Publications by authors named "Bin Ni"

231 Publications

Avoidance of Emergency Care in the Southeastern United States During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2022 May 8;9(5):ofac161. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Vanderbilt Translational and Clinical Cardiovascular Research Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

In a low-income cohort in the Southeastern United States, 5% of participants avoided emergency medical care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, primarily due to fear and visitor restrictions. Younger age, self-perceived lower health status, lack of a personal doctor, and decreased income were associated with greater likelihood of deferring emergency care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofac161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9043001PMC
May 2022

Exosome-transmitted circVMP1 facilitates the progression and cisplatin resistance of non-small cell lung cancer by targeting miR-524-5p-METTL3/SOX2 axis.

Drug Deliv 2022 Dec;29(1):1257-1271

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important regulatory roles in multiple human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we explored the role of circRNA vacuole membrane protein 1 (circVMP1) in NSCLC progression and cisplatin (DDP) resistance.

Methods: The DDP resistance, proliferation, sphere formation ability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of NSCLC cells were analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay, sphere formation assay, wound healing assay, Transwell assay, and flow cytometry. Methylated RIP-qPCR (MeRIP-qPCR) was conducted to analyze the mA modification level of SRY-box transcription factor 2 (SOX2). Dual-luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay, and RNA-pull down assay were performed to confirm the intermolecular interaction. Exosomes were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA).

Results: CircVMP1 expression was markedly elevated in DDP-resistant NSCLC cell lines compared with their parental cell lines. CircVMP1 absence restrained the proliferation, sphere formation, migration, invasion, and DDP resistance and promoted the apoptosis of DDP-resistant NSCLC cells. CircVMP1 acted as microRNA-524-5p (miR-524-5p) sponge to up-regulate the expression of methyltransferase 3, N6-adenosine-methyltransferase complex catalytic subunit (METTL3) and SOX2. CircVMP1 silencing restrained the malignant behaviors and DDP resistance of A549/DDP and H1299/DDP cells by targeting miR-524-5p. Exosomal circVMP1 disseminated the malignant properties and DDP resistance to DDP-sensitive cells. Exosomal circVMP1 elevated the DDP resistance of xenograft tumors . Exosomal circVMP1 was up-regulated in the serum samples of DDP-resistant NSCLC patients compared with DDP-sensitive patients.

Conclusion: Exosome-mediated transmission of circVMP1 promoted NSCLC progression and DDP resistance by targeting miR-524-5p-METTL3/SOX2 axis.HighlightsCircVMP1 level is up-regulated in DDP-resistant NSCLC cell lines compared with DDP-sensitive cell lines.CircVMP1 absence restrains the malignant behaviors and DDP resistance of A549/DDP and H1299/DDP cells.CircVMP1-miR-524-5p/METTL3/SOX2 axis is identified for the first time.CircVMP1 plays an oncogenic role by targeting miR-524-5p-METTL3/SOX2 axis in A549/DDP and H1299/DDP cells.Exosomal circVMP1 transmits the malignant properties and DDP resistance to DDP-sensitive cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2022.2057617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9045767PMC
December 2022

MiR-139-5p/ENAH Affects Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

Biochem Genet 2022 Mar 7. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Department of General Surgery, The Third Hospital of Changsha, 176 Laodong West Road, Changsha City, 410015, Hunan Province, China.

This study aims to investigate the specific mechanism of miR-139-5p regulating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bioinformatic approaches was utilized to observe miR-139-5p level in HCC and unearth its target mRNA. Next, miR-139-5p and enabled homolog (ENAH) levels in HCC cell lines and normal liver cell line were evaluated with qRT-PCR. ENAH protein level was assessed by Western blot. The cell viability, migratory and invasive capacities of HepG2 cells was observed by cell functional assays. The binding of these two genes was proved through dual-luciferase method. Xenograft nude mouse model was prepared to identify the role of miR-139-5p in vivo. Poorly expressed miR-139-5p in HCC hindered the phenotypes of cancer cells. ENAH was at high level in HCC and it is a downstream target of miR-139-5p. Additionally, ENAH could reverse the suppressive impacts of miR-139-5p on HCC cell behaviors. Likewise, miR-139-5p was determined to perform tumor-suppressing function in vivo. MiR-139-5p hampered HCC cell processes by mediating ENAH, and miR-139-5p/ENAH is hopefully to be the possible target for HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10528-022-10204-9DOI Listing
March 2022

Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice with NASH Using Indirect Calorimetry.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2455:223-232

Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Obesity caused by caloric overload has assumed epidemic proportions. Obesity is frequently associated with metabolic dysfunctions, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Metabolic phenotyping is a set of techniques for studying metabolic dysfunction and behavior information including energy expenditure, body weight gain, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile. Among different metabolic phenotyping methods, indirect calorimetry is an indispensable tool for quantifying the energy balance/imbalance in various mouse models, which enables researchers to probe the development of disease and to evaluate the therapeutic benefit from different interventions. In this chapter, we will describe the procedures of metabolic phenotyping using indirect calorimetry in db/db mouse, a metabolic disorder mouse model which develops NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2128-8_17DOI Listing
March 2022

Gold-viral particle identification by deep learning in wide-field photon scattering parametric images.

