are poorly understood and no clinical prognostic model using RBPs has been reported in CRC. We sought to identify the hub prognosis-related RBPs and to construct a prognostic model for clinical use. mRNA sequencing and clinical data for CRC were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). Gene expression profiles were analyzed to identify differentially expressed RBPs using R and Perl software. Hub RBPs were filtered out using univariate Cox and multivariate Cox regression analysis. We used functional enrichment analysis, including Gene Ontology and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, to perform the function and mechanisms of the identified RBPs. The nomogram predicted overall survival (OS). Calibration curves were used to evaluate the consistency between the predicted and actual survival rate, the consistency index (c-index) was calculated, and the prognostic effect of the model was evaluated. Finally, we identified 178 differently expressed RBPs, including 121 up-regulated and 57 down-regulated proteins. Our prognostic model was based on nine RBPs (PNLDC1, RRS1, HEXIM1, PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, BRCA1, CELF4, AEN and NOVA1). Survival analysis showed that patients in the high-risk subgroup had a worse OS than those in the low-risk subgroup. The area under the curve value of the receiver operating characteristic curve of the prognostic model is 0.712 in the TCGA cohort and 0.638 in the GEO cohort. These results show that the model has a moderate diagnostic ability. The c-index of the nomogram is 0.77 in the TCGA cohort and 0.73 in the GEO cohort. We showed that the risk score is an independent prognostic biomarker and that some RBPs may be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8029696PMC
April 2021

Ratiometric Fluorescent Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Point-of-Care Testing of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 5;60(23):13042-13049. Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014, PR China.

We report the development of a highly sensitive ratiometric fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay (RFLFIA) strip for rapid and accurate detection of acute myocardial infarction biomarker, namely heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP). The RFLFIA strip works in terms of ratiometric change of fluorescence signal, arising from blending of fluorescence emitted by two composite nanostructures conjugated to capture and probe antibodies and inner filter effect of gold nanoparticles. In conjunction with using custom smartphone-based analytical device and tonality analysis, quantitative detection of H-FABP was achieved with a low limit of detection at 0.21 ng mL . The RFLFIA strip can generate a visually distinguishable green-to-red color change around the threshold concentration of H-FABP (6.2 ng mL ), thus allowing the semi-quantitative diagnosis by the naked eye.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202103458DOI Listing
June 2021

Klotho overexpression suppresses apoptosis by regulating the Hsp70/Akt/Bad pathway in H9c2(2-1) cells.

Exp Ther Med 2021 May 16;21(5):486. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Characteristic Medical Center of Chinese People's Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162, P.R. China.

Early reperfusion is the most effective and important treatment for acute myocardial infarction. However, reperfusion therapy often leads to a certain degree of myocardial damage. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of klotho, and the molecular mechanism underlying its effects, in myocardial damage using a model of myocardial hypoxia injury. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) was used to mimic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury . The expression and distribution of klotho in H9c2(2-1) cells was observed by fluorogenic scanning, and the apoptotic rate was determined by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide dual staining. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay, and caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and Akt levels were assessed by western blotting. A lactate dehydrogenase test was performed to determine the degree of H9c2(2-1) cell damage. The results revealed that klotho was primarily located in the cytoplasm of H9c2(2-1) cells. Klotho overexpression markedly suppressed H/R-induced H9c2(2-1) cell apoptosis. Furthermore, cell viability increased, and injury decreased in response to klotho. Klotho also suppressed the activation of caspase-3, upregulated Bcl2 and decreased Bax levels following H/R injury, as well as alleviating H/R injury by upregulating the expression of Hsp70 and increasing the levels of phosphorylated (p-)Akt and Bad. In conclusion, these results indicate that klotho suppressed H/R-induced H9c2(2-1) cell apoptosis by regulating the levels of Hsp70, p-Akt and p-Bad, which suggest that klotho could be a novel agent for the treatment of coronary disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.9917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005687PMC
May 2021

Longitudinal Profiling of Antibody Response in Patients With COVID-19 in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Beijing, China.

