Publications by authors named "Bin Chen"

2,374 Publications

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All-inorganic quantum dot LEDs based on phase-stabilized α-CsPbI3 perovskite.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

University of Toronto, ECE, 10 King's College Road, ECE, Galbraith Building, Room GB447, M5S 3G4, Toronto, CANADA.

The all-inorganic nature of CsPbI 3 perovskites offers an avenue to enhance stability in perovskite devices. Concerted research efforts have led to improved stability of the black phase in CsPbI 3 films; however, these strategies - including strain and doping - are based on organic-ligand-capped perovskites, which prevent perovskites from forming the close-packed QD solids necessary to achieve high charge transport and thermal transport. Here we develop an inorganic ligand exchange that leads to CsPbI 3 QD films that unite superior phase stability with increased thermal transport. We demonstrate that the atomic ligand exchanged QD films, once mechanically coupled, exhibit improved phase stability, and we link this to distributing strain across the film. Further, operando measurements of the temperature of LEDs indicate that KI-exchanged QD films exhibit increased thermal transport compared to controls that rely on organic ligands. The LEDs exhibit a maximum EQE of 23% with EL emission centered at 640 nm (FWHM of ~31 nm). These red LEDs provide an operating half lifetime of 10 hours (luminance of 200 cd/m 2 ), an operating stability that is 6x higher than that of control devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202104812DOI Listing
May 2021

Icariin enhance mild hypothermia-induced neuroprotection via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB in experimental ischemic stroke.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Hainan Medical University, No.48, Baishuitang Road, Haikou, 460106, Hainan, China.

Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a promising neuroprotective agent for treating stroke. However, its clinical application was limited by the impractical duration. Icariin (ICA) were reported to have therapeutic effect on cerebral ischemia. In this research, our aim was to investigate whether the combination of TH and ICA had better neuroprotective effects on ischemic stroke. An ischemia-reperfusion rat model was established and treated with mild hypothermia, ICA or JSH-23 (inhibitor of NF-κB). Thermistor probe, 2'3'5'-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), 5/12-score system, and ELISA were used to detect temperature (rectum, cortex, striatum), infarct volume, neurological deficit, and cerebral cell death of these rats. The expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin- 6 (IL-6), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor (Nrf2), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARα), PPARγ, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), p-JAK2, signal transducers and activators of transduction-3 (STAT3), and p-STAT3 were detected by Western blot or q-PCR. Mild hypothermia, ICA, and JSH-23 reduced the cerebral infarct volume, neurological deficit, cerebral cell death of rats, downregulated the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, C-Caspase 3 and Bax, and the activation of PPARs/Nrf2/NF-κB and JAK2/STAT3 pathways, but elevated the expression of Bcl-2. ICA promoted the effect of mild hypothermia on infarct volume, neurological deficit, and cerebral cell death. Moreover, ICA also enhanced the regulatory effect of mild hypothermia on apoptosis/inflammation factors expressions and activation of PPARs/Nrf2/NF-κB and JAK2/STAT3 pathways. ICA could promote mild hypothermia-induced neuroprotection by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB through the PPARs/Nrf2/NF-κB and JAK2/STAT3/NF-κB pathways in experimental stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-021-00731-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Tumor Mutation Burden and Differentially Mutated Genes Among Immune Phenotypes in Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 4;14:2953-2965. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Nowadays, immune checkpoint blockades (ICBs) have been extensively applied in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the outcome of anti-program death-1/program death ligand-1 (anti-PD-1/PD-L1) therapy is not satisfying in -mutant lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients and its exact mechanisms have not been fully understood. Since tumor mutation burden (TMB) and tumor immune phenotype had been thought as potential predictors for efficacy of ICBs, we further studied the TMB and immune phenotype in LUAD patients to explore potential mechanisms for poor efficacy of ICBs in positive mutated patients and to find possible factors that could impact the tumor immune phenotype which might uncover some new therapeutic strategies or combination therapies.

Methods: We enrolled 223 LUAD patients who underwent surgery in our hospital. We evaluated TMB through targeted panel sequencing. The tumor immune phenotype, which could be divided into non-inflamed, intermediate and inflamed, was determined through immunohistochemistry using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Enumeration data were analyzed by Chi-square test or Fisher exact test and shown as number (proportion). Logistic regression model was employed for univariate and multivariate analysis of the association between TMB levels and clinical characteristics.

Results: The median TMB level was 4.0445 mutations/Mb. Multivariate analysis showed the TMB level was significantly associated with age (=0.026), gender (=0.041) and mutation status (=0.015), and in -mutant patients we found a lower proportion of patients with mutated and . Furthermore, we found patients with or without metastatic lesions would have different immune phenotype (=0.007). And the mutational frequencies of and were significantly different among three immune phenotypes.

