Publications by authors named "Bin Hu"

1,640 Publications

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Echinacea purpurea polysaccharide prepared by fractional precipitation prevents alcoholic liver injury in mice by protecting the intestinal barrier and regulating liver-related pathways.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 20;187:143-156. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; Synergetic Innovation Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

Oxidative damage and intestinal dysbiosis are regarded as crucial culprits in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). This study aimed to examine the protective effects of Echinacea purpurea polysaccharides (EPPs) against ALD and explore the underlying mechanisms based on hepatic oxidative stress, inflammation, and intestinal barrier function. Three polysaccharide fractions, namely, EPP40, EPP60, and EPP80, were obtained by stepwise ethanol precipitation, and their antioxidant activity in vitro was investigated. The results showed that EPP80 with Mw 11.82 kDa had the strongest radical-scavenging capacity against DPPH, ABTS, and •OH radicals. Besides, EPP80 comprised arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid in molar ratios of 13.42:25.12:10.92:8.59:2.07:0.82. The in vivo results showed that EPP80 increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines both in mouse serum and liver. Moreover, EPP80 upregulated the expression of Occludin and ZO-1, revealing its protective effect against intestinal barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, EPP80 inhibited alcohol-induced oxidative damage by promoting the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 in the liver. In summary, EPP80 markedly scavenged free radicals in vitro and ameliorated alcohol-induced liver injury via Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in vivo. These findings suggested that EPP80 could provide effective supplementary support in preventing and treating ALD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.095DOI Listing
July 2021

Diffusion-weighted MRI and F-FDG PET/CT in assessing the response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Jul 19;16(1):132. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by surgery is a currently widely used strategy for locally advanced esophageal cancer (EC). However, the conventional imaging methods have certain deficiencies in the evaluation and prediction of the efficacy of nCRT. This study aimed to explore the value of functional imaging in predicting the response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

Methods: Fifty-four patients diagnosed with locally advanced ESCC from August 2017 to September 2019 and treated with nCRT were retrospectively analyzed. DW-MRI scanning was performed before nCRT, at 10-15 fractions of radiotherapy, and 4-6 weeks after the completion of nCRT. F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed before nCRT and 4-6 weeks after the completion of nCRT. These F-FDG PET/CT and DW-MRI parameters and relative changes were compared between patients with pathological complete response (pCR) and non-pCR.

Results: A total of 8 of 54 patients (14.8%) were evaluated as disease progression in the preoperative assessment. The remaining forty-six patients underwent operations, and the pathological assessments of the surgical resection specimens demonstrated pathological complete response (pCR) in 10 patients (21.7%) and complete response of primary tumor (pCR-T) in 16 patients (34.8%). The change of metabolic tumor volume (∆MTV) and change of total lesion glycolysis (∆TLG) were significantly different between patients with pCR and non-pCR. The SUVmax-T, MTV-T, and TLG-T of esophageal tumors in F-FDG PET/CT scans after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and the ∆ SUVmax-T and ∆MTV-T were significantly different between pCR-T versus non-pCR-T patients. The esophageal tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) increased after nCRT; the ADC, ADC and ∆ADC were significantly different between pCR-T and non-pCR-T groups. ROC analyses showed that the model that combined ADC with TLG-T had the highest AUC (0.914) for pCR-T prediction, with 90.0% and 86.4% sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

Conclusion: F-FDG PET/CT is useful for re-staging after nCRT and for surgical decision. Integrating parameters of F-FDG PET/CT and DW-MRI can identify pathological response of primary tumor to nCRT more accurately in ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-021-01852-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287821PMC
July 2021

Adult House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Response to Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Associated Substrates and Potential Volatile Organic Compounds Identification.

Environ Entomol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), larvae are suspected to inhibit house flies, Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), seeking oviposition sites. However, the mechanisms regulating these interactions are not well known. In this study, a Y-tube olfactometer was used to determine whether black soldier fly eggs, larvae, puparia (without pupae inside), adult carcasses, or resulting frass of black soldier fly decrease attractiveness of adult house flies to an oviposition substrate (i.e., sugar and wheat bran diet, used as the control). Secondly, two symbiotic bacteria associated were isolated, identified, and tested for house fly attractiveness with a Y-tube olfactometer. Thirdly, volatile organic compounds produced by swine feed before and after black soldier fly, or house fly larval digestion were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results indicate feed mixed with black soldier fly larval frass, and symbiotic bacteria, Paenalcaligenes sp. associated with black soldier fly, were less attractive to house flies than the control. However, another symbiotic bacterium Lysinibacillus sp. associated with black soldier fly pupae was attractive. In total, 52 volatile organic compounds were identified from treatments previously described. Quantitative differences in volatile profiles across treatments potentially explain the mechanism regulating house fly substrate choices in the presence, or absence, of black soldier fly larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvab073DOI Listing
July 2021

ROS and Oxidative Response Systems in Plants Under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses: Revisiting the Crucial Role of Phosphite Triggered Plants Defense Response.