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:614436. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

The novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which elicits a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from mild to severe, with the potential to lead to death. Although used as the standard method to screen patients for SARS-CoV-2 infection, real-time PCR has challenges in dealing with asymptomatic patients and those with an undetectable viral load. Serological tests are therefore considered potent diagnostic tools to complement real-time PCR-based diagnosis and are used for surveillance of seroprevalence in populations. However, the dynamics of the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 currently remain to be investigated. Here, through analysis of plasma samples from 84 patients with COVID-19, we observed that the response of virus-specific antibodies against three important antigens, RBD, N and S, dynamically changed over time and reached a peak 5-8 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The antibody responses were irrespective of sex. Severe cases were found to have higher levels of antibody response, larger numbers of inflammatory cells and C-reactive protein levels. Within the mild/moderate cases, pairwise comparison indicated moderate association between anti-RBD vs. anti-N, anti-RBD vs. anti-S1S2, and anti-N vs. anti-S1S2. Furthermore, the majority of cases could achieve IgM and IgG seroconversion at 2 weeks since the disease onset. Analysis of neutralizing antibodies indicated that these responses were able to last for more than 112 days but decline significantly after the peak. In summary, our findings demonstrate the longitudinally dynamic changes in antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2, which can contribute to the knowledge of humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection and are informative for future development of vaccine and antibody-based therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.614436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005580PMC
April 2021

Compressible and Stretchable Magnetoelectric Sensors Based on Liquid Metals for Highly Sensitive, Self-Powered Respiratory Monitoring.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 29;13(13):15727-15737. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, P. R. China.

Healthcare monitoring, especially for respiration, has attracted tremendous attention from academics considering the great significance of health information feedback. The respiratory rate, as a critical health indicator, has been used to screen and evaluate potential illness risks in early medical diagnoses. A self-powered sensing system for medical monitoring is critical and imperative due to needless battery replacement and simple assembly. However, the development of a self-powered respiratory sensor with highly sensitive performance is still a daunting challenge. In this work, a compressible and stretchable magnetoelectric sensor (CSMS) with an arch-shaped air gap is reported, enabling self-powered respiratory monitoring driven by exhaled/inhaled breath. The CSMS contains two key functional materials: liquid metals and magnetic powders both with low Young's modulus, allowing for sensing compressibility and stretchability simultaneously. More importantly, such a magnetoelectric sensor exhibits mechanoelectrical converting capacity under an external force, which has been verified by Maxwell numerical simulation. Owing to the air-layer introduction, the magnetoelectric sensors achieve high sensitivity (up to 17.73 kPa), fast response, and long-term stability. The highly sensitive and self-powered magnetoelectric sensor can be further applied as a noninvasive, miniaturized, and portable respiratory monitoring system with the aim of warning for potential health risks. We anticipate that this technique will create an avenue for self-powered respiratory monitoring fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04457DOI Listing
April 2021

Peripheral Blood Genetic Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 11;11:583714. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Immunology, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and has high mortality. Biomarkers related to HCC, such as alpha-fetoprotein, and imaging technology, such as ultrasound and computed tomography, have been used to screen and monitor HCC, but HCC is still difficult to diagnose effectively in the early stage due to the low sensitivity of the above mentioned traditional methods. There is an urgent need for noninvasive biomarkers to facilitate the screening and early diagnosis of HCC. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing, genetic biomarkers are becoming the core of cancer diagnosis. Genetic biomarkers such as peripheral blood circulating tumor DNA, microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, circular RNAs, and exosomes have become the focus of early HCC diagnostics. HCC genetic biomarkers have been implemented in clinical practice. In this review, we describe the available literature on peripheral blood genetic biomarkers in the diagnosis of early HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.583714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991745PMC
March 2021

Interference-free Detection of Caffeine in Complex Matrices Using a Nanochannel Electrode Modified with Binary Hydrophilic-Hydrophobic PDMS.