Appl Opt 2022 Jan;61(2):546-553

The ability to identify virus particles is important for research and clinical applications. Because of the optical diffraction limit, conventional optical microscopes are generally not suitable for virus particle detection, and higher resolution instruments such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are required. In this paper, we propose a new method for identifying virus particles based on polarization parametric indirect microscopic imaging (PIMI) and deep learning techniques. By introducing an abrupt change of refractivity at the virus particle using antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the strength of the photon scattering signal can be magnified. After acquiring the PIMI images, a deep learning method was applied to identify discriminating features and classify the virus particles, using electron microscopy (EM) images as the ground truth. Experimental results confirm that gold-virus particles can be identified in PIMI images with a high level of confidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.445953DOI Listing
January 2022

Maternal Viral Infection in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Congenital Heart Disease in Offspring: A Prospective Cohort Study in Central China.

Clin Epidemiol 2022 18;14:71-82. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health Central South University, Changsha City, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To examine the associations of maternal virus infection in early pregnancy with risk of offspring congenital heart disease (CHD) and its seven common subtypes including atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, Tetralogy of Tallot, pulmonary stenosis, and transposition of the great arteries.

Patients And Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in Central China. A total of 44,048 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies at 8-14 gestational weeks were finally included and followed to 3 months postpartum. Serum was tested for virus infection including hepatitis B virus (HBV), coxsackievirus-B, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and rubella virus. Multivariable modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of all CHDs as well as seven common subtypes of CHD in offspring of pregnant women with different types of virus infection in early pregnancy, adjusting for confounders identified by directed acyclic graphs.

Results: At the end of follow-up, 564 births were diagnosed with CHD. Multivariable analyses showed that the presence of maternal viral infection in early pregnancy was independently associated with increased risks of CHD in offspring, with an adjusted relative risk of 2.21 (95% CI: 1.66-2.95) for HBV infection, 2.21 (95% CI: 1.63-3.00) for coxsackievirus-B infection, 3.12 (95% CI: 2.44-3.98) for HCMV infection, and 2.62 (95% CI: 1.95-3.51) for rubella virus infection. More specifically, the offspring of pregnant women with HCMV infection had the highest increased risk of patent ductus arteriosus (RR=10.50, 95% CI: 6.24-17.66). These findings persisted in analyses that were further adjusted for the other virus of interest in this study.

Conclusion: Our study proposed evidence that maternal virus infection in early pregnancy, including HBV, coxsackievirus-B, HCMV, and rubella virus, was implicated in CHD, although more studies remain needed to verify the results, especially associations in specific CHD phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S338870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8784951PMC
January 2022

Discussion of the experience and improvement of an enhanced recovery after surgery procedure for minimally invasive lobectomy: a cohort study.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Dec;9(24):1792

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: It is of great significance to explore a path for expedited recovery from thoracic surgery for patients undergoing minimally invasive lobectomy to ensure their rapid and smooth recovery and to conserve medical resources.

Methods: We analyzed 629 cases from the Department of Thoracic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from January 2018 to January 2020. According to the length of postoperative stay (LOS) and perioperative management, the 629 patients were divided into group A [routine management group (RMG)], group B [rapidly recovery group (RRG), LOS >72 h], and group C (RRG, LOS ≤72 h). The -test and chi-square test were used to compare the postoperative complications (PC), chest tube indwelling time (CTIT), LOS, postoperative opioid dosages (POD), and total costs (TC) of the 3 groups.

Results: Compared with the RMG, the LOS, PC, CTIT, POD, and TC of the RRG were statistically significantly ameliorated (P<0.05). When compared with group A, the PC (18.9% 38.8%), LOS (2.74±0.80 5.70±1.10 d), CTIT (46.1±18.5 123.6±34.8 h), and TC (¥51,517±7,217 ¥65,781±8,200) of group C were all decreased. Compared with group A, group B had more preoperative complications, less CTIT, but no significant difference in LOS, PC, and TC during hospital stay. Compared with group B, group C had less preoperative complications, and reduced LOS, CTIT, and TC. The POD in group A was significantly higher than that in groups B and C.

Conclusions: Use of an enhanced recover after surgery (ERAS) protocol can reduce the postoperative complications and shorten the LOS. Some high-risk patients cannot be discharged within 72 h after surgery, but their incidence of grade II postoperative lung complications can be decreased and they can benefit from ERAS. Single intercostal nerve block, COX-2 selective inhibitor, and removal of the chest tube as early as possible can improve the ERAS.

Keywords: Enhanced recover after surgery (ERAS); video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS); minimally invasive lobectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-6493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8756218PMC
December 2021

Effect of maternal alcohol consumption during the pre-pregnancy/early-pregnancy period on congenital heart disease: A prospective cohort study in Central China.

Prev Med 2022 02 20;155:106963. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Evidence of associations between maternal alcohol consumption and congenital heart disease (CHD) are mixed. Previous studies have been potentially biased due to recall bias or unmeasured confounding. This study aimed to examine the association of maternal alcohol consumption in 3 months before pregnancy and in early pregnancy with risks of offspring congenital heart disease (CHD) and its seven common subtypes. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Central China. From 03/13/2013 to 12/31/2019, a total of 44,048 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies at 8-14 gestational weeks were included and followed to 3 months postpartum. 564 births were diagnosed with CHD at the end of follow-up. Multivariable modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of CHD in offspring exposed to maternal alcohol consumption during the pre-pregnancy and early-pregnancy period, adjusting for confounders identified by directed acyclic graphs. In the multivariable analyses, increased risks of CHDs were found in offspring exposed to maternal alcohol consumption both in 3 months before pregnancy (adjusted-RR:3.14; 95% confidence intervals[CIs]:2.30-4.28) and in early pregnancy (adjusted-RR:1.86; 95%CIs:1.13-3.05). More specifically, the offspring exposed to maternal alcohol consumption in 3 months before pregnancy had the highest increased risk of Tetralogy of Fallot (adjusted-RR:8.62; 95%CIs:3.61-20.61). These findings persisted in analyses that were further adjusted for the other behavior variables other than the characteristic being assessed, and were also confirmed by sensitivity analyses. Our study supports the need for continued efforts for public health messages surrounding the potential risks of alcohol consumption prior to or during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.106963DOI Listing
February 2022

Cervical Myelopathy Due to Idiopathic Retro-odontoid Pseudotumor.

