Publications by authors named "Bin Jiang"

1,063 Publications

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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of nitrofuran-1,3,4-oxadiazole hybrids as new antitubercular agents.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Nov 25;53:116529. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Resistance Tuberculosis Research, Department of Pharmacology, Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital College of Pharmacy, Medical University, Beijing 100149, China. Electronic address:

Three series of novel nitrofuran-1,3,4-oxadiazole hybrids were designed and synthesized as new anti-TB agents. The structure activity relationship study indicated that the linkers and the substituents on the oxadiazole moiety greatly influence the activity, and the substituted benzenes are more favoured than the cycloalkyl or heterocyclic groups. Besides, the optimal compound in series 2 was active against both MTB HRv strain and MDR-MTB 16883 clinical isolate and also displayed low cytotoxicity, low inhibition of hERG and good oral PK, indicating its promising potential to be a lead for further structural modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2021.116529DOI Listing
November 2021

Alteration of the gut microbiota in rhesus monkey with spontaneous osteoarthritis.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Nov 27;21(1):328. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

State Key Laboratory of Primate Biomedical Research, Institute of Primate Translational Medicine, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China.

Background: The spontaneous osteoarthritis (OA) in rhesus macaque is similar to OA in human, which maintains an upright body posture and shows very similar biomechanical properties of bones to humans. At present, there is no good treatment for OA. This study aims to explore relationship between OA and intestinal microbiota, and provide a reference for the treatment of clinical OA.

Results: We collected colonic contents of the 20 rhesus macaque (6-15 years old, female) for intestinal microbiota analysis by metagenomics sequencing, of which 10 were spontaneous OA monkeys and 10 were normal monkeys. Our results showed the diversity of gut microbiota in monkeys with OA was decreased compared to the normal monkeys (p = 0.16). Mollicutes, Tenericutes, Coprobacillus and Faecalitalea may be biomarkers for the monkeys of OA. Lactobacillus found significantly increased in OA monkeys. Prevotella and Ruminococcus were higher in the normal group than OA group. Zinc/manganese transport system permease protein (p = 0.0011) and Cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase (p = 0.0012) are a microbiota metabolic pathway related to cartilage production.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in monkeys with OA are different compared to the normal monkeys. we have found microbes that may be a biomarker for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Functional analysis of the microbiota also predicts cartilage damage in the monkeys with osteoarthritis. Non-human primates are closely related to humans, so this study can provide a reference for the development of drugs for the treatment of OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02390-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8627091PMC
November 2021

Isolation and immune activity of a new acidic Cordyceps militaris exopolysaccharide.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Nov 20. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Graduate School of Food Science and Engineering, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, PR China. Electronic address:

A new type of acidic exopolysaccharide (AESP-II) was extracted and separated from the fermentation broth of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris), which was further purified to elucidate its structural characteristics and immunological activity. AESP-II was confirmed to be an acidic pyranose with a molecular weight of 61.52 kDa, which consisted of mannose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose, galactose acid, N-acetyl-galactosamine, glucose, galactose and arabinose with a molar ratio of 1.07: 5.38: 1: 3.14: 2.23: 15: 6.09: and 4.04. Animal experiment results verified that AESP-II can significantly promote the proliferation of spleen T and B lymphocytes in mice with immune injury caused by cyclophosphamide (CTX). In particular, the promotion of B lymphocytes presented a dose-effect relationship. In addition, the levels of the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ, which are mainly secreted by T lymphocytes, and immunoglobulin IgG, IgM and IgA, which are mainly secreted by B lymphocytes, were increased after AESP-II treatment. The above results suggest that fluid immunity is involved in the immunomodulatory function of AESP-II. Simultaneously, AESP-II was detected significantly to promote the phosphorylation expression of p38 kinase (p38), extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by Western blot, further suggesting that the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway mediates the immunoregulatory function of AESP-II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.11.115DOI Listing
November 2021

Sleep-Related Hypermotor Epilepsy: Etiology, Electro-Clinical Features, and Therapeutic Strategies.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 13;13:2065-2084. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is a group of clinical syndromes with heterogeneous etiologies. SHE is difficult to diagnose and treat in the early stages due to its diverse clinical manifestations and difficulties in differentiating from non-epileptic events, which seriously affect patients' quality of life and social behavior. The overall prognosis for SHE is unsatisfactory, but different etiologies affect patients' prognoses. Surgical treatment is an effective method for carefully selected patients with refractory SHE; nevertheless, preoperative assessment remains challenging because of the low sensitivity of noninvasive scalp electroencephalogram and imaging to detect abnormalities. However, through a careful analysis of semiology, the clinician can deduce the potential epileptogenic zone. This paper summarizes the research status of the background, etiology, electro-clinical features, diagnostic criteria, prognosis, and treatment of SHE to provide a more in-depth understanding of its pathophysiological mechanism, improve the accuracy in the diagnosis of this group of syndromes, and further explore more targeted therapy plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S330986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8598206PMC
November 2021

RPS4Y1 Promotes High Glucose-Induced Endothelial Cell Apoptosis and Inflammation by Activation of the p38 MAPK Signaling.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 12;14:4523-4534. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China.