Front Microbiol 2021 1;12:631318. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Haixia Applied Plant Systems Biology, College of Life Sciences, Center for Genomics and Biotechnology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Phosphite (Phi) is a chemical analog of orthophosphate [HPO ]. It is a systemic pesticide generally known to control the prevalence of oomycetes and soil-borne diseases such as , , and species. Phi can also control disease symptoms and the spread of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. Phi plays critical roles as a fungicide, pesticide, fertilizer, or biostimulator. Overall, Phi can alleviate the severity of the disease caused by oomycete, fungi, pathogenic bacteria, and nematodes (leave, stem, fruit, tuber, and root) in various plants (vegetables, fruits, crops, root/tuber crops, ornamental plants, and forests). Advance research in molecular, physiological, and biochemical approaches has approved the key role of Phi in enhancing crop growth, quantity, and quality of several plant species. Phi is chemically similar to orthophosphate, and inside the cells, it is likely to get involved in different features of phosphate metabolism in both plants and pathogens. In plants, a range of physiobiochemical alterations are induced by plant pathogen stress, which causes lowered photosynthesis activities, enzymatic activities, increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and modification in a large group of genes. To date, several attempts have been made to study plant-pathogen interactions with the intent to minimize the loss of crop productivity. Phi's emerging function as a biostimulant in plants has boost plant yield and tolerance against various stress factors. This review discusses Phi-mediated biostimulant effects against biotic and abiotic stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.631318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281016PMC
July 2021

Letter to the Editor Regarding Serratus Anterior Plane Block Combined with General Analgesia and Patient-Controlled Serratus Anterior Plane Block in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Randomized Control Trial.

Adv Ther 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 95 Yong-An Road, Xi-Cheng District, Beijing, 100050, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-021-01847-yDOI Listing
July 2021

Ecological insights into the disturbances in bacterioplankton communities due to emerging organic pollutants from different anthropogenic activities along an urban river.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 10;796:148973. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

Emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) in urban rivers have raised concerns regarding their eco-toxicological effects. However, the bacterioplankton community disturbances caused by EOPs in urban rivers and the associated ecological mechanisms remain unclear. This study provided profiles of the spatial distribution of a bacterioplankton community disturbed by human activity along an urban river. The results showed that EOP concentration and composition were differently distributed in residential and industrial areas, which significantly influenced bacterioplankton community structure. Based on redundancy analysis, parabens (methylparaben and propylparaben) were the major factors driving bacterioplankton community changes. Parabens inhibited gram-positive bacteria and promoted oxidative stress-tolerant bacteria in the river ecosystem. Parabens also disturbed ecological processes of bacterioplankton community assembly, shifting from a homogeneous selection (consistent selection pressure under similar environmental condition) to stochastic processes (random changes due to birth, death, immigration, and emigration) with changing in paraben concentrations. Heterogeneous selection was predicted to dominate microbial community assembly with paraben concentration changes exceeding 61.6 ng/L, which could deteriorate the river ecosystem. Furthermore, specific bacterial genera were identified as potential bioindicators to assess the condition of EOP contaminants in the river. Overall, this study highlights significant disturbances in bacterioplankton communities by EOPs at environmental concentrations, and our results could facilitate generation of appropriate management strategies aimed at EOPs in urban rivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148973DOI Listing
July 2021

Downregulation of PDGF-D Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells.

Clin Breast Cancer 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of General Surgery, Institute of Fudan-Minhang Academic Health System, Minhang Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 201100, China. Electronic address:

Background: The platelet derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) plays an important role in breast tumor aggressiveness. However, limited study has investigated the effect of silencing PDGF-D on the biological function of breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to clarify the potential value of PDGF-D as a target for breast cancer treatment.

Methods: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot were used to detect PDGF-D expression in 5 different breast cancer cells. The lentiviral vector was usd to silence PDGF-D in MDA-MB-231 cells. Then, Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium was used to detect cell viability, 5-Ethynyl-2'- deoxyuridine and a soft agar assay were used to detect cell proliferation and clonality. Additionally, cell apoptosis after PDGF-D knockdown was measured by Annexin V/ Prodium Iodide staining, and cell migration was detected by trans-well assay. Survival rate and tumor size were measured by nude mice transplantation.

Results: The MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cell lines showed higher PDGF-D expression than the MCF7 cell lines (P<.05). After the PDGF-D gene was silenced, the growth and colony forming abilitys ignificantly decreased (P<.05) together with the induction of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells (P<.05). Moreover, MDA-MB-231 cells with PDGF-D silencing showed significantly diminished aggressive migration and invasion potential compared to other cells (P<.05). In vivo experiments also indicated that PDGF-D silencing inhibited tumor growth and improved the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice.

Conclusion: Downregulation of PDGF-D had dramatic effects on breast cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration, which indicates that it plays an important role in breast cancer development and progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2021.06.002DOI Listing
June 2021

Two enteropathogenic strains representing novel serotypes and investigation of their roles in adhesion.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 15;31. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

TEDA Institute of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Nankai University, 23 Hongda Street, TEDA, Tianjin 300457, P.R China.