Conclusion: Low TMB level could be the reason for the poor efficacy of ICBs in patients having mutation. And mutational frequencies of and were lower in -mutant patients. Furthermore, and might involve in the formation of immune phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S294993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106479PMC
May 2021

Lattice Strain Relaxation and Grain Homogenization for Efficient Inverted MAPbI Perovskite Solar Cells.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 10:4569-4575. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China.

The lattice strain of a perovskite film is vital to the controllable growth and charge transport in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this work, a lead chloride (PbCl) assisted crystallization (LCAC) protocol is introduced for releasing the strain across the interface of a NiO/perovskite, which induces a preferred (00) crystal plane growth and grain homogenization. PSCs with LCAC show a facilitated charge extraction and suppressed nonradiative recombination. Thanks to the controlled film growth and strain-released interface, the inverted MAPbI (MA = methylammonium) PSC devices with LCAC deliver a power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 20% with a short-circuit current density () of 23.60 mA cm, which is obviously higher than that of the control device with a PCE of 18.36% and a of 21.74 mA cm. Meanwhile, the LCAC devices maintain 80% of their initial efficiency after being exposed to an ambient atmosphere with a relative humidity of 40% over 1000 h in the dark.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01074DOI Listing
May 2021

Gestational high-fat diet impaired demethylation of Pparα and induced obesity of offspring.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Key Laboratory of Reproductive Genetics (Zhejiang University School of Medicine), Ministry of Education, Hangzhou, China.

Gestational and postpartum high-fat diets (HFDs) have been implicated as causes of obesity in offspring in later life. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of gestational and/or postpartum HFD on obesity in offspring. We established a mouse model of HFD exposure that included gestation, lactation and post-weaning periods. We found that gestation was the most sensitive period, as the administration of a HFD impaired lipid metabolism, especially fatty acid oxidation in both foetal and adult mice, and caused obesity in offspring. Mechanistically, the DNA hypermethylation level of the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (Pparα), and the decreased mRNA levels of ten-eleven translocation 1 (Tet1) and/or ten-eleven translocation 2 (Tet2) were detected in the livers of foetal and adult offspring from mothers given a HFD during gestation, which was also associated with low Pparα expression in hepatic cells. We speculated that the hypermethylation of Pparα resulted from the decreased Tet1/2 expression in mothers given a HFD during gestation, thereby causing lipid metabolism disorders and obesity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that a HFD during gestation exerts long-term effects on the health of offspring via the DNA demethylation of Pparα, thereby highlighting the importance of the gestational period in regulating epigenetic mechanisms involved in metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16551DOI Listing
May 2021

Application of pain scores during cough in speeding recovery after thoracotomy.

Asian J Surg 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Chongqing University Cancer Hospital, Chongqing, 400030, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.04.017DOI Listing
May 2021

Pristimerin synergistically sensitizes conditionally reprogrammed patient derived-primary hepatocellular carcinoma cells to sorafenib through endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS generation by modulating Akt/FoxO1/p27 signaling pathway.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jun 4;86:153563. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 510080 Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Sorafenib (SORA), as a first-line therapeutic drug, has been used to treat HCC, but resistance poses a major limitation on the efficacy of SORA chemotherapy. Pristimerin (PRIS), a natural bioactive component isolated from various plant species in the Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae families, has been reported to exhibit outstanding antitumor effects in several types of cells in vitro.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether PRIS can exert synergistic anti-tumor effects with the combination of SORA, and if so, through what mechanism.

Methods: Conditionally reprogrammed patient derived-primary hepatocellular carcinoma cells (CRHCs) were isolated from human liver cancer tissues and treated with SORA and PRIS. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and tube formation ability were detected by DNA content quantification, flow cytometry, transwell assay and Matrigel-based angiogenesis assay. Gene and protein expression were assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively.

Results: Initially, we observed that the combination of the two drugs had a much stronger inhibitory effect on CRHCs growth than either drug alone. Moreover, the combination of 2 µM SORA and 1 µM PRIS exhibited a significant anti‑migrative and anti-invaded effect on CRHCs, and remarkably inhibited capillary structure formation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, the combined treatment with SORA and PRIS synergistically induced intrinsic apoptosis in CRHCs, involving a caspase-4-dependent mechanism paralleled by an increased Bax/Bcl-xL ratio. These activities were mediated through ROS generation and the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. GRP78 silencing or ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid administration was revealed to abolish the anticancer effects of PRIS, indicating the critical role of GRP78 in mediating the bioactivity of PRIS. The present study also provides mechanistic evidence that PRIS modulated the Akt/FoxO1/p27 signaling pathway, which is required for mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic apoptosis, activation of ER stress, and stimulation of caspase-4 induced by PRIS, and, consequently resulting in suppressed cell viability, migration and angiogenesis co-treated with SORA in CRHCs.