Aim: Endothelial dysfunction is a key pathological basis for diabetes mellitus complications, including diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study aimed to reveal the functional role of ribosomal protein S4 Y-linked 1 (RPS4Y1) in endothelial dysfunction.

Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were subjected to high glucose. The expression of RPS4Y1 in cells was overexpressed or silenced by plasmid or siRNA transfection. MTT assay, flow cytometry, JC-1 probe, scratch test, tube formation, and ELISA were conducted to assess the effects of RPS4Y1 on cell. Western blot was performed to assay the downstream signaling of RPS4Y1. The inhibitors of p38, ERK, and Jnk were used to treat cells to validate the involvement of them in RPS4Y1-mediated endothelial dysfunction.

Results: RPS4Y1 was upregulated in HUVECs in response to high glucose in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Overexpression of RPS4Y1 induced viability loss, apoptosis, and inflammation, but inhibited cell migration and tube formation. Silence of RPS4Y1 impacted these aspects in a contrary trend. The phosphorylation of p38 rather than ERK and Jnk was activated by RPS4Y1. In addition, the dysfunction of HUVECs mediated by RPS4Y1 was attenuated by SB203580 (a specific inhibitor of p38 signaling).

Conclusion: The highly expressed RPS4Y1 in endothelial cells may contribute to high glucose-induced dysfunction through regulating p38 MAPK signaling. RPS4Y1 might be a potential therapeutic target for treating diabetes mellitus complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S329209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8594791PMC
November 2021

Successful treatment of the Meige's syndrome with navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: A case report.

Brain Stimul 2021 Nov 17;15(1):96-98. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Neurology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China; Vis Clinic, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2021.11.013DOI Listing
November 2021

Cerebrovascular Collateral Integrity in Pediatric Large Vessel Occlusion: Analysis of the Save ChildS Study.

Neurology 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Objectives: Robust cerebrovascular collaterals in adult stroke patients have been associated with longer treatment windows, better recanalization rates, and improved outcomes. No studies have investigated the role of collaterals in pediatric stroke. The primary aim was to determine whether favorable collaterals correlated with better radiographic and clinical outcomes in children with ischemic stroke who underwent thrombectomy.

Methods: This study analyzed a subset of children enrolled in SaveChildS, a retrospective, multi-center, observational cohort study of 73 pediatric stroke patients who underwent thrombectomy between 2000-2018 at 27 US and European centers. Included patients had baseline angiographic imaging and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores available for review. Posterior circulation occlusions were excluded. Cerebrovascular collaterals were graded on acute neuroimaging by 2 blinded neuroradiologists according to the Tan collateral score, where favorable collaterals are defined as >50% filling and unfavorable collaterals as <50% filling distal to the occluded vessel. Collateral status was correlated with clinical and neuroimaging characteristics and outcomes. Between-group comparisons were performed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables or Fisher's exact test for binary variables.

Results: Thirty-three children (mean age 10.9 [SD±4.9]) years were included; 14 (42.4%) had favorable collaterals. Median final stroke volume as a percent of total brain volume (TBV) was significantly lower in patients with favorable collaterals (1.35% [IQR 1.14-3.76] versus 7.86% [1.54-11.07], p=0.049). Collateral status did not correlate with clinical outcome, infarct growth or final ASPECTS in our cohort. Patients with favorable collaterals had higher baseline ASPECTS (7 [IQR 6-8] versus 5.5 [4-6], p=0.006), smaller baseline ischemic volume (1.57% TBV [IQR 1.09-2.29] versus 3.42% TBV [IQR 1.26-5.33], p=0.035) and slower early infarct growth rate (2.4 mL/hr [IQR 1.5-5.1] versus 10.4 mL/hr [IQR 3.0-30.7], p=0.028).

Discussion: Favorable collaterals were associated with smaller final stroke burden and slower early infarct growth rate, but not with better clinical outcome in our study. Prospective studies are needed to determine the impact of collaterals in childhood stroke.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that in children with ischemic stroke undergoing thrombectomy, favorable collaterals were associated with improved radiographic outcomes but not with better clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000013081DOI Listing
November 2021

Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate Early Protein 2 Protein Causes Cognitive Disorder by Damaging Synaptic Plasticity in Human Cytomegalovirus-UL122-Tg Mice.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 1;13:720582. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Pathogenic Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is very common in the human population all around the world. Although the majority of HCMV infections are asymptomatic, they can cause neurologic deficits. Previous studies have shown that immediate early protein 2 (IE2, also known as UL122) of HCMV is related with the cognitive disorder mechanism. Due to species isolation, a HCMV-infected animal model could not be established which meant a study into the long-term effects of IE2 on neural development could not be carried out. By establishing HCMV-UL122-Tg mice (UL122 mice), we explored the cognitive behavior and complexity of neuron changes in this transgenic UL122 mice that could consistently express IE2 protein at different ages (confirmed in both 6- and 12-month-old UL122 mice). In the Morris water maze, cognitive impairment was more pronounced in 12-month-old UL122 mice than in 6-month-old ones. At the same time, a decrease of the density of dendritic spines and branches in the hippocampal neurons of 12-month-old mice was observed. Moreover, long-term potentiation was showed to be impaired in 12-month-old UL122 mice. The expressions of several synaptic plasticity-regulated molecules were reduced in 12-month-old UL122 mice, including scaffold proteins postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). Binding the expression of IE2 was increased in 12-month-old mice compared with 6-month-old mice, and results of statistical analysis suggested that the cognitive damage was not caused by natural animal aging, which might exclude the effect of natural aging on cognitive impairment. All these results suggested that IE2 acted as a pathogenic regulator in damaging synaptic plasticity by downregulating the expression of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs), and this damage increased with aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.720582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8591137PMC
November 2021