World Neurosurg 2022 Apr 7;160:e256-e260. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Objective: A retro-odontoid pseudotumor (ROP) is commonly associated with atlantoaxial instability or rheumatoid arthritis. However, ROP in the absence of atlantoaxial instability or rheumatoid arthritis, which is termed idiopathic ROP (IROP), is a rare condition. The pathomechanisms and optimal treatment strategies for IROP remain controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical characteristics of IROP patients and to assess the efficiency of atlantoaxial/occipitocervical fusion on IROP regression.

Methods: Data from 5 patients diagnosed with IROP were retrospectively reviewed. Posterior atlantoaxial or occipitocervical fixation and fusion were performed in 4 patients and C1 posterior arch resection alone in 1 patient. The patients' features, surgical procedures, and complications were recorded. The retro-odontoid soft tissue thickness was measured on preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate IROP regression.

Results: The mean follow-up time was 37 months. ROP regression was achieved in patients who received atlantoaxial/occipitocervical fusion, but not for the patient with C1 posterior resection alone. There were no observed neurovascular complications associated with surgery.

Conclusions: IROP was related to a restricted range of motion of the subaxial spine. Upper cervical fixation is an optional treatment that produces IROP regression over time. By contrast, direct removal of the IROP is unnecessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2022.01.007DOI Listing
April 2022

Melatonin protects H9c2 cardiomyoblasts from oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion-induced injury by inhibiting Rac1/JNK/Foxo3a/Bim signaling pathway.

Cell Biol Int 2022 Mar 16;46(3):415-426. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Melatonin has been shown to protect against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury, however, the precise molecular mechanisms have not been fully clarified. The present study was aimed to investigate whether inactivation of Rac1/JNK/Foxo3a/Bim signaling pathway is responsible for the protective effect of melatonin on I/R-induced myocardial injury. Our results showed that Foxo3a downregulation contributed to the protective effect of melatonin on OGD/R-induced injury of H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Melatonin treatment led to a reduced activity of Rac1, which was responsible for Foxo3a downregulation and decreased cell injury in OGD/R-exposed H9c2 cells. Furthermore, JNK acts as a downstream effector of Rac1 in mediating melatonin-induced inactivation of Foxo3a/Bim signaling pathway and decreased cell injury in OGD/R-exposed H9c2 cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that melatonin protects H9c2 cells against OGD/R-induced injury by inactivating the Rac1/JNK/Foxo3a/Bim signaling pathway. This study provided a novel insight into the protective mechanism of melatonin against I/R-induced myocardial injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11739DOI Listing
March 2022

Efficacy of intra-articular ketorolac for pain control in arthroscopic surgeries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Nov 22;16(1):688. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Hangzhou Third People's Hospital, 38 Xihu Ave, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize evidence on the efficacy of intra-articular ketorolac for patients undergoing arthroscopic surgeries.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases were searched for randomized controlled trials assessing the analgesic effect of intra-articular ketorolac for arthroscopic surgery of hip/knee or shoulder joint.

Results: Six studies were included. Two studies were on shoulder arthroscopy, while others were on knee joint. Meta-analysis revealed that patients receiving intra-articular ketorolac had significantly lower pain scores at 2-4 h (MD: - 0.58 95% CI: - 0.88, - 0.19 I = 49% p = 0.002), 6-8 h (MD: - 0.77 95% CI: - 1.11, - 0.44 I = 31% p < 0.00001), 12 h (MD: - 0.94 95% CI: - 1.21, - 0.67 I = 0% p < 0.00001), and 24 h (MD: - 1.28 95% CI: - 1.85, - 0.71 I = 84% p < 0.00001) as compared to the control group (Certainty of evidence: low-moderate). Analysis of three studies revealed a tendency of reduced analgesic consumption in patients receiving intra-articular ketorolac, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (MD: - 0.53 95% CI: - 1.07, 0.02 I = 55% p = 0.06).

Conclusions: Preliminary evidence from a limited number of studies indicates that additional intra-articular ketorolac to multimodal analgesia results in reduced pain scores up to 24 h after arthroscopic surgery. The clinical relevance of small changes in pain scores is debatable. Also, scarce data suggest that consumption of analgesics may not be reduced with intra-articular ketorolac. Since pain scores can be influenced by the primary diagnosis and dose of ketorolac, the results should be interpreted with caution. The certainty of the evidence is low-moderate. There is a need for future RCTs to further strengthen current evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02833-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8607634PMC
November 2021

Biomechanics of the effect of subaxial cervical spine degeneration on atlantoaxial complex in idiopathic retro-odontoid pseudotumor development.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 Oct 16:106314. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

From the Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Retro-odontoid pseudotumor (ROP), with no rheumatoid arthritis, atlantoaxial instability, or other primary diseases, is defined as idiopathic retro-odontoid pseudotumor (IROP). Cervical spine degeneration is associated with IROP development. This study aims to evaluate the effect of cervical spine degeneration on the atlantoaxial complex and find the possible biomechanical mechanism of IROP development.