Conclusion: Our results suggest the use of PRIS as sensitizers of chemotherapy paving the way for innovative and promising targeted chemotherapy-based therapeutic strategies in human HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153563DOI Listing
June 2021

Sulfonic-Group-Grafted TiCT MXene: A Silver Bullet to Settle the Instability of Polyaniline toward High-Performance Zn-Ion Batteries.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Polyaniline (PANI) is a promising cathode material for Zn-ion batteries (ZIBs) due to its intrinsic conductivity and redox activity; however, the achievements of PANI in high-performance ZIBs are largely hindered by its instability during the repeated charge/discharge. Taking advantage of the high conductivity, flexibility, and grafting ability together, a surface-engineered TiCT MXene is designed as a silver bullet to fight against the deprotonation and swelling/shrinking issues occurring in the redox process of PANI, which are the origins of its instability. Specifically, the sulfonic-group-grafted TiCT(S-TiCT) continuously provides protons to improve the protonation degree of PANI and maintains the polymer backbone at a locally low pH, which effectively inhibits deprotonation and brings high redox activity along with good reversibility. Meanwhile, the conductive and flexible natures of S-TiCT assist the fast redox reaction of PANI and concurrently buffer its corresponding swelling/shrinking. Therefore, the S-TiCT-enhanced PANI cathode simultaneously achieves a high discharge capacity of 262 mAh g at 0.5 A g, a superior rate capability of 160 mAh g at 15 A g, and a good cyclability over 5000 cycles with 100% coulombic efficiency. This work enlightens the development of versatile MXene surface engineering for advanced batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c02215DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical features and outcomes after endovascular therapy for penetrating aortic ulcer and intramural hematoma.

Vascular 2021 Apr 28:17085381211012573. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Institute of Vascular Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: To identify the differences between clinical features and outcomes after endovascular therapy for penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU) and intramural hematoma (IMH).

Methods: From January 2009 to March 2020, patients who underwent endovascular therapy for PAU and IMH were enrolled. Information on patient demographics, presentation, PAU and IMH morphology, laboratory examination, and clinical follow-up information was collected and analyzed. Univariate analysis was performed to identify the differences between IMH and PAU, and Kaplan-Meier was used to calculate the cumulative survival rate and freedom from reintervention.

Results: A total of 114 patients were enrolled; 80 (70.2%) of them were diagnosed with PAU. Compared with PAU, patients with IMH were younger ( = 0.006), more likely to be admitted emergently ( = 0.001), had longer hospital stay ( = 0.028), and had higher levels of C-reactive protein ( = 0.030). Meanwhile, patients with IMH were more likely to be associated with hypertension ( = 0.020) and pleural effusion ( < 0.001) and less likely to have a history of acute coronary syndrome ( = 0.019) and prior cardiovascular intervention ( = 0.017). The five-year freedom from reintervention and cumulative survival rate were 94.2% (95% confidential interval, 88.9%-99.9%) and 87.8% (95% confidential interval, 79.5%-96.9%) in PAU patients and 89.6% (95% confidential interval, 75.8%-99.9%) and 85.1% (95% confidential interval, 68.0%-99.9%) in IMH patients, respectively. There was no significant difference in freedom from reintervention ( = 0.795) or cumulative survival rate ( = 0.817).

Conclusions: IMH appeared to occur in younger patients with hypertension and usually had an acute onset, while PAU was more likely to be found incidentally in older patients with atherosclerosis. Endovascular therapy was effective in both IMH and PAU patients with encouraging outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17085381211012573DOI Listing
April 2021

[Banded chromosome images recognition based on dense convolutional network with segmental recalibration].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;38(1):122-130

Chengdu Institute of Computer Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, P.R.China;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R.China;Guangzhou Electronic Technology Co. Ltd., Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510070, P.R.China.

Human chromosomes karyotyping is an important means to diagnose genetic diseases. Chromosome image type recognition is a key step in the karyotyping process. Accurate and efficient identification is of great significance for automatic chromosome karyotyping. In this paper, we propose a model named segmentally recalibrated dense convolutional network (SR-DenseNet). In each stage of the model, the dense connected network layers is used to extract the features of different abstract levels of chromosomes automatically, and then the concatenation of all the layers which extract different local features is recalibrated with squeeze-and-excitation (SE) block. SE blocks explicitly construct learnable structures for importance of the features. Then a model fusion method is proposed and an expert group of chromosome recognition models is constructed. On the public available Copenhagen chromosome recognition dataset (G-bands) the proposed model achieves error rate of only 1.60%, and with model fusion the error further drops to 0.99%. On the Padova chromosome dataset (Q-bands) the model gets the corresponding error rate of 6.67%, and with model fusion the error further drops to 5.98%. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper is effective and has the potential to realize the automation of chromosome type recognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201912029DOI Listing
February 2021