Rock inhibitor may compromise human induced pluripotent stem cells for cardiac differentiation in 3D.

Bioact Mater 2022 Mar 2;9:508-522. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, United States.

Cardiomyocytes differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are valuable for the understanding/treatment of the deadly heart diseases and their drug screening. However, the very much needed homogeneous 3D cardiac differentiation of human iPSCs is still challenging. Here, it is discovered surprisingly that Rock inhibitor (RI), used ubiquitously to improve the survival/yield of human iPSCs, induces early gastrulation-like change to human iPSCs in 3D culture and may cause their heterogeneous differentiation into all the three germ layers (i.e., ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) at the commonly used concentration (10 μM). This greatly compromises the capacity of human iPSCs for homogeneous 3D cardiac differentiation. By reducing the RI to 1 μM for 3D culture, the human iPSCs retain high pluripotency/quality in inner cell mass-like solid 3D spheroids. Consequently, the beating efficiency of 3D cardiac differentiation can be improved to more than 95 % in ~7 days (compared to less than ~50 % in 14 days for the 10 μM RI condition). Furthermore, the outset beating time (OBT) of all resultant cardiac spheroids (CSs) is synchronized within only 1 day and they form a synchronously beating 3D construct after 5-day culture in gelatin methacrylol (GelMA) hydrogel, showing high homogeneity (in terms of the OBT) in functional maturity of the CSs. Moreover, the resultant cardiomyocytes are of high quality with key functional ultrastructures and highly responsive to cardiac drugs. These discoveries may greatly facilitate the utilization of human iPSCs for understanding and treating heart diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.07.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8581226PMC
March 2022

Effectiveness of artificial intelligent cardiac remote monitoring system for evaluating asymptomatic myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(10):11653-11661. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Research & Development, Lepu Medical Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. Beijing 102200, China.

Objective: To explore the effectiveness of cardiac remote monitoring system (CRMS) based on artificial intelligence-enabled ECG algorithm mode for evaluating asymptomatic myocardial ischemia (AMI) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: Two hundred CAD patients confirmed by coronary angiography (CA) in our hospital were included as the study subjects, 120 of whom developed myocardial ischemia (MI). All patients received 12-lead telephone remote ECG monitoring and evaluation. After monitoring, artificial intelligence-enabled ECG algorithm was performed to observe the detection rate of MI.

Results: Compared with artificial intelligence-enabled ECG algorithm combined with remote ECG monitoring system, the detection rate of remote ECG monitoring system in 120 MI patients was lower (96.67% vs. 86.67%, P<0.01). Among the 120 MI patients, there were 26 patients (21.67%) with symptomatic myocardial ischemia (SMI) and 94 patients (78.33%) with AMI. There was no difference between the two detection methods in the diagnosis of SMI (P>0.05), while there was a difference in the diagnosis of AMI (P<0.01). The degree and duration of ST segment decline and the threshold variability of MI were higher in SMI patients than those in AMI patients (P<0.001). It showed that the lowest frequency of MI was from 0:00 to 06:00, and the highest from 06:01 to 12:00, with significant difference compared with other time periods (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The CRMS based on artificial intelligence-enabled ECG algorithm mode can significantly improve the detection rate of AMI. Moreover, small changes of ST segment in AMI patients and circadian rhythm of disease onset were presented.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8581875PMC
October 2021

Shark mouth pancreaticojejunostomy reduced the rate of clinically related pancreatic fistula: a historic cohort comparative analysis.

HPB (Oxford) 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of General Surgery, Peking University Third Hospital, No. 49, North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: A novel procedure called shark mouth pancreaticojejunostomy (SMP) was developed, for the reconstruction of the pancreatic stump which has a theoretical advantage for anastomosis healing and wide applicability.

Methods: A comparative study of the patients who underwent SMP (SMP cohort) and those who underwent end-to-end dunking pancreaticojejunostomy (historic cohort) at Peking University Third Hospital was conducted. Each group was analyzed for the incidence of clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF) and morbidities.

Results: The clinicopathological data of 151 patients from the SMP cohort and 82 patients from the historic cohort were analyzed. In the SMP group, the rate of CR-POPF was 7.3% (11/151), which was significantly lower than the rate of CR-POPF in the historic group as 19.5% (16/82) (P = 0.005). The primary results were unaffected by sensitivity analyses based on several risk factors for CR-POPF. The rates of morbidities besides CR-POPF were 15.9% (24/151) in the SMP group and 17.1% (14/82) in the historic cohort (P = 0.194). The principal results were not changed by the propensity score matched (PSM) analysis.