Enteropathogenic (EPEC), which belongs to the attaching and effacing diar¬rheagenic strain, is a major causative agent of life-threatening diarrhoea in infants in devel¬oping countries. Most EPEC isolates correspond to certain O serotypes; however, many strains are non-typeable. Two EPEC strains, EPEC001 and EPEC080, which could not be serotyped during routine detection, were isolated. In this study, we conducted an in-depth characterization of their putative O-antigen gene clusters (O-AGCs), and constructed mutagenesis the O-AGCs to perform functional analysis of O-antigen (OAg) synthesis. Sequence analysis revealed that the occurrence of O-AGCs in EPEC001 and O132 may be mediated by recombination between them, and EPEC080 and O2/O50 might acquire each O-AGC from uncommon ancestors. We also indicated that OAg-knockout bacteria were highly adhesive , except the EPEC001 derivative whose adherent capability was lesser than that of its wild-type strain, providing a direct evidence that OAg plays a key role in EPEC pathogenesis. Together, we identified two EPEC O serotypes and experimentally, and we studied the adherent capabilities of their OAgs, which highlighted the fundamental and pathogenic role of OAg in EPEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2105.05016DOI Listing
July 2021

Folding of cohesin's coiled coil is important for Scc2/4-induced association with chromosomes.

Elife 2021 Jul 14;10. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Cohesin's association with and translocation along chromosomal DNAs depend on an ATP hydrolysis cycle driving the association and subsequent release of DNA. This involves DNA being 'clamped' by Scc2 and ATP-dependent engagement of cohesin's Smc1 and Smc3 head domains. Scc2's replacement by Pds5 abrogates cohesin's ATPase and has an important role in halting DNA loop extrusion. The ATPase domains of all SMC proteins are separated from their hinge dimerisation domains by 50-nm-long coiled coils, which have been observed to zip up along their entire length and fold around an elbow, thereby greatly shortening the distance between hinges and ATPase heads. Whether folding exists in vivo or has any physiological importance is not known. We present here a cryo-EM structure of the form of cohesin that reveals the structure of folded and zipped-up coils in unprecedented detail and shows that Scc2 can associate with Smc1's ATPase head even when it is fully disengaged from that of Smc3. Using cysteine-specific crosslinking, we show that cohesin's coiled coils are frequently folded in vivo, including when cohesin holds sister chromatids together. Moreover, we describe a mutation () within Smc1's hinge that alters how Scc2 and Pds5 interact with Smc1's hinge and that enables Scc2 to support loading in the absence of its normal partner Scc4. The mutant phenotype of loading without Scc4 is only explicable if loading depends on an association between Scc2/4 and cohesin's hinge, which in turn requires coiled coil folding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.67268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279761PMC
July 2021

Can High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Enhance Patient Safety During Anesthesia for Advanced Esophagogastroduodenoscopy?

Anesth Analg 2021 Aug;133(2):e20

Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005588DOI Listing
August 2021

Bromine and iodine species in drinking water supply system along the Changjiang River in China: Occurrence and transformation.

Water Res 2021 Jul 2;202:117401. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Bromine (Br) and iodine (I) in source water can form highly toxic brominated or iodinated disinfection byproducts in treatment plants. For the first time, the occurrence of Br and I speciation and their proportion, transformation in the drinking water supply system along the Changjiang River were investigated. 96 water samples were collected from eight drinking water treatment plants under conditions of low, normal, and flood water regimes. Total Br (TBr) and total I (TI) concentrations were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and inorganic Br/I forms (bromide, bromate, iodide, and iodate) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Concentrations of organic Br/I were calculated as the difference between total Br/I and inorganic Br/I. Water regimes had different effect on Br and I species, and there were different rules in untreated and treated water samples. Apparent increase of TBr and TI concentrations after water treatment were observed, which indicated the possibility of Br/I introduction by chlorine-containing disinfectant. The occurrence of TBr, TI, bromide, and total organic I in the river were investigated to increase with the direction of flow. In addition, TBr and TI concentrations correlated with the concentrations of artificial sweeteners (e.g., acesulfame and sucralose, a kind of wastewater indicator), suggesting the influence of domestic sewage on Br and I in the river. In untreated water, bromide was the main Br species, and after treatment more than 50% was transformed into organic Br. Iodoorganics were the majority of I species in raw water and were partly transformed into iodate after treatment. Overall, the Br/I species have accumulation potential in the Changjiang River and organic forms occupy high proportion in treated water samples, which should be paid more attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117401DOI Listing
July 2021

Realistic medical image super-resolution with pyramidal feature multi-distillation networks for intelligent healthcare systems.

Neural Comput Appl 2021 Jul 5:1-16. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92604 USA.