Strategy of boundary discretization in numerical simulation of laser propagation in skin tissue with vascular lesions.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 03;18(3):2455-2472

State-Province Joint Engineering Lab of Fluid Transmission System Technology, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

Understanding light propagation in skin tissues with complex blood vessels can help improve clinical efficacy in the laser treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions. The voxel-based Monte Carlo (VMC) algorithm with simple blood vessel geometry is commonly used in studying the law of light propagation in tissues. However, unavoidable errors are expected in VMC because of the zigzag polygonal interface. A tetrahedron-based Monte Carlo with extended boundary condition (TMCE) solver is developed to discretize complex tissue boundaries accurately. Tetrahedra are generated along the interface, resulting in a polyhedron approximation to match the real interface. A comparison between TMCE and VMC shows neglected differences in the overall distribution of energy deposition of different models, but poor adaptability of the curved tissue interface in VMC leads to a higher energy deposition error than TMCE in a mostly deposited region in blood vessels. Replacing the real blood vessel with a cylinder-shaped vessel shows an error lower than that caused by VMC. Statistical significance analysis of energy deposition by TMCE shows that mean curvature has stronger relationship with energy deposition than the Gaussian curvature, which indicates the importance of this geometric parameter in predicting photon behavior in vascular lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2021125DOI Listing
March 2021

High discrepancy in thrombotic events in non-small cell lung cancer patients with different genomic alterations.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 Mar;10(3):1512-1524

Department of Medical Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Acute complications, such as venous thromboembolism (VTE), are common in patients with advanced severe lung cancers. However, current VTE risk scores cannot adequately identify high-risk patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study proposed to elucidated the incidence of thromboembolism (TE) in patients with different oncogenic aberrations and the impact of these aberrations on the efficacy of targeted therapy in patients with NSCLC.

Methods: A systemic review was conducted in Web of Science, PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to evaluate the incidence of TE in different molecular subtypes of NSCLC. Data from patients diagnosed of advanced NSCLC who harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or ROS proto-oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) rearrangements since 2016 to 2019 were also retrospectively collected. A meta-analysis with random-effects model, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were performed. The principal summary measure was incidence of thrombotic events in NSCLC patients. And the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy was compared between the two subgroups.

Results: A total of 5,767 cases from 20 studies were included in the analysis of the incidence of thrombosis in patients with different oncogenic alterations. The pooled analysis showed a higher risk of thrombosis in ROS1-fusion types (41%, 95% CI: 35-47%) and ALK-fusion types (30%, 95% CI: 24-37%) than in EGFR-mutation (12%, 95% CI: 8-17%), KRAS-mutation (25%, 95% CI: 13-50%), and wild-type (14%, 95% CI: 10-20%) cases. A high prevalence of thrombosis (ALK: 24.4%; ROS1: 32.6%) was observed in the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (SPH) cohort of 224 patients with ALK or ROS1 fusion. Furthermore, patients with embolism had significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) after TKI therapy than those without embolism, both in the ALK+ cohort (5.6 12.9 months, P<0.0001) and in the ROS1+ cohort (9.6 17.6 months, P=0.0481).

Conclusions: NSCLC patients with ALK/ROS1 rearrangements are more likely to develop thrombosis than patients with other oncogenic alterations. Thrombosis may also be associated with an inferior response and PFS after TKI therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-20-1290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044490PMC
March 2021

LINC00943 knockdown exerts neuroprotective effects in Parkinson's disease through regulates CXCL12 expression by sponging miR-7-5p.

Genes Genomics 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Neurology, Jingmen No. 1 People's Hospital, No. 168, Xiangshan Avenue, Duodao District, Jingmen, 448000, Hubei, China.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative movement disorder, but the pathogenesis is still unclear. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play a prominent role in PD.

Objective: This study is designed to explore the role and mechanism of long intergenic non-coding RNA 00943 (LINC00943) in the N-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP)-inducted PD model.

Methods: LINC00943, microRNA-7-5p (miR-7-5p), and the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12, also referred to as SDF-1) level were examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and flow cytometry assays, severally. Protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and CXCL12 were assessed by western blot assay. The ROS generation and SOD activity were detected by the corresponding kits. The binding relationship between miR-7-5p and LINC00943 or CXCL12 was predicted by Starbase and then verified by a dual-luciferase reporter and RNA Immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays.

Results: LINC00943 and CXCL12 were increased, and miR-7-5p was decreased in MPP-inducted SK-N-SH cells. LINC00943 silencing promoted cell viability, and repressed apoptosis and the inflammatory response in MPP-treated SK-N-SH cells. The mechanical analysis discovered that LINC00943 acted as a sponge of miR-7-5p to regulate CXCL12 expression.