Conclusion: SMP is a safe and simple surgical procedure for the reconstruction of the pancreatic stump compared with end-to-end dunking pancreticojejunostomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2021.09.023DOI Listing
October 2021

Identification of (6S)-cyclopropyl-6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazine-5(4H)-carboxamines as new HBV capsid assembly modulators.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Nov 6:113974. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

CAMS Key Laboratory of Antiviral Drug Research, Beijing Key Laboratory of Antimicrobial Agents, NHC Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Antibiotics, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

GYH2-18 is a type II HBV CAM with 6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazine-5(4H)-carboxamine (DPPC) skeleton discovered by Roche INC. A series of GYH2-18 derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HBV activity. Two compounds 2f and 3k exhibited excellent anti-HBV activity, low cytotoxicity and accepted oral PK profiles. Chiral separation of 2f and 3k was conducted successfully, and (6S)-cyclopropyl DPPC isomers 2f-1, 2f-3, 3k-1 and 3k-3 were identified to be much more active than the corresponding (6R)-ones. The preliminary structure-activity relationship, particle gel assay and molecular modeling studies were also discussed, which provide useful indications for guiding the further rational design of new (6S)-cyclopropyl DPPC analogues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113974DOI Listing
November 2021

Correction: MiR-193b-3p-ERBB4 axis regulates psoriasis pathogenesis via modulating cellular proliferation and inflammatory-mediator production of keratinocytes.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Nov 10;12(11):1072. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Dermatology, Skin Research Institute of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen Peking University - The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Medical Center, Shenzhen, 518036, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04354-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8580987PMC
November 2021

Infrared Activities of Adsorbed Species on Metal Surfaces: The Puzzle of Adsorbed Methyl (CH).

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Nov 10;12(45):11164-11169. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at the Microscale, Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.

Reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) is widely used to identify molecular adsorbates on metals during surface chemical reactions, but the interpretation of RAIRS data can be difficult with experiment alone. Here, we reveal from first-principles calculations the origin of the contrasting RAIRS spectra of methyl adsorbed on Pt(111) and Ni(111). We find that the dynamic dipole associated with the symmetric C-H stretch vibration of CH along surface normal is significant on Pt(111) but negligibly small on Ni(111), explaining the strong IR activity in the former and the absence of any RAIRS peaks in the latter. This difference is correlated to different charge transfer patterns between metals and the adsorbate, which are determined by the different preferred adsorption sites of methyl on the two surfaces. This work highlights the need of electronic structure calculations in interpreting RAIRS spectra of adsorbates on metal surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c03342DOI Listing
November 2021

Abundance and fractional solubility of phosphorus and trace metals in combustion ash and desert dust: Implications for bioavailability and reactivity.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 6:151495. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Joint Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Process and Control in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Deep Earth Science, Guangzhou, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Aerosol phosphorus (P) and trace metals derived from natural processes and anthropogenic emissions have considerable impacts on ocean ecosystems, human health, and atmospheric processes. However, the abundance and fractional solubility of P and trace metals in combustion ash and desert dust, which are two of the largest emission sources of aerosols, are still not well understood. In this study, the abundance and fractional solubility of P and trace metals in seven coal fly ash samples, two municipal waste fly ash samples, and three desert dust samples were experimentally examined. It was found that the abundance of aluminum (Al) in combustion ash was comparable or even higher than that in desert dust, and, therefore, care should be taken when using Al as a tracer of desert dust. The abundance and fractional solubility of P were higher in combustion ash, with a soluble P content ~4-6 times higher than that of the desert dust, indicating that combustion ash could be an important source of bioavailable P in the atmosphere. Except for Mn, the abundance and fractional solubility of other heavy metals were higher in the combustion ash compared to the desert dust, indicating the potential importance of combustion ash in ocean ecosystems, human health, and atmospheric processes. In contrast, both the abundance and solubility of Mn were highest in the desert dust, indicating a potentially important source of soluble Mn in the atmosphere. The fractional solubilities of P and trace metals are significantly affected by acidity and ions in the extraction solutions, and it is suggested that a buffer solution can better represent the acidity of the aqueous system in the true atmospheric environment. The results of this study improve our understanding of the sources of bioavailable and reactive P and trace metals in ambient aerosols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151495DOI Listing
November 2021