Methods: This study was performed using a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) analysis. A degenerated FE model (FEM) and five operation FEMs (C1-C2 fusion, C0-C2 fusion, C0-C3 fusion, C0-C4 fusion, and C1 posterior arch resection) were established based on a normal 3D FEM of the cervical spine including C0-T1 with the main ligaments and muscles. The parameters, including the C1-C2 range of motions (ROMs) and odontoid-related ligaments' stresses in degenerated and operation FEMs, were obtained and compared with those in normal FEM.

Results: Compared to normal FEM, degenerated FEM had reduced C3-C7 ROMs and increased C1-C2 ROMs and odontoid-related ligaments' stresses. After internal fixation, C1-C2 ROMs and most odontoid-related ligaments' stresses were greatly decreased, but with no significant differences among C0-C2, C0-C3, C0-C4, and C1-C2 fusion models. For the C1 posterior arch resection model, C1-C2 ROMs and most odontoid-related ligaments' stresses increased, compared with normal FEM.

Conclusions: Cervical spine degeneration plays an important part in IROP development in biomechanics. Atlantoaxial complex compensates for cervical spine degeneration, with increased C1-C2 ROMs and odontoid-related ligaments' stresses. Atlantoaxial fusion or short segmental occipitocervical fusion can effectively reduce the stress and should be considered in IROP treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106314DOI Listing
October 2020

Customizable Sophisticated Three-Dimensional Shape Changes of Large-Size Liquid Crystal Elastomer Actuators.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Nov 5;13(45):54439-54446. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, UMR8247, Chimie ParisTech, Université Paris Sciences & Lettres, 75005 Paris, France.

Stimuli-responsive liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs), which exhibit sophisticated and versatile shape variations and functions upon stimulations, have constantly interested material science researchers. To date, many challenges still exist in scaling up orientated LCEs with sophisticated physical shapes and multi-functions. Herein, LCEs with various customizable conventional and exotic three-dimensional (3D) shapes and with sizes larger than those previously reported have been prepared by combining magnetic field alignment and soft lithography technology. These LCEs have film, cylinder, ellipsoid, hemispheroid, tube, pyramid, triangle and rectangle frame, grid pattern, cubic frame, and spring shapes. Meanwhile, diversified deformation behaviors such as contraction, expansion, bending, and twisting have been achieved by effectively controlling the alignment directions. Finally, the LCE actuator with hemispheroid shape has been explored for its possible applications in dynamic Braille displays or lenses with adjustable focal length. The simple strategy reported here provides a convenient way to customize multimorphological large-size 3D LCE actuators and their stimuli-responsive deformations. These systems will considerably enlarge the potential applications of LCEs and benefit the development of LCE soft robots and the future special bionic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c18424DOI Listing
November 2021

Vaccine protection and how we measure it.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 12 30;23(6):e13748. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13748DOI Listing
December 2021

First trimester exposure to ambient gaseous air pollutants and risk of orofacial clefts: a case-control study in Changsha, China.

BMC Oral Health 2021 10 15;21(1):530. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Xiangya Road, Kaifu District, Changsha, 410078, China.

Background: A growing body of studies have investigated the association between air pollution exposure during early pregnancy and the risk of orofacial clefts, but these studies put more emphasis on particulate matter and reported inconsistent results, while research on the independent effects of gaseous air pollutants on orofacial clefts has been quite inadequate, especially in China.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Changsha, China from 2015 to 2018. A total of 446 cases and 4460 controls were included in the study. Daily concentrations of CO, NO, SO, O, PM and PM during the first trimester of pregnancy were assigned to each subject using the nearest monitoring station method. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the associations of monthly average exposure to gaseous air pollutants with orofacial clefts and its subtypes before and after adjusting for particulate matter. Variance inflation factors (VIFs) were used to determine if the effects of gaseous air pollutants could be independent of particulate matter.

Results: Increase in CO, NO and SO significantly increased the risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) in all months during the first trimester of pregnancy, with aORs ranging from 1.39 to 1.48, from 1.35 to 1.61 and from 1.22 to 1.35, respectively. The risk of cleft palate only (CPO) increased with increasing NO exposure levels in the first trimester of pregnancy, with aORs ranging from 1.60 to 1.66. These effects sustained and even exacerbated after adjusting for particulate matter. No significant effect of O was observed.

Conclusions: Our study suggested that maternal exposure to CO, NO, and SO during the first trimester of pregnancy might contribute to the development of orofacial clefts, and the associations were potentially independent of particulate matter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01876-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8518237PMC
October 2021

Case Report: A Novel Missense Variant in the Gene Associated With Cataracts in a Chinese Family.

Front Genet 2021 16;12:715599. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

National Health Committee Key Laboratory of Birth Defects for Research and Prevention, Hunan Provincial Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Changsha, China.