ACS Sens 2021 04 22;6(4):1604-1612. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Processing, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

In the present study, a novel electrochemical sensor for the direct detection of caffeine in the crude sample has been prepared by plasma-triggered polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deposition on the indium tin oxide electrodes supported with silica nanochannels. The deposited PDMS contains both the original hydrophobic and oxidized hydrophilic PDMS oligomers. Nanochannels modified with these two kinds of PDMS with opposite wettability only allow the passage of small amphiphilic molecules such as caffeine, while other molecules including hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and large ones were all rejected. With the excellent shielding properties, the modified nanochannel electrode exhibits excellent anti-interference and antifouling capability, which could be directly used for the detection of caffeine in real crude food such as tea, milk, coffee, and coke without sample pretreatments. Moreover, the modified electrode has good repeatability and stability. In contrast, severe interference was observed when conventional electrodes were used directly in these unprocessed samples. The linear ranges of caffeine were determined to be between 50 nmol/L and 700 μmol/L, with a limit of detection of 20 nmol/L. The developed sensor provides a very simple, rapid, and cost-effective way for the interference-free and fouling-free analysis of specific amphiphilic compounds and can be extended to a wide range of applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.1c00004DOI Listing
April 2021

Analysis of the Characteristics of TIGIT-Expressing CD3CD56NK Cells in Controlling Different Stages of HIV-1 Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:602492. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Immunology, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

TIGIT expression on natural killer (NK) cells is associated with dysfunction during chronic HIV infection, but the phenotype and biological functions of these cells in the context of acute HIV-1 infection remain poorly understood. Here, 19 acutely infected HIV-1 patients traced at first, third and twelfth month, and age-matched patients with chronic HIV-1 infection were enrolled to investigate the phenotype and functions of TIGIT expression on NK cells. We found that TIGIT-expressing NK cells did not increase in frequency in the first, third and twelfth month of infection until chronic HIV-1 infection lasted over 2 years. The number of TIGITNK cells in acute infection was positively associated with HIV-1 viral load ( = 0.53, = 0.0009). CD96 was significantly upregulated on NK cells after acute infection for 1 month and in chronic infection over 2 years, while CD226 was downregulated in chronic infection over 2 years. Further, at different stages of infection, CD96CD226 cells diminished among total NK cells, TIGITNK and TIGITNK cells, while CD96CD226 cells expanded. Reduced CD96CD226 cells and elevated CD96CD226 cells among NK cells especially TIGITNK cells, had opposite associations with viral load in the first month of infection, as well as CD4 T-cell counts in including the twelfth month and more than 2 years of chronic infection. In both HIV-1-infected individuals and healthy donors, TIGIT was predominantly expressed in NKG2ANKG2CNK cells, with a significantly higher proportion than in NKG2ANKG2CNK cells. Moreover, the frequencies of TIGITNK cells were positively associated with the frequencies of NKG2ANKG2CNK cells in acute infection ( = 0.62, < 0.0001), chronic infection ( = 0.37, = 0.023) and healthy donors ( = 0.36, = 0.020). Enhanced early activation and coexpression of CD38 and HLA-DR in TIGITNK cells were detected compared to TIGITNK cells, both of which were inversely associated with the decrease in CD4 T-cell counts in both acute and chronic HIV-1 infection. The ability of TIGITNK cells to produce TNF-α, IFN-γ and CD107a degranulation substance were consistently weaker than that of TIGITNK cells in both acute and chronic infection. Moreover, the functionalities of TIGITNK cells were lower than those of TIGITNK cells, except for TNF-αCD107aIFN-γNK cells. These findings highlight the phenotype and functional characteristics of TIGIT-expressing NK cells which have poor capabilities in inhibiting HIV-1 replication and maintaining CD4 T-cell counts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.602492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953050PMC
February 2021

Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events During 12 Months of Treatment With Efavirenz in Treatment-Naïve HIV-Infected Patients in China: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 24;12:579448. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Efavirenz (EFV) is widely used in antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the incidence and risk factors of neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPAEs) after EFV treatment have rarely been studied in Chinese ART naïve patients. This prospective cohort study assessed HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral treatment with EFV to determine prevalence of and factors associated with NPAEs over a 12-month follow-up period using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A total of 546 patients were enrolled. Prevalence of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances at baseline were 30.4, 22.7, and 68.1%, respectively. Six patients discontinued treatment due to drug related NPAEs. Treatment was associated with improvements in HADS-A, HADS-D, and PSQI scores over the 12-month follow-up, and the frequencies of patients with anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances significantly decreased after 12 months. Abnormal baseline HADS-A, HADS-D, and PSQI scores and other factors, including high school education or lower income, unemployment, divorce, and WHO III/IV stages, were associated with severe neuropsychiatric disorders over the 12 months. These findings suggested EFV discontinuation due to NAPEs was low, and the HADS-A, HADS-D, and PSQI scores after 12 months of EFV treatment were associated with several risk factors. The clinicians should keep in mind and routinely screen for the risk factors associated with neuropsychiatric disorders in HIV-infected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.579448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943719PMC
February 2021

Spatially Selective Imaging of Cell-Matrix and Cell-Cell Junctions by Electrochemiluminescence.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 16;60(21):11769-11773. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Cell junctions are protein structures located at specific cell membrane domains that determine key processes in multicellular development. Here we report spatially selective imaging of cell junctions by electrochemiluminescence (ECL) microscopy. By regulating the concentrations of luminophore and/or co-reactant, the thickness of ECL layer can be controlled to match with the spatial location of different cell junctions. At a low concentration of luminophore, ECL generation is confined to the electrode surface, thus revealing only cell-matrix adhesions at the bottom of cells. While at a high concentration of luminophore, the ECL layer can be remarkably extended by decreasing the co-reactant concentration, thus allowing the sequential imaging of cell-matrix and cell-cell junctions at the bottom and near the apical surface of cells, respectively. This strategy not only provides new insights into the ECL mechanisms but also promises wide applications of ECL microscopy in bioimaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202101467DOI Listing
May 2021

Adjunct Therapy for CD4 T-Cell Recovery, Inflammation and Immune Activation in People Living With HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Immunol 2021 17;12:632119. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States.

HIV infection results in immune homeostasis perturbations, which is characterized by CD4 T-cell depletion, immune activation, and inflammation. Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) does not fully restore immunologic and clinical health in people living with HIV (PLWH). Various drugs have been used to improve their immune status and CD4 T-cell counts, but no measures have been tested effective. Here we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing clinical studies on improving CD4 T-cell count while decreasing inflammation and immune activation. We retrieved possible relevant publications from a total of five electronic databases and selected eligible studies, which dealt with outcomes of medical therapy for CD4 T-cell count recovery, inflammation, and immune activation with or without ART. We paid particular attention to immunologic non-responders with a favorable treatment regimen. Thirty-three articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. However, there were no safe and effective medications specific for improving CD4 T-cell reconstitution. The immunological benefits or adverse events mainly depend on the safety, dosage, and duration of the candidate medication use, as well as whether it is combined with ART. Under the "safe, combined, adequate and long (SCAL)" principles, alternative approaches are needed to accelerate the recovery of CD4 T-cells, and to prevent adverse long-term outcomes in PLWH with standard ART treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.632119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925844PMC
February 2021

COVID-19 immune features revealed by a large-scale single-cell transcriptome atlas.

Cell 2021 04 3;184(7):1895-1913.e19. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510120, China.