Big Data and Real-World Data based Cost-Effectiveness Studies and Decision-making Models: A Systematic Review and Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 19;12:700012. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Administrative and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Big data and real-world data (RWD) have been increasingly used to measure the effectiveness and costs in cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). However, the characteristics and methodologies of CEA based on big data and RWD remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to review the characteristics and methodologies of the CEA studies based on big data and RWD and to compare the characteristics and methodologies between the CEA studies with or without decision-analytic models. The literature search was conducted in Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library (as of June 2020). Full CEA studies with an incremental analysis that used big data and RWD for both effectiveness and costs written in English were included. There were no restrictions regarding publication date. 70 studies on CEA using RWD (37 with decision-analytic models and 33 without) were included. The majority of the studies were published between 2011 and 2020, and the number of CEA based on RWD has been increasing over the years. Few CEA studies used big data. Pharmacological interventions were the most frequently studied intervention, and they were more frequently evaluated by the studies without decision-analytic models, while those with the model focused on treatment regimen. Compared to CEA studies using decision-analytic models, both effectiveness and costs of those using the model were more likely to be obtained from literature review. All the studies using decision-analytic models included sensitivity analyses, while four studies no using the model neither used sensitivity analysis nor controlled for confounders. The review shows that RWD has been increasingly applied in conducting the cost-effectiveness analysis. However, few CEA studies are based on big data. In future CEA studies using big data and RWD, it is encouraged to control confounders and to discount in long-term research when decision-analytic models are not used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.700012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8562301PMC
October 2021

NMR Reveals the Conformational Changes of Cytochrome C upon Interaction with Cardiolipin.

Life (Basel) 2021 Sep 30;11(10). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China.

Conformational change of cytochrome c (cyt c) caused by interaction with cardiolipin (CL) is an important step during apoptosis, but the underlying mechanism is controversial. To comprehensively clarify the structural transformations of cyt c upon interaction with CL and avoid the unpredictable alias that might come from protein labeling or mutations, the conformation of purified yeast iso-1 cyt c with natural isotopic abundance in different contents of CL was measured by using NMR spectroscopy, in which the trimethylated group of the protein was used as a natural probe. The data demonstrate that cyt c has two partially unfolded conformations when interacted with CL: one with Fe-His33 coordination and the other with a penta-coordination heme. The Fe-His33 coordination conformation can be converted into a penta-coordination heme conformation in high content of CL. The structure of cyt c becomes partially unfolded with more exposed heme upon interaction with CL, suggesting that cyt c prefers a high peroxidase activity state in the mitochondria, which, in turn, makes CL easy to be oxidized, and causes the release of cyt c into the cytoplasm as a trigger in apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11101031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540660PMC
September 2021

Physically Motivated Recursively Embedded Atom Neural Networks: Incorporating Local Completeness and Nonlocality.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Oct;127(15):156002

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at the Microscale, Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Chemistry and Energy Catalysis of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.

Recent advances in machine-learned interatomic potentials largely benefit from the atomistic representation and locally invariant many-body descriptors. It was, however, recently argued that including three-body (or even four-body) features is incomplete to distinguish specific local structures. Utilizing an embedded density descriptor made by linear combinations of neighboring atomic orbitals and realizing that each orbital coefficient physically depends on its own local environment, we propose a recursively embedded atom neural network model. We formally prove that this model can efficiently incorporate complete many-body correlations without explicitly computing high-order terms. This model not only successfully addresses challenges regarding local completeness and nonlocality in representative systems, but also provides an easy and general way to update local many-body descriptors to have a message-passing form without changing their basic structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.156002DOI Listing
October 2021

MiR-193b-3p-ERBB4 axis regulates psoriasis pathogenesis via modulating cellular proliferation and inflammatory-mediator production of keratinocytes.

Cell Death Dis 2021 10 19;12(11):963. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Dermatology, Skin Research Institute of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen Peking University - The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Medical Center, Shenzhen, 518036, China.

Psoriasis is an auto-inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal activation of epidermal keratinocytes, aberrant neovascularization, and dysregulation of immune cells. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that mainly function in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Recently, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that expression of microRNAs is dysregulated in psoriasis patients and microRNAs play key roles in psoriasis pathogenesis. Downregulation of miR-193b-3p has been identified to be associated with psoriasis development. However, the precise functions and action mechanisms of miR-193b-3p in psoriasis pathogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we confirmed the downregulation of miR-193b-3p in psoriasis patients, psoriasis-like inflammatory cellular models, and an imiquimod (IMQ) -induced mouse model. A negative correlation was found between miR-193b-3p level and patient Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. Furthermore, miR-193b-3p suppressed proliferation, inflammatory-factor secretion, and the STAT3 and NF-κB signaling pathways in keratinocytes. Importantly, intradermal injection of agomiR-193b-3p blocked, whereas antagomiR-193b-3p augmented, the psoriasis-like inflammation in the IMQ-induced mouse model. Bioinformatics analysis and the dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-193b-3p targets ERBB4 3' untranslated region (UTR). In addition, ERBB4 induced proliferation, inflammatory-factor production, and the STAT3 and NF-κB pathways in keratinocytes. Most importantly, forced expression of ERBB4 could attenuate the effects of miR-193b-3p in keratinocytes, indicating that miR-193b-3p inhibits keratinocyte activation by directly targeting ERBB4. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that the miR-193b-3p-ERBB4 axis underlies the hyperproliferation and aberrant inflammatory-factor secretion of psoriatic keratinocytes, providing a novel, microRNA-related causal mechanism and a potential therapeutic target in psoriasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04230-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8526743PMC
October 2021