The signal-induced proliferation-associated 1-like 3 () gene that encodes a putative Rap GTPase-activating protein (RapGAP) has been associated with congenital cataract and eye development abnormalities. However, our current understanding of the mutation spectrum of associated with eye defects is limited. By using whole-exome sequencing plus Sanger sequencing validation, we identified a novel heterozygous c.1871A > G (p.Lys624Arg) variation within the predicted RapGAP domain of SIPA1L3 in the proband with isolated juvenile-onset cataracts from a three-generation Chinese family. In this family, the proband's father and grandmother were also heterozygous for the c.1871A > G variation and affected by cataracts varying in morphology, severity, and age of onset. Sequence alignment shows that the Lys 624 residue of SIPA1L3 is conserved across the species. Based on the resolved structure of Rap1-Rap1GAP complex, homology modeling implies that the Lys 624 residue is structurally homologous to the Lys 194 of Rap1GAP, a highly conserved lysine residue that is involved in the interface between Rap1 and Rap1GAP and critical for the affinity to Rap·GTP. We reasoned that arginine substitution of lysine 624 might have an impact on the SIPA1L3-Rap·GTP interaction, thereby affecting the regulatory function of SIPA1L3 on Rap signaling. Collectively, our finding expands the mutation spectrum of and provides new clues to the molecular mechanisms of -related cataracts. Further investigations are warranted to validate the functional alteration of the p.Lys624Arg variant of SIPA1L3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.715599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481882PMC
September 2021

Disruption of medical care among individuals in the southeastern United States during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Public Health Res 2021 Sep 24;11(1). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Vanderbilt Translational and Clinical Cardiovascular Research Center; Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

Background: Widespread disruptions of medical care to mitigate COVID-19 spread and reduce burden on healthcare systems may have deleterious public health consequences.

Design And Methods: To examine factors contributing to healthcare interruptions during the pandemic, we conducted a COVID-19 impact survey between 10/7-12/14/2020 among participants of the Southern Community Cohort Study, which primarily enrolled low-income individuals in 12 southeastern states from 2002-2009. COVID survey data were combined with baseline and follow-up data.

Results: Among 4,463 respondents, 40% reported having missed/delayed a health appointment during the pandemic; the common reason was provider-initiated cancellation or delay (63%). In a multivariable model, female sex was the strongest independent predictor of interrupted care, with odds ratio (OR) 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-1.89). Those with higher education (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.05-1.54 for college graduate vs ≤high school) and household income (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.16-1.86 for >$50,000 vs <$15,000) were at significantly increased odds of missing healthcare.  Having greater perceived risk for acquiring (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72) or dying from COVID-19 (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51) also significantly increased odds of missed/delayed healthcare. Age was inversely associated with missed healthcare among men (OR for 5-year increase in age 0.88; 95% CI 0.80-0.96) but not women (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.91-1.04; p-interaction=0.04). Neither race/ethnicity nor comorbidities were associated with interrupted healthcare.

Conclusions: Disruptions to healthcare disproportionately affected women and were primarily driven by health system-initiated deferrals and individual perceptions of COVID-19 risk, rather than medical co-morbidities or other traditional barriers to healthcare access.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8874848PMC
September 2021

Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles, Cytokines, and Bacterial Loads Relevant to Alcoholic Liver Disease Mice Infected With .

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:695491. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences (AMMS), Beijing, China.

Patients with liver disease are susceptible to infection with (), but the specific reasons remain elusive. Through RNA-seq, we found that when mice with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) were infected with by gavage, compared with the Pair group, the small intestinal genes affecting intestinal permeability were upregulated; and the number of differentially expressed genes related to immune functions (e.g., such as cell chemotaxis, leukocyte differentiation, and neutrophil degranulation) decreased in the liver, spleen, and blood. Further analysis showed that the number of white blood cells decreased in the Pair group, whereas those in the ALD mice did not change significantly. Interestingly, the blood bacterial load in the ALD mice was about 100 times higher than that of the Pair group. After the ALD mice were infected with , the concentrations of T cell proliferation-promoting cytokines (IL-2, IL-23) decreased. Therefore, unlike the Pair group, ALD mice had weaker immune responses, lower T cell proliferation-promoting cytokines, and higher bacterial loads post-infection, possibly increasing their susceptibility to infection. These new findings we presented here may help to advance the current understanding of the reasons why patients with liver disease are susceptible to infection and provides potential targets for further investigation in the context of treatment options for sepsis in liver disease patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.695491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417779PMC
December 2021

Organic Hydroperoxide Resistance Gene (VPA1681) Confers Protection against Organic Peroxides in the Presence of Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase Genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 10 18;87(21):e0086121. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Microbiology, Soochow Universitygrid.263761.7, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

The marine foodborne enteropathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus contains the chief organic peroxide reductases AphC1-AhpC2 and a putative organic hydroperoxide resistance enzyme (Ohr; VPA1681) against different peroxides. This study investigated the function of the Ohr under the presence of AhpC1-AhpC2 in this pathogen by gene mutation. Experimental results demonstrated that the gene product was a weak scavenger of HO only in the mutant strains that lacked the peroxide sensor/regulator and - genes. The Ohr of V. parahaemolyticus was highly effective at scavenging organic peroxide, as demonstrated by assaying the defective changes in the Δ mutant strain and determining the detoxifying activity of the purified recombinant V. parahaemolyticus Ohr protein in the reduced form. The Ohr and AhpC1-AhpC2 exhibited similar functions against organic peroxides; however, only the mutant strain showed a significant increase in susceptibility to several disinfectants, organic acids, and antibiotics compared with the wild-type strain. The transcription of the gene depended on exogenous cumene hydroperoxide (cumene) stress and was markedly enhanced in the (VPA1682) mutant strains. This study revealed the organic hydroperoxide reductase activity of the Ohr in V. parahaemolyticus, and its role probably depends on sophisticated regulation by OhrR. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most prevalent foodborne pathogen in Taiwan and some other coastal Asian countries, and its antioxidative activity contributes to the tolerance of this bacterium to different environmental stresses. This study reports on the function of the organic hydroperoxide resistance gene (; VPA1681) and its gene regulator, (VPA1682), in this pathogen. The strain with the gene had effective protection against organic peroxide, and the recombinant Ohr was active in its reduced form. The function of Ohr was significant mostly in strains in which the function of AhpC1-AhpC2 was limited. The repressor of the gene was effective at low concentrations of organic peroxide. Other common species that contain homologous , , , and genes, which are phylogenetically close to those of V. parahaemolyticus, may share similar functions to those revealed in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00861-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8516051PMC
October 2021

Modification of the effects of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide on congenital limb defects by meteorological conditions.