Conclusions: LINC00943 knockdown could attenuate MPP-triggered neuron injury by regulating the miR-7-5p/CXCL12 axis, hinting at a promising therapeutic target for PD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-021-01084-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Surgical treatment for patients with hemophilic pseudotumor-related femoral fracture: a retrospective study.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Apr 21;16(1):275. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Department of Orthopaedics, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Hemophilic pseudotumor (HPT)-related fracture is a rare but severe complication in patients with HPTs. These fractures often occur in femurs. There is no consensus on the standard surgical protocol for HPT-related femoral fracture. The present retrospective study evaluated the outcomes of these patients treated with surgical interventions.

Methods: Ten patients with HPT-related femoral fractures who were treated with 14 surgical procedures due to 11 fractures in our hospital from January 2014 to April 2020 were evaluated retrospectively. Demographic data, fracture location, complications after surgery, and follow-up outcomes were recorded and analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 39.7 months.

Results: The mean age at surgery was 31 years. Closed reduction external fixation (CREF) was originally performed in 2 patients, open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) was performed in 4 patients, screw fixation alone was performed in 1 patient, brace immobilization was performed in 1 patient, and amputation was performed in 3 patients. Bone union was observed in 5 patients, and an adequate callus was visible in 2 patients. Both patients with CREF had pin infections. Nonunion combined with external fixation (EF) failure occurred in 1 patient, and the plate was broken after ORIF. Three patients underwent autogenous or allogeneic cortical strut grafting. Three patients had HPT recurrence.

Conclusions: It is necessary to perform surgery in patients with HPT-related femoral fractures. Surgical treatments must consider fracture stabilization and HPT resection. Internal fixation is preferable, and EF should only be used for temporary fixation. If the HPT erodes more than one third of the bone diameter, strut grafts are necessary for mechanical stability. Amputation is an appropriate curative method in certain situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02426-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058963PMC
April 2021

Immunostimulatory AIE Dots for Live-Cell Imaging and Drug Delivery.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 20;13(17):19660-19667. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules and National Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

The mechanical properties of nanoscale drug carriers play critical roles in regulating nano-bio interactions. For example, the superior deformability of the softer nanoparticles enables them to pass through the biofilters efficiently, facilitating their long blood circulation and better tumor penetration. However, as a novel nanocarrier system, the elimination efficiency of soft nanoparticles from cells is poorly investigated. Here, we report a facile strategy to prepare soft luminescent nanoparticles through self-assembly of amphiphilic aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorophores. The prepared soft AIE dots exhibit strong light emission (quantum yield, ∼27.1%) and can reveal the encapsulation and excretion process of NPs in real time. The cell results showed that soft NPs can greatly increase the transfer speed of nanomaterials into cells and accelerate their elimination from cells through the sacrifice of soft AIE dots. We also show that soft AIE dots loaded with cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides can induce strong immunostimulatory effects, producing a high level of various proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-R, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12. This work demonstrates a new design strategy for synthesizing a soft nanocarrier system that can deliver drugs into cells efficiently and then be eliminated from cells quickly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02128DOI Listing
May 2021

Small molecule natural compound targets the NF-κB signaling and ameliorates the development of osteoarthritis.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, China.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial and chronic disease describing the destruction of cartilage that can lead to defects in the elderly. There is currently no practical strategy that can reverse the OA process. Here, we describe nepetin, a small natural compound with extracellular matrix (ECM) and inflammation regulating functions. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of nepetin on interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced inflammation in mice chondrocyte and OA model. In chondrocytes, treatment with nepetin inhibited the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators induced by IL-1β. Moreover, pretreatment or posttreatment with nepetin also reduced the ECM catabolism and enhanced the ECM anabolism. Mechanistically, nepetin suppressed NF-κB signaling pathway in IL-1β stimulated chondrocyte. Meanwhile, our molecular docking studies indicated nepetin had a powerful binding capacity to p65. Furthermore, nepetin showed a protective and therapeutic effect on the mouse OA model. To sum up, this study indicated nepetin had a new potential therapeutic option in OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30392DOI Listing
April 2021

Control the Neural Stem Cell Fate with Biohybrid Piezoelectrical Magnetite Micromotors.