There are two key requirements for medical lesion image super-resolution reconstruction in intelligent healthcare systems: clarity and reality. Because only clear and real super-resolution medical images can effectively help doctors observe the lesions of the disease. The existing super-resolution methods based on pixel space optimization often lack high-frequency details which result in blurred detail features and unclear visual perception. Also, the super-resolution methods based on feature space optimization usually have artifacts or structural deformation in the generated image. This paper proposes a novel pyramidal feature multi-distillation network for super-resolution reconstruction of medical images in intelligent healthcare systems. Firstly, we design a multi-distillation block that combines pyramidal convolution and shallow residual block. Secondly, we construct a two-branch super-resolution network to optimize the visual perception quality of the super-resolution branch by fusing the information of the gradient map branch. Finally, we combine contextual loss and L1 loss in the gradient map branch to optimize the quality of visual perception and design the information entropy contrast-aware channel attention to give different weights to the feature map. Besides, we use an arbitrary scale upsampler to achieve super-resolution reconstruction at any scale factor. The experimental results show that the proposed super-resolution reconstruction method achieves superior performance compared to other methods in this work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00521-021-06287-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255340PMC
July 2021

USP18 negatively regulates and inhibits lipopolysaccharides-induced sepsis by targeting TAK1 activity.

Int Immunol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Emergency, Heze Municipal Hospital, Heze, Shandong, China.

Sepsis is an inflammatory disease with exacerbated inflammation at early stage. Inflammatory cytokines play critical roles in the pathophysiology of sepsis. Ubiquitin specific peptidase 18 (USP18), a deubiquitinating enzyme, has been shown to modulate transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) activity. However, it is not clear about the precise role of USP18 in sepsis. Here we investigated the potential effect of USP18 on inflammation in sepsis. We generated mice with USP18 or/and TAK1 deficiency in macrophages (USP18 MKO mice, TAK1 MKO mice and USP18 MKO TAK1 MKO mice) and established lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced septic mice model. Bone marrow derived macrophages were isolated from wild type (WT), USP18 MKO or TAK1 MKO mice and treated with LPS or CpG, the expressions of cytokines including IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNF-α were measured. The activation of NF-κB, ERK, p38 signaling pathways and ubiquitination of TAK1 were detected. We induced sepsis in WT, USP18 MKO, TAK1 MKO or USP18 MKO TAK1 MKO mice and evaluated the survival rate, lung pathology and inflammation cytokine level in serum. Macrophages deficient in USP18 produced significantly increased IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α post LPS or CpG stimulation. Macrophages deficient in USP18 had promoted activation of NF-κB, p38 and ERK, and increased ubiquitination of TAK1. Mice with TAK1 deficiency in macrophages had increased survival rates, decreased immune cell infiltration in lung, and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum. In contrast, mice with USP18 deficiency in macrophages had decreased survival rates, increased cell infiltration in lung and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum. USP18 alleviated LPS-induced sepsis by inhibiting TAK1 activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxab029DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical Efficacy of Temozolomide and Its Predictors in Aggressive Pituitary Tumors and Pituitary Carcinomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurol 2021 18;12:700007. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Neurosurgery and Pituitary Tumor Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

A growing number of evidences suggest that TMZ applications can generate impressive benefits for APT and PC patients. However, the definite role of TMZ for individuals remains unclarified due to the variation between studies. And the predictive factors to alter its efficacy remain debatable. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety profile of TMZ in the treatment of pituitary malignancies, and delineate the predictors during its clinical employment. A literature retrieval was conducted from online databases for studies published up to December 31, 2020. Twenty one studies involving 429 patients were identified. TMZ exhibited 41% radiological overall response rate (rORR). The biochemical response rate was determinate in 53% of the functioning subset. Two-year and 4-year survival rate were 79 and 61%, respectively. TMZ prolonged the median PFS and OS as 20.18 and 40.24 months. TMZ-related adverse events occurred in 19% of patients. Regarding predictors of TMZ response, rORR was dramatically improved in patients with low/intermediate MGMT expression than those with high-MGMT (>50%) ( < 0.001). The benefit of TMZ varied according to functioning subtype of patients, with greater antitumor activities in functioning subgroups and fewer activities in non-functioning sets ( < 0.001). Notably, the concomitant therapy of radiotherapy and TMZ significantly increased the rORR ( = 0.007). TMZ elicits clinical benefits with moderate adverse events in APT and PC patients. MGMT expression and clinical subtype of secreting function might be vital predictors of TMZ efficacy. In the future, the combination of radiotherapy with TMZ may further improve the clinical outcomes than TMZ monotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.700007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8250148PMC
June 2021

HJURP is a prognostic biomarker for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and is linked to immune infiltration.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 1;99:107899. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou Province 550002, PR China; Department of Urology, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, PR Guizhou Province 550002, China; Guizhou University School of Medicine, Guiyang, Guizhou Province 550025, PR China; Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou Province 563000, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most prevalent and highly malignant pathological type of kidney cancer. Finding more precise biomarkers is critical for enhancing the prognosis of patients with ccRCC. Multiple studies have suggested that Holliday junction recognition protein (HJURP) promotes tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis in a variety of cancers. However, the role of HJURP in ccRCC remains unclear.

Methods: The ccRCC dataset was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the relationship between HJURP expression and ccRCC clinical features was investigated using R software. The effect of HJURP expression on survival was assessed using survival probabilities and Cox regression. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to identify HJURP-related signaling pathways in ccRCC. Finally, Tumor IMmune Estimation Resource (TIMER) and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA)were used to analyzethe correlation between HJURP expression and immunocyte infiltrates in ccRCC.