Hum Reprod 2021 10;36(11):2962-2974

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Study Question: Can meteorological conditions modify the associations between NO2 and SO2 exposure and congenital limb defects (CLDs) during the first trimester of pregnancy?

Summary Answer: Increases in NO2 and SO2 exposure were consistently associated with higher risks of CLDs during the first trimester of pregnancy; both low- and high-temperature exposure and high air humidity act synergistically with the two air pollutants on CLDs.

What Is Known Already: Animal studies have indicated air pollutants are associated with CLDs, but corresponding epidemiological studies are limited with equivocal conclusions. Meteorological conditions are closely connected to the generation, diffusion, distribution and even chemical toxicity of air pollutants.

Study Design, Size, Duration: This case-control study included 972 cases of CLDs and 9720 controls in Changsha, China during 2015-2018.

Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: Cases from the hospital based monitoring system for birth defects (including polydactyly, syndactyly, limb shortening, and clubfoot) and healthy controls from the electronic medical records system were studied. Complete data on daily average NO2 and SO2 concentrations and meteorological variables were obtained from local monitoring stations to estimate monthly individual exposures during the first trimester of pregnancy, using the nearest monitoring station approach for NO2 and SO2 concentrations, and the city-wide average approach for temperature and relative humidity, respectively. The 25th and 75th percentiles of daily mean temperature, as well as the 50th percentile of daily mean relative humidity during the study period were used to classify high- and low-temperature exposure, and high humidity exposure based on existing evidence and local climate characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent effects per 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 and SO2 on CLDs, and the attribute proportions of interaction (API) were used to quantify the additive joint effects of air pollutants with meteorological conditions after including a cross product interaction term in the regression models.

Main Results And The Role Of Chance: NO2 and SO2 exposures during the first trimester of pregnancy were consistently and positively associated with overall CLDs and subtypes, with adjusted odd ratios (aORs) ranging from 1.13 to 1.27 for NO2, and from 1.37 to 2.49 for SO2. The effect estimates were generally observed to be the strongest in the first month and then attenuated in the second and third months of pregnancy. Synergistic effects of both low and high temperature in combination with NO2 (with APIs ranging from 0.07 to 0.38) and SO2 (with APIs ranging from 0.18 to 0.51) appeared in the first trimester of pregnancy. Several significant modifying effects by high humidity were also observed, especially for SO2 (with APIs ranging from 0.13 to 0.38). Neither NO2 nor SO2 showed an interactive effect with season of conception.

Limitations, Reasons For Caution: The methods used to estimate individual exposure levels of air pollutants and meteorological factors may lead to the misclassification bias because of the lack of information on maternal activity patterns and residential mobility during pregnancy. Moreover, we were unable to consider several potentially confounding factors, including socioeconomic status, maternal nutrient levels, alcohol use and smoking during early pregnancy due to unavailable data, although previous studies have suggested limited change to the results after when including these factors in the analysis.

Wider Implications Of The Findings: The findings are helpful for understanding the combined effects of air pollution and meteorological conditions on birth defects. Environmental policies and practices should be formulated and implemented to decrease air pollutant emissions and improve meteorological conditions to reduce their harmful effects on pregnancy. Additionally, pregnant women should be suggested to reduce outdoor time when the air quality is poor, especially when ambient temperature is higher or lower than what is comfortable, or when it is excessively humid.

Study Funding/competing Interest(s): The study is funded by Major Scientific and Technological Projects for Collaborative Prevention and Control of Birth Defects in Hunan Province (2019SK1012), Major Research and Development Projects in Hunan Province (2018SK2060) and Scientific and Technological Department Projects in Hunan Province (2017SK50802). There are no competing interests.

Trial Registration Number: N/A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deab187DOI Listing
October 2021

Independent and interactive effects of air pollutants and ambient heat exposure on congenital heart defects.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 09 24;104:106-113. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Accumulating studies have been focused on the independent effects of air pollutants and ambient heat exposure on congenital heart defects (CHDs) but with inconsistent results, and their interactive effect remains unclear. A case-control study including 921 cases and 9210 controls was conducted in Changsha, China in warm season in 2015-2018. The gravidas were assigned monthly averages of daily air pollutants and daily maximum temperature using the nearest monitoring station method and city-wide average method, respectively, during the first trimester of pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent effects of each air pollutant and different ambient heat exposure indicators. Their additive joint effects were quantified using attribute proportions of interaction (API). Increasing SO consistently increased the risk of CHDs in the first trimester of pregnancy, with aORs ranging from 1.78 to 2.04. CO, NO and PM exposure in the first month of pregnancy, and O exposure in the second and third month of pregnancy were also associated with elevated risks of CHDs, with aORs ranging from 1.04 to 1.15. Depending on the ambient heat exposure indicator used, air pollutants showed more apparent synergistic effects (API > 0) with less and moderately intense heat exposure. Maternal exposure to CO, NO, SO, PM and O during early pregnancy increased risk of CHDs, and ambient heat exposure may enhance these effects. Our findings help to understand the interactive effect of air pollution with ambient heat exposure on CHDs, which is of vital public health significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2021.07.007DOI Listing
September 2021

Nrf2 Pathway Ameliorates Bladder Dysfunction in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis via Suppression of Oxidative Stress.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 30;2021:4009308. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210000, China.