A dysfunctional immune response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is a recurrent theme impacting symptoms and mortality, yet a detailed understanding of pertinent immune cells is not complete. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing to 284 samples from 196 COVID-19 patients and controls and created a comprehensive immune landscape with 1.46 million cells. The large dataset enabled us to identify that different peripheral immune subtype changes are associated with distinct clinical features, including age, sex, severity, and disease stages of COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was found in diverse epithelial and immune cell types, accompanied by dramatic transcriptomic changes within virus-positive cells. Systemic upregulation of S100A8/A9, mainly by megakaryocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood, may contribute to the cytokine storms frequently observed in severe patients. Our data provide a rich resource for understanding the pathogenesis of and developing effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857060PMC
April 2021

Obesity-associated up-regulation of lipocalin 2 protects gastric mucosa cells from apoptotic cell death by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Cell Death Dis 2021 02 26;12(2):221. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200072, China.

Gastric mucosal injury is a less well known complication of obesity. Its mechanism remains to be further elucidated. Here, we explored the protective role of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) against endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell apoptosis in gastric mucosa in patients and mice with obesity. Through molecular and genetic analyses in clinical species, LCN2 secreted by parietal cells expression is elevated in obese. Immunofluorescence, TUNEL, and colorimetry results show that a more significant upregulation of pro-inflammatory factors and increased amount of apoptotic cells in gastric tissue sections in obese groups. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments in gastric epithelial cells demonstrate that increased LCN2 protected against obesity associated gastric injury by inhibiting apoptosis and improving inflammatory state. In addition, this protective effect was mediated by repressing ER stress. Our findings identify LCN2 as a gastric hormone could be a compensatory protective factor against gastric injury in obese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03512-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910621PMC
February 2021

Clinical Progress and Risk Factors for Death from Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome: A Multihospital Retrospective Investigation in Anhui, China.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

1Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hefei, China.

Knowledge of the clinical progress of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and the associated predictors of mortality is important for providing appropriate treatment in severe cases. A multihospital retrospective study was conducted in three SFTS-endemic cities, in 2018. Of the 208 SFTS-confirmed cases, there were 189 survivors and 19 deaths. The median age was 64 years; 104 (50.0%) patients were men, and 188 (90.4%) were farmers. Furthermore, 203 (97.6%) patients reported fever and 70 (33.7%) reported fatigue. Most fatal cases had complications including multiple-organ failure, central nervous syndrome (CNS) abnormalities, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. During the fever phase, alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, D-dimer, glucose, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), procalcitonin, prothrombin time, and uric acid levels were higher in fatal than in nonfatal cases (P < 0.05). Creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB (CKMB), AST, and LDH levels were significantly lower in nonfatal than in fatal cases (P < 0.05). Central nervous syndrome abnormalities (odds ratio [OR] = 20.9, 95% CI: 4.3, 100), body temperature ≥ 38.5°C (OR = 23.2, 95% CI: 3.4, 158), BUN levels ≥ 6.4 mmol/L (OR = 9.9, 95% CI: 2.2, 44), CKMB levels ≥ 100 U/L (OR = 33.2, 95% CI: 5.8, 192), and LDH levels ≥ 1,000 U/L (OR = 8.3, 95% CI: 1.9, 37) were predictors of mortality. Our findings reveal that the presence of specific complications and laboratory parameters may serve as predictors of mortality and aid in early identification of severe SFTS cases in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045620PMC
February 2021

Confined Electrochemiluminescence Generation at Ultra-High-Density Gold Microwell Electrodes.

Front Chem 2020 26;8:630246. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Chemistry, Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging analysis based on the ultra-high-density microwell electrode array (UMEA) has been successfully used in biosensing and diagnostics, while the studies of ECL generation mechanisms with spatial resolution remain scarce. Herein we fabricate a gold-coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) UMEA using electroless deposition method for the visualization of ECL reaction process at the single microwell level in conjunction with using microscopic ECL imaging technique, demonstrating that the microwell gold walls are indeed capable of enhancing the ECL generation. For the classical ECL system involving tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium (Ru(bpy)) and tri--propylamine (TPrA), the ECL image of a single microwell appears as a surface-confined ring, indicating the ECL intensity generated inside the well is much stronger than that on the top surface of UMEA. Moreover, at a low concentration of Ru(bpy), the ECL image remains to be ring-shaped with the increase of exposure time, because of the limited lifetime of TPrA radical cations TPrA. In combination with the theoretical simulation, the ring-shaped ECL image is resolved to originate from the superposition effect of the mass diffusion fields at both microwell wall and bottom surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.630246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870482PMC
January 2021

miR-128-3p serves as an oncogenic microRNA in osteosarcoma cells by downregulating ZC3H12D.