Results: HJURP expression was upregulated in ccRCC. Increased HJURP expression was associated with poor pathological features and correlated with poor prognosis in patients with ccRCC. Cox regression further found that HJURP expression was a high-risk factor for ccRCC patients. GSEA revealed that HJURP was closely linked to multiple immune-related signaling pathways. In ccRCC, HJURP expression was closely correlated with infiltration of various immune cells and expression of a wide range of immunocyte gene markers.

Conclusion: HJURP is a potential independent prognostic marker in ccRCC that plays an essential role in the tumor microenvironment by regulating immunocyte infiltration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107899DOI Listing
July 2021

Inter-hemispheric Functional Connections Are More Vulnerable to Attack Than Structural Connection in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Jul;27(3):426-435

Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Wearable Computing, School of Information Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Background/aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disease characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and bowel dysfunction. However, the majority of previous neuroimaging studies focus on brain structure and connections but seldom on the inter-hemispheric connectivity or structural asymmetry. This study uses multi-modal imaging to investigate the abnormal changes across the 2 cerebral hemispheres in patients with IBS.

Methods: Structural MRI, resting-state functional MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired from 34 patients with IBS and 33 healthy controls. The voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity, fractional anisotropy, fiber length, fiber number, and asymmetry index were calculated and assessed for group differences. In addition, we assessed their relevance for the severity of IBS.

Results: Compared with healthy controls, the inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of patients with IBS showed higher levels in bilateral superior occipital gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and angular gyrus, but lower in supplementary motor area. The statistical results showed no significant difference in inter-hemispheric anatomical connections and structural asymmetry, however negative correlations between inter-hemispheric connectivity and the severity of IBS were found in some regions with significant difference.

Conclusion: s The functional connections between cerebral hemispheres were more susceptible to IBS than anatomical connections, and brain structure is relatively stable. Besides, the brain areas affected by IBS were concentrated in default mode network and sensorimotor network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5056/jnm20134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266492PMC
July 2021

Integrated Insight into the Molecular Mechanisms of Spontaneous Abortion during Early Pregnancy in Pigs.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 21;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Due to the high rate of spontaneous abortion (SAB) in porcine pregnancy, there is a major interest and concern on commercial pig farming worldwide. Whereas the perturbed immune response at the maternal-fetal interface is an important mechanism associated with the spontaneous embryo loss in the early stages of implantation in porcine, data on the specific regulatory mechanism of the SAB at the end stage of the implantation remains scant. Therefore, we used high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics tools to analyze the healthy and arresting endometrium on day 28 of pregnancy. We identified 639 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs) and 2357 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the end stage of implantation, and qRT-PCR was used to verify the sequencing data. Gene set variation analysis (GSVA), gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), and immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated weaker immune response activities in the arresting endometrium compared to the healthy one. Using the lasso regression analysis, we screened the DELs and constructed an immunological competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network related to SAB, including 4 lncRNAs, 11 miRNAs, and 13 genes. In addition, Blast analysis showed the applicability of the constructed ceRNA network in different species, and subsequently determined HOXA-AS2 in pigs. Our study, for the first time, demonstrated that the SAB events at the end stages of implantation is associated with the regulation of immunobiological processes, and a specific molecular regulatory network was obtained. These novel findings may provide new insight into the possibility of increasing the litter size of sows, making pig breeding better and thus improving the efficiency of animal husbandry production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235555PMC
June 2021

The Application Value of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Testicular Occupied Lesions.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 11;2021:9962970. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Ultrasound, Minhang Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 201199, China.

Objective: To discuss the clinical application value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in testicular occupied lesions.

Methods: Nine conventional-ultrasound-found testicular occupied lesions which underwent CEUS meantime were analyzed retrospectively. The CEUS perfusion pattern was compared with the surgical pathological result or follow-up findings.

Results: Among all the 9 testicular occupied lesions, there were 5 testicular malignant tumors, 1 testicular benign tumor, 1 testicular tuberculosis, and 2 testicular hematomas. CEUS diagnosed 6 testicular malignant tumors, 1 testicular benign tumor, and 2 testicular hematomas, and its diagnostic accuracy was about 88.9%.

Conclusion: CEUS has high clinical application value in the differential diagnoses of benign and malignant testicular occupied lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9962970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214501PMC
June 2021

A multicenter retrospective study on evaluation of predicative factors for positive biopsy of prostate cancer in real-world setting.

Curr Med Res Opin 2021 Jul 19:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Institute of Urology, Peking University, National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, China.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the predictors for positive biopsy in prostate cancer (PCa) patients and develop a risk-stratification score model for positive biopsy rate in patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the gray zone.

Methods: In this retrospective, multicenter, real-world study, Chinese patients receiving prostate biopsy for the first time were included. The study evaluated the positive biopsy rate, predictors for positive biopsy and a risk prediction model for PSA 4-10 ng/mL PCa was developed. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors.