Objective: To investigate the protective effect and molecular mechanism of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in interstitial cystitis (IC).

Methods: We established a mouse model of IC by cyclophosphamide (CYP) in wild-type mice and Nrf2 gene knockout mice. We examined the histological and functional alterations, the changes of oxidative stress markers, and the expression of the antioxidant genes downstream of Nrf2 pathway.

Results: After CYP administration, the mice showed urinary frequency and urgency, pain sensitization, decreased contractility, bladder edema, and oxidative stress disorder. Notably, the Nrf2 CYP mice had more severe symptoms. The mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant genes downstream of Nrf2 pathway were significantly upregulated in the Nrf2 CYP mice, while there were no significant changes in the Nrf2 CYP mice.

Conclusion: Nrf2 pathway protects bladder injury and ameliorates bladder dysfunction in IC, possibly by upregulating antioxidant genes and inhibiting oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4009308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279868PMC
December 2021

Multiple functions of flagellar motility and chemotaxis in bacterial physiology.

FEMS Microbiol Rev 2021 11;45(6)

Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology & Center for Synthetic Microbiology (SYNMIKRO), Karl-von-Frisch Strasse 16, Marburg D-35043, Germany.

Most swimming bacteria are capable of following gradients of nutrients, signaling molecules and other environmental factors that affect bacterial physiology. This tactic behavior became one of the most-studied model systems for signal transduction and quantitative biology, and underlying molecular mechanisms are well characterized in Escherichia coli and several other model bacteria. In this review, we focus primarily on less understood aspect of bacterial chemotaxis, namely its physiological relevance for individual bacterial cells and for bacterial populations. As evident from multiple recent studies, even for the same bacterial species flagellar motility and chemotaxis might serve multiple roles, depending on the physiological and environmental conditions. Among these, finding sources of nutrients and more generally locating niches that are optimal for growth appear to be one of the major functions of bacterial chemotaxis, which could explain many chemoeffector preferences as well as flagellar gene regulation. Chemotaxis might also generally enhance efficiency of environmental colonization by motile bacteria, which involves intricate interplay between individual and collective behaviors and trade-offs between growth and motility. Finally, motility and chemotaxis play multiple roles in collective behaviors of bacteria including swarming, biofilm formation and autoaggregation, as well as in their interactions with animal and plant hosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuab038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8632791PMC
November 2021

OpaR Controls the Metabolism of c-di-GMP in .

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:676436. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

, the leading cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis worldwide, has a strong ability to form biofilms on surfaces. Quorum sensing (QS) is a process widely used by bacteria to communicate with each other and control gene expression the secretion and detection of autoinducers. OpaR is the master QS regulator of operating under high cell density (HCD). OpaR regulation of biofilm formation has been reported, but the regulatory mechanisms are still not fully understood. bis-(3'-5')-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is an omnipresent intracellular second messenger that regulates diverse behaviors of bacteria including activation of biofilm formation. In this work, we showed that OpaR repressed biofilm formation and decreased the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP in RIMD2210633. The OpaR box-like sequences were detected within the regulatory DNA regions of , , VP0117, VPA0198, VPA1176, VP0699, and VP2979, encoding a group of GGDEF and/or EAL-type proteins. The results of qPCR, LacZ fusion, EMSA, and DNase I footprinting assays demonstrated that OpaR bound to the upstream DNA regions of , VP0117, VPA0198, VPA1176, and VP0699 to repress their transcription, whereas it positively and directly regulated the transcription of and VP2979. Thus, transcriptional regulation of these genes by OpaR led directly to changes in the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP. The direct association between QS and c-di-GMP metabolism in RIMD2210633 would be conducive to precise control of gene transcription and bacterial behaviors such as biofilm formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.676436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215210PMC
June 2021

Production and Characterization of Motile and Chemotactic Bacterial Minicells.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 06 3;10(6):1284-1291. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Systems and Synthetic Microbiology, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg D-35043, Germany.

Minicells are nanosized membrane vesicles produced by bacteria. Minicells are chromosome-free but contain cellular biosynthetic and metabolic machinery, and they are robust due to the protection provided by the bacterial cell envelope, which makes them potentially highly attractive in biomedical applications. However, the applicability of minicells and other nanoparticle-based delivery systems is limited by their inefficient accumulation at the target. Here we engineered the minicell-producing strain to overexpress flagellar genes, which enables the generation of motile minicells. We subsequently performed an experimental and theoretical analysis of the minicell motility and their responses to gradients of chemoeffectors. Despite important differences between the motility of minicells and normal bacterial cells, minicells were able to bias their movement in chemical gradients and to accumulate toward the sources of chemoattractants. Such motile and chemotactic minicells may thus be applicable for an active effector delivery and specific targeting of tissues and cells according to their metabolic profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.1c00012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218304PMC
June 2021

Reciprocal Regulation between Fur and Two RyhB Homologs in , and Roles of RyhBs in Biofilm Formation.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Apr;34(4):299-308

Wuxi School of Medicine, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: To investigate reciprocal regulation between Fur and two RyhB homologs in ( ), as well as the roles of RyhBs in biofilm formation.