MEX3A knockdown inhibits the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer via modulating CDK2 expression.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Nov 22;22(5):1343. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Clinical Medical College, Follow-up Research Center, Jiangsu Vocational College of Medicine, Yancheng, Jiangsu 224005, P.R. China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignant tumor of the gastrointestinal tract and a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Mex-3 RNA binding family member A (MEX3A) promotes the progression of multiple types of cancer, including ovarian and cervical cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, the role of MEX3A in CRC is not completely understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the function of MEX3A in CRC. The mRNA and protein expression levels of MEX3A in CRC cells were analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. Cell Counting Kit-8 assays were used to measure cell viability. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were detected via flow cytometry, and CRC cell invasion was analyzed by performing Transwell assays. Moreover, the mitochondrial membrane potential in CRC cells was measured via JC-1 staining. The results of the present study revealed that the expression levels of MEX3A were upregulated in CRC tissues compared with adjacent healthy tissues. MEX3A knockdown notably inhibited CRC cell viability, and induced apoptosis and mitochondrial injury. In addition, MEX3A knockdown markedly induced G phase cell cycle arrest in CRC cells via downregulating CDK2 expression. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggested that MEX3A knockdown may inhibit the tumorigenesis of CRC cells by regulating CDK2 expression. Therefore, MEX3A may serve as a novel target for CRC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495542PMC
November 2021

[Analysis of clinical characteristics and risk factors in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Oct;35(10):905-909

The Third District,Department of Neurology,the First People's Hospital of Chenzhou City,Chenzhou,423000,China.

〓 Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, summarize experience for diagnosis and treatment activities and to explore the risk factors related to the onset of BPPV and provide reference for early intervention to reduce the risk factor exposure of BPPV. One hundred and twelve patients with BPPV were included in the study, and clinical data including age, gender, onset symptoms and duration, past medical history and family history were analyzed. A One-way ANOVA was performed on 16 variables using age, gender, diabetes, hyperuric acid, hyperlipidemia, osteoporosis, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, Meniere's disease, suppurative otitis media, vestibular neuronitis, sudden deafness, head injury, ear nose/maxillofacial surgery and autoimmune thyroiditis. The statistically significant parameters of the one-way ANOVA were included in the multivariate regression analysis to explore the independent risk factors for BPPV. Seventy-six cases(67.86%) of BPPV patients were primary BPPV, 36 cases(32.14%) were secondary BPPV(<0.01). The gender composition(male, female), ears involvement(unilateral, bilateral) and semicircular canal involvement(posterior semicircular canal, horizontal semicircular canal, anterior semicircular canal, mixed type) were different between the two groups(<0.05). During the follow-up period, 34(30.36%) patients relapsed, of which 19(25.00%) were the primary patients and 15(41.67%) were the secondary patients(<0.01). Diabetes(=0.004), osteoporosis(=0.017), hypertension(=0.013), stroke(=0.005) and suppurative otitis media(=0.031) were related to the onset of BPPV. BPPV patients are mainly primary, while the secondary patients are more likely to relapse after being cured. Diabetes, osteoporosis, hypertension, stroke and suppurative otitis media are independent risk factors for the onset of BPPV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2021.10.009DOI Listing
October 2021

Rab1A promotes IL-4R/JAK1/STAT6-dependent metastasis and determines JAK1 inhibitor sensitivity in non-small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Lett 2021 Dec 8;523:182-194. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Oncology Department, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 201900, China. Electronic address:

Rab1A overexpression has been observed in several cancer types, however, its significance and the underlying mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain largely unexplored. This study demonstrated that Rab1A overexpression in NSCLC was significantly correlated to short survival and metastasis. Rab1A overexpression promoted cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo, by activating JAK1/STAT6 signaling through stabilizing IL-4Rα protein. Strikingly, high Rab1A level was associated with sensitivity to JAK1 inhibitor, and Rab1A overexpression rendered cancer cells vulnerable to JAK1-targeted agents. JAK1 inhibitor, Itacitinib adipate, dramatically inhibited high Rab1A NSCLC metastasis, in both cell line and patient derived xenograft models. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that Rab1A plays a critical role in the aggressive properties of NSCLC, revealing a unique mechanism by which it promotes metastasis. In addition, we found that Rab1A is a determinant of JAK1 inhibitor sensitivity, which could be explored for improving JAK1-targeted cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.10.008DOI Listing
December 2021

Optimization of an Evaluation Method for Anti-Babesia microti Drug Efficacy.