Results: A total of 2426 patients were included in the study. The biopsy positive rate was 47.57%, 25.77%, and 60.57% among overall patients, total PSA (t-PSA) 4-10 ng/mL patients, and PSA > 10 ng/mL patients respectively. Elderly age 60-74, ≥75, multi parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI), pre-operative PSA > 10 and PSA density (PSAD) significantly increased the positive rate in overall population, and elderly age, MP-MRI, positive digital rectal examination and f-PSA were significant predictors for positive biopsy in PSA 4-10 ng/mL population. A risk prediction model for positive biopsy rate in patients with PSA in the gray zone was developed. Area under curve (AUC) was associated with low accuracy for all the variables used such as tPSA (0.53), PSAD (0.57), frequency of puncture (0.53) and MP-MRI (0.64) in prediction of biopsy positive rate.

Conclusion: Our study evaluated the significant predicative factors for positive biopsy and the PCa risk prediction model developed might help Clinicians to avoid unnecessary biopsy in patients with PSA in gray zone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2021.1949270DOI Listing
July 2021

Metabolic abnormality in acute stroke-like lesion and its relationship with focal cerebral blood flow in patients with MELAS: Evidence from proton MR spectroscopy and arterial spin labeling.

Mitochondrion 2021 Jul 27;59:276-282. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Radiology, HuaShan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China; Institute of Functional and Molecular Medical Imaging, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China. Electronic address:

Our purpose is to detect the metabolic alterations in acute stroke-like lesions (SLLs) and further investigate the correlations between metabolic concentrations and focal cerebral blood flow in patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) using proton MR spectroscopy (H-MRS) and arterial spin labeling (ASL). A total of 23 patients with MELAS at acute stage of stroke-like episodes (SLEs) and 20 normal controls (NC) were recruited in this study, respectively. All subjects underwent conventional MRI andH-MRS. In addition, ASL was performed in each patient. The measurements of creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), lactate (Lac), glutamine/glutamate (Glx) levels and the ratios of Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr, Lac/Cr and Glx/Cr in acute SLLs for MELAS patients and left parietal and occipital lobes for NC were measured using LC-model software. Furthermore, in MELAS group, the associations between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and metabolite concentrations in acute SLLs were also assessed. In MELAS group, acute SLLs were identified with metabolic abnormalities and increased rCBF. Specifically, compared with controls, MELAS patients exhibited significantly higher Lac, Cho levels and Lac/Cr, Cho/Cr ratios, and lower NAA, Glx levels and NAA/Cr and Glx/Cr ratios. Moreover, for MELAS patients, Lac concentration in acute SLLs was positively correlated with focal rCBF. This study exhibited the neural injury with increasing lactate and cerebral blood flow in the acute SLEs. It might shed light on the underlying biochemical mechanism of mitochondrial cytopathy and angiopathy in MELAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2021.06.012DOI Listing
July 2021

A Self-Supervised Gait Encoding Approach with Locality-Awareness for 3D Skeleton Based Person Re-Identification.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Jun 28;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Person re-identification (Re-ID) via gait features within 3D skeleton sequences is a newly-emerging topic with several advantages. Existing solutions either rely on hand-crafted descriptors or supervised gait representation learning. This paper proposes a self-supervised gait encoding approach that can leverage unlabeled skeleton data to learn gait representations for person Re-ID. Specifically, we first create self-supervision by learning to reconstruct unlabeled skeleton sequences reversely, which involves richer high-level semantics to obtain better gait representations. Other pretext tasks are also explored to further improve self-supervised learning. Second, inspired by the fact that motion's continuity endows adjacent skeletons in one skeleton sequence and temporally consecutive skeleton sequences with higher correlations (referred as locality in 3D skeleton data), we propose a locality-aware attention mechanism and a locality-aware contrastive learning scheme, which aim to preserve locality-awareness on intra-sequence level and inter-sequence level respectively during self-supervised learning. Last, with context vectors learned by our locality-aware attention mechanism and contrastive learning scheme, a novel feature named Constrastive Attention-based Gait Encodings (CAGEs) is designed to represent gait effectively. Empirical evaluations show that our approach significantly outperforms skeleton-based counterparts by 15-40% Rank-1 accuracy, and it even achieves superior performance to numerous multi-modal methods with extra RGB or depth information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3092833DOI Listing
June 2021

Elemental Mass Spectrometry and Fluorescence Dual-Mode Strategy for Ultrasensitive Label-Free Detection of HBV DNA.