Oncol Lett 2021 Feb 31;21(2):152. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Orthopedics, The Fifth Hospital of Xiamen, Xiang'an, Xiamen, Fujian 361000, P.R. China.

Osteosarcoma is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide in children and adolescents. ZC3H12D has been shown to negatively regulate Toll-like receptor signaling and serves as a possible tumor suppressor gene. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are known to play an important role in the proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. However, whether miRNAs can affect tumor development by regulating the expression of ZC3H12D has not yet been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of miR128-3p in regulating ZC3H12D expression, as well as its function in tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, western blotting and dual luciferase reporter assays were performed to analyze the regulation of ZC3H12D expression by miR-128-3p. MTT, colony formation and flow cytometry assays were also used to analyze the effect of miR-128-3p on cell proliferation and apoptosis. A wound healing assay was performed to investigate the cell migration ability. The results demonstrated that miR-128-3p directly targeted ZC3H12D and downregulated its expression, thereby promoting cell proliferation and migration. miR-128-3p overexpression also improved resistance to cisplatin in MG-63 and 143B cell lines, supporting the hypothesis that miR-128-3p may function as an oncogene in osteosarcoma cells. The potential clinical significance of miR-128-3p as a biomarker and therapeutic target provides rationale for further investigation into the miR-128-3p-mediated molecular pathway and how it is associated with osteosarcoma development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.12413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798096PMC
February 2021

Small-Molecule HSP27 Inhibitor Abolishes Androgen Receptors in Glioblastoma.

J Med Chem 2021 02 1;64(3):1570-1583. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Chemistry, Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, College of Sciences and Health Professions, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44115, United States.

Androgen receptor (AR) contributes to the progression of glioblastoma (GBM), and antiandrogen agents have the potential to be used for the treatment of GBM. However, AR mutation commonly happens in GBM, which makes the antiandrogen agents less effective. Heat shock 27 kDa protein (HSP27) is a well-documented chaperone protein to stabilize ARs. Inhibition of HSP27 results in AR degradation regardless of the mutation status of ARs, which makes HSP27 a good target to abolish ARs in GBM. Compound I is a HSP27 inhibitor that significantly induces AR degradation in GBM cells the proteasomal pathway, and it selectively inhibits AR-overexpressed GBM cell growth with IC values around 5 nM. The compound also significantly inhibits GBM xenograft at 20 mg/kg and does not cause toxicity to mice up to 80 mg/kg. These results suggest that targeting HSP27 to induce AR degradation in GBM is a promising and novel treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01537DOI Listing
February 2021

Assessing the effects of labor market dynamics on CO emissions in global value chains.

Authors:
Sheng Zhong Bin Su

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 6;768:144486. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore, 29 Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Block A, #10-01, 119620, Singapore. Electronic address:

International production fragmentation has led to substantial changes in labor market, such as job creation/job loss, changing labor market structure and labor productivity. Such changes are perceived to affect CO emissions of those economies that participate in different parts of global value chains. This paper develops an accounting framework relating CO emissions to labor market shaped by global value chains. It analyses the influential factors driving CO emissions, and documents several pervasive empirical patterns. This is based on the recent environmental accounts developed by the European Commission and the World Input-Output Database over 2000-2014. The results show that the growth of CO emissions is primarily reduced by intensity effect, followed by labor market structural change due to participation in value chains, while it is driven by labor productivity effect and job creation. In particular, the foreign job creation effect is mostly emission-increasing, even in those economies with shrinking domestic employment. These results highlight the role of labor market and global value chains in climate policymaking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144486DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular characteristics of the H9N2 avian influenza viruses in live poultry markets in Anhui Province, China, 2013 to 2018.