Nano Lett 2021 Apr 13;21(8):3518-3526. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Inducing neural stem cells to differentiate and replace degenerated functional neurons represents the most promising approach for neural degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, etc. While diverse strategies have been proposed in recent years, most of these are hindered due to uncontrollable cell fate and device invasiveness. Here, we report a minimally invasive micromotor platform with biodegradable helical () as the framework and superparamagnetic FeO nanoparticles/piezoelectric BaTiO nanoparticles as the built-in function units. With a low-strength rotational magnetic field, this integrated micromotor system can perform precise navigation in biofluid and achieve single-neural stem cell targeting. Remarkably, by tuning ultrasound intensity, thus the local electrical output by the motor, directed differentiation of the neural stem cell into astrocytes, functional neurons (dopamine neurons, cholinergic neurons), and oligodendrocytes, can be achieved. This micromotor platform can serve as a highly controllable wireless tool for bioelectronics and neuronal regenerative therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00290DOI Listing
April 2021

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of early mobilization therapy in patients after cardiac surgery.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25314

The Affiliated People's Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Background: Prolonged hospitalization and immobility of critical care patients elevate the risk of long-term physical and cognitive impairments. However, the therapeutic effects of early mobilization have been difficult to interpret due to variations in study populations, interventions, and outcome measures. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effects of early mobilization therapy on cardiac surgery patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: PubMed, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched from their inception to September 2018. Randomized controlled trials were included if patients were adults (≥18 years) admitted to any ICU for cardiac surgery due to cardiovascular disease and who were treated with experimental physiotherapy initiated in the ICU (pre, post, or peri-operative). Data were extracted by 2 reviewers independently using a pre-constructed data extraction form. Length of ICU and hospital stay was evaluated as the primary outcomes. Physical function and adverse events were assessed as the secondary outcomes. Review Manager 5.3 (RevMan 5.3) was used for statistical analysis. For all dichotomous variables, relative risks or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were presented. For all continuous variables, mean differences (MDs) or standard MDs with 95% CIs were calculated.

Results: The 5 studies with a total of 652 patients were included in the data synthesis final meta-analysis. While a slight favorable effect was detected in 3 out of the 5 studies, the overall effects were not significant, even after adjusting for heterogeneity.

Conclusions: This population-specific evaluation of the efficacy of early mobilization to reduce hospitalization duration suggests that intervention may not universally justify the labor barriers and resource costs in patients undergoing non-emergency cardiac surgery.

Prospero Research Registration Identifying Number: CRD42019135338.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051976PMC
April 2021

Joint effects of HPV-related knowledge and socio-demographic factors on HPV testing behaviour among females in Shenzhen.

Eur J Public Health 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Healthcare, Affiliated Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Limited population-based studies explore the utilization and associated barriers or facilitators to cervical cancer screening in China. We attempted to investigate the associations of socio-demographic factors, HPV specific knowledge with HPV testing behaviour in Shenzhen, China.

Methods: A citywide cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to June 2015 in Shenzhen city by using a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Socio-demographic information, awareness and specific knowledge of HPV, practice of HPV testing, and HPV vaccination-related attitude were collected. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyse possible associations.

Results: Approximately one third of total 8639 women aged from 30 to 60 years old had ever received HPV testing. Overall, 67.6% of all participants demonstrated low knowledge level of HPV. High HPV knowledge level was significantly associated with HPV testing behaviour (odds ratio: 3.792, 95% confidence interval: 3.400-4.230). The impact of residence and education on testing behaviour only turned to be significant if women had low level of HPV knowledge (P for multiplicative interactions: 0.001 and <0.001, respectively), whereas monthly income exerted promotion effects apparently among those with high knowledge level (P for multiplicative interaction: 0.037).

Conclusions: Our study revealed gaps in HPV knowledge and screening participation among Chinese women, and provided novel clues that women with high HPV knowledge level would be more appeal to involve in HPV testing behaviour. The influence of HPV-related knowledge on HPV testing also lies in the joint effects with socio-demographic factors, including residence, education and monthly income.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab049DOI Listing
April 2021

Policy changes and the screening, diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients from 2015 to 2018 in Zhejiang Province, China: a retrospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 12;11(4):e047023. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Global Health, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, Duivendrecht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To examine changes in the screening, diagnosis, treatment and management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DRTB) patients, and investigate the impacts of DRTB-related policies on patients of different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.

Design: A retrospective cohort study using registry data, plus a survey on DRTB-related policies.

Setting: All prefecture-level Centres for Disease Control in Zhejiang Province, China.

Main Outcome Measures: Alongside the care cascade, we examined: (1) reported number of presumptive DRTB patients; (2) percentage of presumptive patients with drug susceptibility testing (DST) records; (3) percentage of DRTB/rifampicin-resistant (RR) patients registered; (4) percentage of RR/multidrug-resistant TB (MDRTB) patients that received anti-DRTB treatment; and (5) percentage of RR/MDRTB patients cured/completed treatment among those treated. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to explore the impacts of DRTB policies after adjusting for other factors.