Anal Chem 2021 07 28;93(27):9454-9461. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

This work reported a simple and ultrasensitive label-free method for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA by combining hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) with dual-mode detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and fluorescence using ruthenium complex [Ru(bpy)dppz] (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dppz = dipyrido [3,2-:2',3'-] phenazine) as a dual functional probe. An HBV DNA-initiated HRCA system was designed to realize the highly efficient amplification of HBV DNA with the generation of a mass of dsDNA. Also, the [Ru(bpy)dppz] probe was then added to intercalate into the dsDNA products, resulting in strong fluorescence recovery of the probe for fluorescence detection. Meanwhile, using a biotin-modified primer in HRCA, the dsDNA-[Ru(bpy)dppz] complexes could be captured by the avidin-coated 96-well plates, and the captured [Ru(bpy)dppz] probe was later desorbed by acid for ICP-MS detection. The linear range of the proposed method was 3.5-200 amol L and the limit of detection (LOD) was 1 amol L for ICP-MS detection, while the linear range was 20-500 amol L and the LOD was 9.6 amol L for fluorescence detection. The developed method was applied to human serum sample analysis, and the analytical results coincided very well with those obtained by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The developed dual-mode label-free detection method was ultrasensitive, simple, and accurate, showing great potential for therapeutic monitoring of HBV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01180DOI Listing
July 2021

A self-powered photoelectrochemical ultraviolet photodetector based on Ti3C2Tx /TiO2 in situ formed heterojunctions.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, CHINA.

Transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes), as a large family of emerging two-dimensional (2D) materials, have demonstrated extraordinary performance in many fields such as electronics, optics and energy storage. However, their susceptibility to oxidation during preparation and storage in ambient air environment is undesirable for long-term and stable applications. Here, we have demonstrated that the spontaneous oxidation of Ti3C2Tx can be harnessed ingeniously to prepare Ti3C2Tx /TiO2 in situ formed heterojunctions. Furthermore, a self-powered ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was constructed based on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of Ti3C2Tx /TiO2 heterojunctions. Since the highly conductive Ti3C2Tx can promote the separation and transfer of photogenerated carriers in TiO2, the prepared photodetector exhibits high responsivity (2.06 mA/W), short rise and decay times (45 and 69 ms) and long-term stability. This work demonstrates the controllable synthesis of Ti3C2Tx /TiO2 heterojunctions and provides a new promising potential of MXenes for photodetection applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac0eaaDOI Listing
June 2021

A novel nonlinear creep model based on damage characteristics of mudstone strength parameters.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(6):e0253711. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Mudstone interlayer is a weak layer in rock engineering. When it is subjected to continuous stress higher than its damage threshold, due to the dislocation of particles in mudstone crystals and the expansion of cracks, mudstone strength is gradually damaged and deteriorated and the strain gradually increases, thus accelerating the phenomenon of creep damage. In order to describe the characteristics of the whole process of mudstone aging deformation, based on the damage evolution of strength parameters (cohesion and internal friction coefficient) with stress and time in mudstone creep tests, a novel damage nonlinear viscoelastoplastic body (D-NVPB) is proposed through improving traditional plastic element. D-NVPB describes the nonlinear characteristics of the accelerated creep stage of mudstone. With the element combination method, D-NVPB is connected with the Burgers model in series to form a new nonlinear damage creep model (D-NVEP model). The analysis results of creep characteristics theoretically verified the rationality of the model in describing the instantaneous elasticity, viscoelasticity, and nonlinear viscoplastic characteristics of the complete creep curve of mudstone. With the data obtained in the uniaxial compression creep test of mudstone under the action of a stress level of 14 MPa, based on the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least squares method, the fitting calculation was performed through piecewise fitting and overall fitting. The correlation coefficient was 0.9909, which verified the applicability of the model. The obtained model parameters by the identification were used to predict the mudstone creep curve under the stress levels of 13 MPa and 15 MPa. The good prediction results further verified the feasibility of the model. Compared with the traditional creep model, the D-NVEP model can better describe the nonlinear characteristics of the accelerated creep stage and quantitatively display the strength damage evolution process of rock in the creep failure process.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253711PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8224960PMC
June 2021

Analysis of Functional Brain Network in MDD based on Improved Empirical Mode Decomposition with Resting State EEG Data.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2021 Jun 24;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

At present, most brain functional studies are based on traditional frequency bands to explore the abnormal functional connections and topological organization of patients with depression. However, they ignore the characteristic relationship of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in the time domain. Therefore, this paper proposes a network decomposition model based on Improved Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), it is suitable for time-frequency analysis of brain functional network. On the one hand, it solves the problem of mode mixing on original EMD method, especially on high-density EEG data. On the other hand, by building brain function networks on different intrinsic mode function (IMF), we can perform time-frequency analysis of brain function connections. It provides a new insight for brain function connectivity analysis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Experimental results found that the IMFs waveform decomposed by Improved EMD was more stable and the difference between IMFs was obvious, it indicated that the mode mixing can be effectively solved. Besides, the analysis of the brain network, we found that the changes in MDD functional connectivity on different IMFs, it may be related to the pathological changes for MDD. More statistical results on three network metrics proved that there were significant differences between MDD and normal controls (NC) group. In addition, the aberrant brain network structure of MDDs was also confirmed in the hubs characteristic. These findings may provide potential biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of MDD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2021.3092140DOI Listing
June 2021

Development and validation of tumor-to-blood based nomograms for preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis in lung cancer.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: To develop and validate tumor-to-blood based nomograms for preoperative prediction of lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with lung cancer (LC).