Health Sci Rep 2021 Mar 6;4(1):e230. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Microbiological Laboratory, Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention Key Laboratory for Medical and Health of the 13th Five-Year Plan in Anhui Province Hefei China.

Background And Aims: H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) has low-pathogenicity but causes respiratory symptoms and drop in egg production in chicken with long-term virus shedding, resulting in great economic losses due to high mortality related to secondary infection with other pathogens. In recent years, H9N2 viruses have been posing a threat to public health, causing human infection in China. Compared to studies on other AIV subtypes, there are relatively few studies on the pathogenic mechanism of the H9N2 virus in mammals. H9N2 subtype AIV has been circulating worldwide in many avian species and transmitting with high efficiency in poultry. It can provide internal genes for other subtypes to produce new viruses, causing a pandemic risk. It is important to carry out long-term surveillance and pathogenic characteristics of the H9N2 virus. In this study, we conducted environmental surveillance of live poultry markets in Anhui province from 2013 to 2018, and 33 representative environmental isolates were selected and studied systematically.

Methods: The genomic RNA of Anhui H9N2 isolates was subjected to RT-PCR amplification followed by sequencing analysis.

Results: Thirty-three strains were isolated from the embryonated eggs of specific-pathogen-free chickens. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that h9.4.2.5-like H9N2 viruses were predominant during 2013-2018 and acquired multiple specific amino acid mutations that may have increased their affinity for mammals and enhanced their infectivity and transmissibility. Additionally, six internal genes of H9N2 clustered together with the novel human-lethal reassortant viruses, such as the low-pathogenicity H7N9, H10N8, and Anhui H5N6 viruses, and even HPAI H7N9.

Conclusion: Because H9N2 viruses may be the donors of internal genes that lead to the generation of novel reassortant viruses with enhanced pathogenicity in Anhui province, continuous environmental surveillance of live poultry markets, a key source of reassorted H9N2 and other avian influenza viruses, is of great importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787659PMC
March 2021

Selective Laser Sintering-Based 4D Printing of Magnetism-Responsive Grippers.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 28;13(11):12679-12688. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Components fabricated by four-dimensional (4D) printing hold the potential for applications in soft robotics because of their characteristics of responding to external stimuli. Grippers, being the common structures used in robotics, were fabricated by the selective laser sintering (SLS)-based 4D printing of magnetism-responsive materials and tested for remote-controllable deformation in an external magnetic field. A composite material consisting of magnetic Nd2Fe14B powder and thermoplastic polyurethane powder was selected as the raw material for the SLS; the magnetic particle acquired permanent magnetism by magnetization after the SLS process. Microscopic characterization showed the homogeneous dispersion of magnetic particles inside the polymer matrix. The magnetic induction intensity distribution was systematically investigated by both experiments and numerical simulations. The reliability of the numerical model proposed was justified by the excellent consistency between them. The deformation of the grippers could be regulated by tuning the magnetic particle content and the distance from the external magnet; the deformation mechanism is investigated numerically. The magnetic driving force and the corresponding horizontal displacement are calculated, thus having high accuracy compared with the existing research that obtained the deformation amount by only visual inspection. Mechanical properties of the SLS-fabricated magnetic polymer composite specimens were also studied because of their close relationship with the deformation behaviors. These findings provide guidance for future research on controllable deformation and driving force calculation for 4D printing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c17429DOI Listing
March 2021

The Impact of microRNA Regulation on Immune Recovery in HIV-1-Infected Patients Treated during Acute Infection: A Pilot Study.