Results: The number of reported presumptive DRTB patients and the percentage with DST records largely increased during 2015-2018, and the percentage of registered patients who received anti-DRTB treatment also increased from 59.0% to 86.5%. Patients under the policies of equipping GeneXpert plus expanded criteria for DST had a higher likelihood of being registered compared with no GeneXpert (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.57, 95% CI: 1.20 to 5.51), while for treatment initiation the association was only significant when further expanding the registration criteria (aOR=2.38, 95% CI: 1.19 to 4.79). Patients with registered residence inside Zhejiang were more likely to be registered (aOR=1.96, 95% CI: 1.52 to 2.52), treated (aOR=3.83, 95% CI: 2.78 to 5.28) and complete treatment (aOR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.59) compared with those outside.

Conclusion: The policy changes on DST and registration have effectively improved DRTB case finding and care. Nevertheless, challenges remain in servicing vulnerable groups such as migrants and improving equity in the access to TB care. Future policies should provide comprehensive support for migrants to complete treatment at their current place of residence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047997PMC
April 2021

Research progress on the molecular mechanisms of hepatic metastasis in lung cancer: a narrative review.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr 24;10(4):4806-4822. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Medical Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University Medical School Cancer Institute, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The liver is one of the most common sites of metastatic spread of lung cancer, and the process of metastasis is regulated by many factors. A number of genes, including multiple tumor suppressor 1 (mts1), p120 catenin, and CT45A1, increase the possibility of hepatic metastasis in lung cancer, whereas Tip30/CC3, CUL5, and SOCS3 expression in lung tumors inhibit tumor metastasis. microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miRNA-126, miRNA-338, and miRNA-218, can affect the metastasis of lung cancer cells to the liver. The D114-Notch signaling pathway can inhibit liver metastasis in small cell lung cancer. Serum tumor markers cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) are closely related to the risk of hepatic metastasis in lung cancer. Based on previously published literature, we found that the metastasis and invasion of lung cancer to the liver are determined by molecular factors. Therefore, the selective identification and intervention of these erroneous signals can predict early lung cancer metastasis to the liver. In this review article, we describe the mechanisms and influencing factors (genes, signal pathways, chemicals, proteins, miRNAs) of hepatic metastasis in lung cancer. We hope to provide a summary of the evidence for the mechanisms by which related genes or proteins affect the malignancy of liver metastasis from lung cancer so that doctors and researchers can improve treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-1675DOI Listing
April 2021

The global state of research and trends in osteomyelitis from 2010 to 2019: a 10-year bibliometric analysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr 24;10(4):3726-3738. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Orthopaedics, Fuzhou Second Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China; Trauma Medical Center of Fuzhou City, Fuzhou Second Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Osteomyelitis is a difficult problem for orthopedic surgeons due to its great harm and complicated treatment. In this study, we aim to make a bibliometric analysis of the literature related to osteomyelitis and explore the research status, hotspots and frontiers in this field in recent 10 years.

Methods: Literature relating to osteomyelitis from 2010 to 2019 was retrieved from the database of Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) of Web of Science. CiteSpace was used to analyze country/institution, authors/cited authors, cited journals, cited references, and keywords. An analysis of counts and centrality was used to reveal publication outputs, countries/institutions, core journals, active authors, hot topics, and frontiers.

Results: A total of 6,421 valid literatures were retrieved. The most productive country and institution were the United States and Shanghai Jiao Tong University, respectively. Researchers and institutions from the United States, Germany, England, and France were the core research forces. There was a broad and close cooperation worldwide. Lipsky BA [24] was the most productive first author, and Lew DP [487] was the most frequently cited author. Lipsky et al.'s [2012] article (co-citation counts, 146) was the most representative and symbolic reference. Journal of Foot Ankle Surgery [111] was the most productive journal. Clin Infect Dis [2,275] was the most frequently co-cited journal. Staphylococcus aureus infection and the diagnosis, treatment and management strategy of osteomyelitis were the hot spots. Epidemiology, diabetic foot, treatment, especially antibiotics, biofilm and in vitro research were research frontiers.

Conclusions: This study reveals the current research status and hot spots in the field of osteomyelitis in recent 10 years, which may help researchers to identify further potential perspectives on collaborators, research frontiers, and hot topics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-1978DOI Listing
April 2021

Auricular reconstruction using Medpor combined with different hearing rehabilitation approaches for microtia.

Acta Otolaryngol 2021 Apr 6:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine; Institute of Otology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Congenital microtia-atresia affects patients in two specific ways: severe conductive hearing loss and difficulty in integrating into social environments due to auricle malformation.

Aims/objectives: To investigate the safety and efficacy of single-stage auricular reconstruction and hearing rehabilitation in children with microtia and external auditory canal atresia.