Acta Trop 2022 Jan 8;225:106179. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research, Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, WHO Centre for Tropical Diseases, National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology, School of Global Health, Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases, Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease that is typically caused by Babesia microti infection. Clinical treatment of B. microti infection is challenging; hence, it is crucial to find new effective drugs. The current laboratory screening methods for anti-B. microti drugs are not optimized. We conducted drug-suppressive and drug-therapeutic tests to investigate whether use of an immunosuppressant and the target gene-based qPCR are helpful to reduce the number of animals affected and to improve parasite detection in an immunocompetent mouse model. These results were verified by subpassage test. In the drug-suppressive test, no B. microti were observed after immunosuppressant administration or in subpassage mice in the 100 mg/kg robenidine hydrochloride (ROBH) group. The opposite results were observed in the control, 50 mg/kg ROBH, atovaquone (ATO) + azithromycin (AZM), and proguanil hydrochloride (PGH) groups. Significant differences were observed in the EIR and target gene relative values (both P < 0.001) between the control group and any ROBH groups. In the drug-therapeutic test, recrudescence occurred in the 50 mg/kg ROBH, ATO+AZM, and control groups. This was not observed in the 100 mg/kg ROBH group after immunosuppressant administration. Similar findings were observed in the subpassage test. This suggests that a 4-day anti-B. microti drug-suppressive test can be used in preliminary drug screening. Potentially effective drugs can be verified by immunosuppressant test in subsequent drug-therapeutic tests. Thus, a laboratory evaluation method of anti-B. microti drug efficacy was optimized, which is highly accurate and requires a short drug screening time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106179DOI Listing
January 2022

Dual Extrusion Patterning Drives Tissue Development Aesthetics and Shape Retention in 3D Printed Nipple-Areola Constructs.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Oct 7:e2101249. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Fischell Department of Bioengineering, Center for Engineering Complex Tissues, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA.

Breast cancer and its most radical treatment, the mastectomy, significantly impose both physical transformations and emotional pain in thousands of women across the globe. Restoring the natural appearance of a nipple-areola complex directly on the reconstructed breast represents an important psychological healing experience for these women and remains an unresolved clinical challenge, as current restorative techniques render a flattened disfigured skin tab within a single year. To provide a long-term solution for nipple reconstruction, this work presents 3D printed hybrid scaffolds composed of complementary biodegradable gelatin methacrylate and synthetic non-degradable poly(ethylene) glycol hydrogels to foster the regeneration of a viable nipple-areola complex. In vitro results showcased the robust structural capacity and long-term shape retention of the nipple projection amidst internal fibroblastic contraction, while in vivo subcutaneous implantation of the 3D printed nipple-areola demonstrated minimal fibrotic encapsulation, neovascularization, and the formation of healthy granulation tissue. Envisioned as subdermal implants, these nipple-areola bioprinted regenerative grafts have the potential to transform the appearance of the newly reconstructed breast, reduce subsequent surgical intervention, and revolutionize breast reconstruction practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202101249DOI Listing
October 2021

A Web-based System to Assist With Etiology Differential Diagnosis in Children With Arterial Ischemic Stroke.

Top Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Oct;30(5):253-257

Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Background And Purpose: The diagnosis of childhood arteriopathy is complex. We present a Web-based, evidence-backed classification system to return the most likely cause(s) of a pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. This tool incorporates a decision-making algorithm that considers a patient's clinical and imaging features before returning a differential diagnosis, including the likelihood of various arteriopathy subtypes.

Methods: The Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke study prospectively enrolled 355 children with arterial ischemic stroke (2010-2014). Previously, a central panel of experts classified the stroke etiology. To create this tool, we used the 174 patients with definite arteriopathy and spontaneous cardioembolic stroke as the "derivation cohort" and the 34 with "possible" arteriopathy as the "test cohort." Using logistic regression models of clinical and imaging characteristics associated with each arteriopathy subtype in the derivation cohort, we built a decision framework that we integrated into a Web interface specifically designed to create a probabilistic differential diagnosis. We applied the Web-based tool to the "test cohort."

Results: The differential diagnosis returned by our tool was in complete agreement with the experts' opinions in 20.6% of patients. We observed a partial agreement in 41.2% of patients and an overlap in 29.4% of patients. The tool disagreed with the experts on the diagnoses of 3 patients (8.8%).

Conclusions: Our tool yielded an overlapping differential diagnosis in most patients that defied definitive classification by experts. Although it needs to be validated in an independent cohort, it helps facilitate high-quality, and timely diagnoses of arteriopathy in pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RMR.0000000000000285DOI Listing
October 2021

Cerebral Perfusion in Pediatric Stroke: Children Are Not Little Adults.

Top Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Oct;30(5):245-252

Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Abstract: Cerebral perfusion imaging provides useful information about the hemodynamic state of the brain that is relevant to a number of neurologic conditions, including stroke, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Multiple imaging modalities have been developed to evaluate brain perfusion, primarily by the use of different tracers to measure cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow. Here, we provide an overview of magnetic resonance imaging perfusion techniques; summarize the role of perfusion imaging in adult stroke; describe changes in cerebral blood flow over childhood; and discuss the relevance and future directions of perfusion imaging in pediatric cerebrovascular disorders and stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RMR.0000000000000275DOI Listing
October 2021

ER stress promotes HBV production by enhancing utilization of the autophagosome- multivesicular body axis.

Hepatology 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Institute of Virology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, 45122, Germany.

Background & Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been reported to trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and initiate autophagy. However, how ER stress and autophagy influence HBV production remains elusive. Here, we studied the effect of tunicamycin (TM), an N-glycosylation inhibitor and ER stress inducer, on HBV replication and secretion, and examined the underlying mechanisms.