Biomed Res Int 2020 3;2020:5782927. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs involved in a large range of cellular activities and can be used as biomarkers and indicators for diagnosis. We investigated the alterations in miRNA profiles in immune reconstituted vs. nonimmune reconstituted HIV-1-infected individuals to assess the association between miRNAs and the occurrence of immunological nonresponses, with the aim of searching for miRNA-based biomarkers for these HIV-1-infected individuals. Thirteen immunological responders (IRs) and 12 immunological nonresponders (INRs) were recruited, and RNA was collected from the plasma samples of the 25 HIV-1-infected individuals at both baseline and after 24 months of maintaining virological suppression (VS). Next-generation sequencing was used to detect miRNAs and evaluate the expression differences in miRNAs between IR and INR patients and between baseline and after 24 months of maintaining VS. Samples from 13 IRs and 11 INRs were successfully sequenced. The horizontal comparison of differentially expressed miRNAs between the groups and the longitudinal comparison of differentially expressed miRNAs between baseline and after 24 months of maintaining VS showed that a large proportion of miRNAs in INRs are downregulated compared to the levels in IRs. We also found that the miRNA let-7d-5p was downregulated in 9 INRs but only in 2 IRs by more than 2-fold. The difference was significant. In summary, these results demonstrate for the first time that a large proportion of miRNAs are downregulated in INRs compared with IRs, and the miRNA let-7d-5p is a potential biomarker for INRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5782927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735831PMC
June 2021

The Prevalence of Frascati-Criteria-Based HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) in HIV-Infected Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurol 2020 1;11:581346. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

The HIV associated mortality is decreasing in most countries due to the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy. However, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains a problematic issue that lowers the quality of life and increases the public health burden among people living with HIV. The prevalence of HAND varies across studies and selected samples. Therefore, we aimed to quantitatively summarize the pooled prevalence of Frascati-criteria-based HAND and to explore the potential demographic, clinical, and immunological factors. A comprehensive literature search in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and PsycINFO was performed. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted using the event rate (ER) for the estimation of the incidence of HAND. Subgroup meta-analyses were used to evaluate between-group differences in categorical variables. Meta-regression with the unrestricted maximum likelihood (ML) method was used to evaluate associations of continuous variables. Eighteen studies whose sample sizes ranged from 206 to 1555 were included in the final analyses. The estimated prevalence of HAND, ANI, MND and HAD were 44.9% (95% CI 37.4-52.7%), 26.2% (95% CI 20.7-32.7%), 8.5% (95% CI 5.6-12.7%), 2.1% (95% CI 1.2-3.7%), respectively. Factors associated with HAND were percent female, current CD4 count, education level and country development level (all < 0.05). Longitudinal cohort and multimodal neuroimaging studies are needed to verify the clinical prognosis and the underlying neurocognitive mechanism of HAND. In addition, it is urgently necessary to establish a standardized HAND diagnostic process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.581346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736554PMC
December 2020

Broad bandwidth emission and in situ electric field modulation of photoluminescence in Nd-doped ferroelectric crystals.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jan 16;57(4):488-491. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

The electric field modulation of photoluminescence in ferroelectric-optical materials as a novel in situ, non-damaging and real-time controllable method has drawn much research focus. The broad bandwidth emission of 33 nm and a tuneable luminescence contrast of 28% were achieved in Nd-doped Pb(MgNb)O-PbTiO (Nd:PMNT) tetragonal ferroelectric-optical crystals arising from spontaneous polarization. The study of Nd:PMNT ferroelectric crystals under a cyclic, triangular alternating current voltage wave showed that the change in the photoluminescence intensity subjected to an electric field is mainly related to the 180° domain distribution, rather than the 90° domain. The physical process of electric field tuning luminescence is to control the 180° domain distribution using the external electric field, which thereby effectively tunes the luminescence. This finding restricts the limitation of a specific phase change region, which greatly increases the range of materials used and has guiding significance for research in the electric field modulation of luminescent technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc06304eDOI Listing
January 2021