Methods: A prediction model was developed in a primary cohort comprising 330 LN stations from patients with pathologically confirmed LC, these data having been gathered from January 2016 to June 2019. Tumor-to-blood variables of LNs were calculated from positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) images of LC and the short axis diameters of LNs were measured on CT images. Tumor-to-blood variables, number of stations suspected of harboring LN metastasis according to PET, and independent clinicopathological risk factors were included in the final nomograms. After being internally validated, the nomograms were used to assess an independent validation cohort containing 101 consecutive LN stations accumulated from July 2019 to March 2020.

Results: Four tumor-to-blood variables (left atrium, inferior vena cava, liver, and aortic arch) and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for LNs were found to be significantly associated with LN status (p < 0.001 for both primary and validation cohorts). Five predictive nomograms were built. Of these, one with LN SUVmax/left atrium SUVmax was found to be optimal for predicting LN status with AUC 0.830 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.774-0.886) in the primary cohort and AUC 0.865 (95% CI: 0.782-0.948) in the validation cohort. All models showed good discrimination, with a modest C-index, and good calibration in both primary and validation cohorts.

Conclusions: We have developed tumor-to-blood based nomograms that incorporate identified clinicopathological risk factors and facilitate preoperative prediction of LN metastasis in LC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.14066DOI Listing
June 2021

Development and validation of tumor-to-blood based nomograms for preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis in lung cancer.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: To develop and validate tumor-to-blood based nomograms for preoperative prediction of lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with lung cancer (LC).

Methods: A prediction model was developed in a primary cohort comprising 330 LN stations from patients with pathologically confirmed LC, these data having been gathered from January 2016 to June 2019. Tumor-to-blood variables of LNs were calculated from positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) images of LC and the short axis diameters of LNs were measured on CT images. Tumor-to-blood variables, number of stations suspected of harboring LN metastasis according to PET, and independent clinicopathological risk factors were included in the final nomograms. After being internally validated, the nomograms were used to assess an independent validation cohort containing 101 consecutive LN stations accumulated from July 2019 to March 2020.

Results: Four tumor-to-blood variables (left atrium, inferior vena cava, liver, and aortic arch) and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for LNs were found to be significantly associated with LN status (p < 0.001 for both primary and validation cohorts). Five predictive nomograms were built. Of these, one with LN SUVmax/left atrium SUVmax was found to be optimal for predicting LN status with AUC 0.830 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.774-0.886) in the primary cohort and AUC 0.865 (95% CI: 0.782-0.948) in the validation cohort. All models showed good discrimination, with a modest C-index, and good calibration in both primary and validation cohorts.

Conclusions: We have developed tumor-to-blood based nomograms that incorporate identified clinicopathological risk factors and facilitate preoperative prediction of LN metastasis in LC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.14066DOI Listing
June 2021

In reference to intraoperative dexmedetomidine for prevention of postoperative delirium in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.5589DOI Listing
June 2021

Optically Induced Static Magnetization in Metal Halide Perovskite for Spin-Related Optoelectronics.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 2;8(11):2004488. Epub 2021 May 2.

Joint Institute for Advanced Materials Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Tennessee Knoxville TN 37996 USA.

Understanding the feasibility to couple semiconducting and magnetic properties in metal halide perovskites through interface design opens new opportunities for creating the next generation spin-related optoelectronics. In this work, a fundamentally new phenomenon of optically induced magnetization achieved by coupling photoexcited orbital magnetic dipoles with magnetic spins at perovskite/ferromagnetic interface is discovered. The depth-sensitive polarized neutron reflectometry combined with in situ photoexcitation setup, constitutes key evidence of this novel effect. It is demonstrated that a circularly polarized photoexcitation induces a stable magnetization signal within the depth up to 7.5 nm into the surface of high-quality perovskite (MAPbBr) film underneath a ferromagnetic cobalt layer at room temperature. In contrast, a linearly polarized light does not induce any detectable magnetization in the MAPbBr. The observation reveals that photoexcited orbital magnetic dipoles at the surface of perovskite are coupled with the spins of the ferromagnetic atoms at the interface, leading to an optically induced magnetization within the perovskite's surface. The finding demonstrates that perovskite semiconductor can be bridged with magnetism through optically controllable method at room temperature in this heterojunction design. This provides the new concept of utilizing spin and orbital degrees of freedom in new-generation spin-related optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188215PMC
June 2021

Carotenoids from fungi and microalgae: A review on their recent production, extraction, and developments.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 11;337:125398. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, International Joint Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, No.1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214122, China. Electronic address:

The demand for carotenoids from natural sources obtained by biological extraction methods is increasing with the development of biotechnology and the continued awareness of food safety. Natural plant-derived carotenoids have a relatively high production cost and are affected by the season, while microbial-derived carotenoids are favored due to their natural, high-efficiency, low production cost, and ease of industrialization. This article reviewed the following aspects of natural carotenoids derived from microorganisms: (1) the structures and properties of main carotenoids; (2) fungal and microalgal sources of the main carotenoids; (3) influencing factors and modes of improvement for carotenoids production; (4) efficient extraction methods for carotenoids; and (5) the commercial value of carotenoids. This review provided a reference and guidance for the development of natural carotenoids derived from microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125398DOI Listing
June 2021
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