Approach & Results: PDI (an ER marker), LC3 (an autophagosome marker) and p62 (a typical cargo for autophagic degradation) expression were tested in the liver tissues of patients with chronic HBV infection and hepatoma cell lines. The role of TM treatment in HBV production and trafficking was examined in hepatoma cell lines. TM treatment that mimics HBV infection triggered ER stress and increased autophagosome formation, resulting in enhanced HBV replication and the secretion of subviral particles (SVPs) and naked capsids. Additionally, TM reduced the number of early endosomes and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) localization in this compartment, causing HBsAg/SVPs accumulate in the ER. Thus, TM-induced autophagosome formation serves as an alternative pathway for HBsAg/SVPs trafficking. Importantly, TM inhibited autophagosome-lysosome fusion, accompanied by enhanced autophagosome-late endosome/multivesicular body (MVB) fusion to release HBsAg/SVPs through or along with exosome release. Notably, TM treatment inhibited the HBsAg glycosylation, resulting in impairment of the HBV virions envelopment and secretion, but it was not critical for HBsAg/SVPs trafficking in our cell systems.

Conclusions: TM-induced ER stress and autophagic flux promoted HBV replication and the release of SVPs and naked capsids through the autophagosome-late endosome/MVB axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.32178DOI Listing
September 2021

Down-regulation of PR/SET domain 10 underlies natural killer cell dysfunction in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Dec 10;206(3):366-377. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the world's leading cause of tumor-related mortalities. Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role at the first immunological defense line against HCC initiation and progression. NK cell dysfunction is therefore an important mechanism for immune evasion of HCC cells. In the present study using a murine HCC model, we revealed the down-regulation of PR/SET Domain 10 (PRDM10) in hepatic NK cells that were phenotypically and functionally exhausted. PRDM10 silencing diminished the expression of natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), augmented T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) expression, and decreased the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, perforin and granzyme B in normal hepatic NK cells in vitro. Consistently, PRDM10-deficient NK cells exhibited impaired cytotoxicity on target cells. In contrast, PRDM10 over-expression promoted NKG2D and Fas ligand (FasL) expression, reduced CD96 expression and enhanced transcripts of IFN-γ, perforin and granzyme B in NK cells in vivo. Moreover, PRDM10 silencing and PRDM10 over-expression down-regulated and up-regulated Eomesodermin (Eomes) expression, respectively. In summary, this study reveals PRDM10 down-regulation as a novel mechanism underlying NK cell dysfunction and identifies PRDM10 as a supporting factor of NK cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cei.13666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8561693PMC
December 2021

Gut microbiota dysbiosis associated with plasma levels of Interferon-γ and viral load in patients with acute hepatitis E infection.

J Med Virol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Few studies have focused on the effect of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection on gut microbiota. To explore the relationship between changes in gut microbiota and inflammatory factors and viral load, we conducted a comparative study of 33 patients with acute hepatitis E (AHE) patients and 25 healthy controls (HCs) using high-throughput 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing. Shannon and Simpson's indices showed no significant differences in bacterial diversity between the AHE and HCs groups. Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae were most abundant in the AHE group, which contributed to the difference between the gut microbiota of the AHE and HCs groups, and the same difference between the HEV-RNA-positive and HEV-RNA-negative groups. Functional prediction analysis showed that ribosome, purine metabolism, and two-component system were the top three pathways. Compared with the AHE group with normal interferon (IFN)-γ, Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Xanthomonadaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae were more abundant in the high-IFN-γ group. The abundance of Gammaproteobacteria was positively correlated with the level of serum alanine transaminase and total bilirubin. The abundance of Gammaproteobacteria could discriminate AHE patients from HCs, and could better predict the severity of AHE patients. We believe that our findings will contribute toward a novel treatment strategy for AHE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27356DOI Listing
September 2021

Lowering drug prices and enhancing pharmaceutical affordability: an analysis of the national volume-based procurement (NVBP) effect in China.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 09;6(9)

Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing, China

To cope with the increasing healthcare costs brought about by the universal health insurance programme, national volume-based procurement (NVBP) was implemented in China to reduce drug prices. However, the impact of NVBP remains unknown. We reported the effects of the NVBP pilot programme on medication affordability and discussed the challenges and recommendations for further reforms. A total of 25 molecules won the bidding in the NVBP pilot programme, and price cuts ranged from 25% to 96%. Medication affordability was measured as the number of days' wages needed to pay for a course of treatment, and the medication was identified as affordable if the cost of a treatment course was less than the average daily wage. After the NVBP, the proportion of affordable drugs increased from 33% to 67%, and the mean affordability improved from 8.2 days' wages to 2.8 days' wages. Specifically, for rural residents, the proportion of affordable drugs increased from 13% to 58%, and the mean affordability improved from 15.7 days' wages to 5.3 days' wages. For urban residents, the proportion of affordable drugs increased from 54% to 71%, and the mean affordability improved from 5.9 days' wages to 2.0 days' wages. Implementing the NVBP substantially improved medication affordability. In future reforms, a multifaceted approach addressing all issues in the health system is needed to enhance medicine access.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438819PMC
September 2021
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