Methods: Regulatory relationships were assessed by a combination of colony morphology assay, primer extension, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNase I footprinting.

Results: Fur bound to the promoter-proximal DNA regions of and to repress their transcription, while both RyhB1 and RyhB2 repressed the expression of Fur at the post-transcriptional level. In addition, both RyhB1 and RyhB2 positively regulated biofilm exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and the expression of and .

Conclusion: Fur and the two RyhB homologs exert negative reciprocal regulation, and RyhB homologs have a positive regulatory effect on biofilm formation in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2021.039DOI Listing
April 2021

Generation of UCiPSC-derived neurospheres for cell therapy and its application.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 03 18;12(1):188. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510530, China.

Background: Neural stem cell (NSC) therapy remains one of the most potential approaches for the treatment of neurological disorders. The discovery of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and the establishment of hiPSC-derived human neural stem cells (hiNSCs) have revolutionized the technique of cell therapy. Meanwhile, it is often required that NSCs are stored and transported to a long distance for research or treatment purposes. Although high survival rates could be maintained, conventional methods for cell transportation (dry ice or liquid nitrogen) are inconvenient and expensive. Therefore, the establishment of a safe, affordable, and low-cost strategy to store and transport easily accessible hiPSCs and hiNSCs, with characteristics that match fetal hNSCs, is incredibly urgent.

Methods: We reprogrammed human urinary cells to iPSCs using a non-integrating, virus-free technique and differentiated the iPSCs toward iNSCs/neurospheres and neurons, under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compatible conditions. The pluripotency of iPSCs and iNSCs was characterized by a series of classical methods (surface markers, karyotype analysis, and in vitro as well as in vivo differentiation capabilities, etc.).

Results: Here, our results showed that we successfully generated hiNSCs/neurospheres from more available, non-invasive, and more acceptable urinary cells by a virus-free technique. Next, we demonstrated that the iNSCs differentiated into mature cerebral cortical neurons and neural networks. Interestingly, hiNSCs survived longer as neurospheres at ambient temperature (AT) than those cultured in a monolayer. Within 7 days approximately, the neural viability remained at > 80%, while hiNSCs cultured in a monolayer died almost immediately. Neurospheres exposed to AT that were placed under standard culture conditions (37 °C, 5% CO) recovered their typical morphology, and retained their proliferation and differentiation abilities.

Conclusions: In this study, we provided a simple method for the storage of NSCs as neurospheres at AT as an alternative method to more costly and inconvenient traditional methods of cryopreservation. This will enable hiNSCs to be transported over long distances at AT and facilitate the therapeutic application of NSCs as neurospheres without any further treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02238-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977190PMC
March 2021

Corrigendum: Flavor Formation in Chinese Rice Wine (Huangjiu): Impacts of the Flavor-Active Microorganisms, Raw Materials, and Fermentation Technology.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:636810. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Food Microbiology, School of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.580247.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.636810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947919PMC
February 2021

Quantitative analysis of errors caused by vibration on polarization parametric indirect microscopic imaging system.

Appl Opt 2021 Mar;60(8):2141-2149

Vibrations cause many problems such as displacement, distortion, and defocusing in microscopic imaging systems. Because vibration errors are random in direction, amplitude, and frequency, it is not known which aspect of the image quality will be affected by these problems and to what extent. Polarization parametric indirect microscopic imaging (PIMI) is a technique that records polarization parameters in a conventional wide-field reflection microscope using polarization modulation of the illumination beam and additional data analysis of the raw images. This indirect imaging technique allows the spatial resolution of the system to be improved. Here, the influence of vibration on the image sharpness and spatial resolution of a PIMI system is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. Degradation in the sharpness of PIMI images is quantified by means of the modulation transfer function and deterioration in the effective spatial resolution by the Fourier ring correlation. These results show that the quality of PIMI images can be improved significantly using vibration isolation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.414609DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of Early Post-Transplantation Tacrolimus Concentration on the Risk of Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Allogenic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 4;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Comprehensive Cancer Center Columbus, Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT). Tacrolimus (TAC), a calcineurin inhibitor that prevents T-cell activation, is commonly used as a GVHD prophylaxis. However, there is variability in the serum concentrations of TAC, and little is known on the impact of early TAC levels on aGVHD. We retrospectively analyzed 673 consecutive patients undergoing allo-HSCT at the Ohio State University between 2002 and 2016. Week 1 TAC was associated with a lower risk of aGVHD II-IV at TAC level ≥10.15 ng/mL ( = 0.03) compared to the lowest quartile. The cumulative incidence of relapse at 1, 3 and 5 years was 33%, 38% and 41%, respectively. TAC levels at week 2, ≥11.55 ng/mL, were associated with an increased risk of relapse ( = 0.01) compared to the lowest quartile. Subset analysis with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome patients showed significantly reduced aGVHD with TAC level ≥10.15 ng/mL at week 1 and a higher risk of relapse associated with week 2 TAC level ≥11.55 ng/mL ( = 0.02). Hence, achieving ≥10 ng/mL during the first week of HCT may mitigate the risk of aGVHD. However, levels (>11 ng/mL) beyond the first week may be associated with suppressed graft versus tumor effect and higher relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913846PMC
February 2021
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