Material And Methods: From January 2016 to December 2019, we included 32 patients with microtia and external canal atresia who received auricle reconstruction with high-density polyethylene (Medpor) framework and three different hearing rehabilitation approaches at the Ninth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Twenty patients underwent the traditional external auditory canal and middle ear repair (EACR), eight patients were implanted with Bonebridge (BB) devices, and four patients were implanted with bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in one stage. Postoperative changes in auricle morphology and hearing and speech recognition and occurrence of complications were evaluated.

Results: After 6-24 months of follow-up, the auricle shape recovered well in all three groups, and the average score of 14 fine structures in the auricle was 9.43 (EACR), 10.67 (BB), and 9.75 (BAHA) points. The average score of auricle symmetry was 6.83 (EACR), 6.00 (BB), and 6.44 (BAHA) points. No significant differences in auricle shape were observed among the three groups ( > .05). After surgery, the average hearing improvement in the BB group was 43.33 dB, and the average speech recognition threshold declined to 42.28 dB. In the BAHA group, the average hearing improvement was 35 dB, and the average speech recognition threshold declined to 33.5 dB, similar to that of the BB group. However, in the EACR group, the average hearing improvement was only 4.13 dB, and the average speech recognition threshold declined to 11.36 dB. No vertigo, tinnitus, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, facial nerve paralysis, osseointegration failure, and other complications occurred in all the patients. In the EACR group, auricle stent fracture, ear canal restenosis, and canal atresia occurred in one patient each. In the BAHA group, two patients developed local ear infections.

Conclusions And Significance: The procedure of single-stage auricular reconstruction and hearing rehabilitation for microtia is feasible and effective. The appropriate method of hearing reconstruction should be determined by evaluating the development of the inner and middle ear of the patients. For those patients with poor development of the mastoid and ossicular chain, hearing aid devices are recommended to achieve a stable and significant hearing effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016489.2021.1900601DOI Listing
April 2021

Hepcidin-induced reduction in iron content and PGC-1β expression negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation to play a protective role in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 4;13(8):11296-11314. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215004, China.

As a necessary trace element, iron is involved in many physiological processes. Clinical and basic studies have found that disturbances in iron metabolism, especially iron overload, might lead to bone loss and even be involved in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron homeostasis. However, the exact role of hepcidin in bone metabolism and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we found that in postmenopausal osteoporosis cohort, the concentration of hepcidin in the serum was significantly reduced and positively correlated with bone mineral density. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice were then used to construct an osteoporosis model. Hepcidin overexpression in these mice significantly improved bone mass and rescued the phenotype of bone loss. Additionally, overexpression of hepcidin in OVX mice greatly reduced the number and differentiation of osteoclasts and . This study found that overexpression of hepcidin significantly inhibited ROS production, mitochondrial biogenesis, and PGC-1β expression. These data showed that hepcidin protected osteoporosis by reducing iron levels in bone tissue, and in conjunction with PGC-1β, reduced ROS production and the number of mitochondria, thus inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone absorption. Hepcidin could provide new targets for the clinical treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109081PMC
April 2021

Twinning-mediated anomalous alignment of rutile films revealed by synchrotron X-ray nanodiffraction.

iScience 2021 Apr 6;24(4):102278. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Nanotwin structures in materials engender fascinating exotic properties. However, twinning usually alter the crystal orientation, resulting in random orientation and limited performances. Here, we report a well-aligned rutile TiO nanotwin film with superior preferential orientation than its isostructural substrate. By means of the synchrotron X-ray Laue nanodiffraction technique, the crystal orientation, twin boundaries, and deviatoric stresses of the film were quantitatively imaged at unprecedented spatial resolution to unravel the underlying mechanism of this anomalous alignment. Massive {101}-type rutile nanotwins were observed, and a crystallographic relationship of the heteroepitaxy was proposed. The rapid twinning and twin-controlled heteroepitaxy are responsible for the texture improvement. This work would open up opportunities for rational design of better twin-based functional materials, and implies the powerful capabilities of X-ray nanodiffraction technique for multidisciplinary applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005809PMC
April 2021

Adult-onset citrullinaemia type II with liver cirrhosis: A rare cause of hyperammonaemia.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 23;16(1):455-458. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Adult-onset citrullinaemia type II (CTLN2) is a rare disease in Chinese patients. As a subtype of citrin deficiency (CD), it is an autosomal recessive disease related to the SLC25A13 mutation on chromosome 7q21.3. In this study, we report a case of CTLN2 presenting with paroxysmal altered consciousness and refractory hyperammonaemia. The diagnosis was finally confirmed by gene analysis. The patient recovered after liver transplantation. It can be learned from this case that CD should be considered in patients with refractory hyperammonaemia and paroxysmal mental disorder without a history of liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2021-0235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005779PMC
March 2021

Treatment outcomes of patients with multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Zhejiang, China.

Eur J Med Res 2021 Apr 3;26(1):31. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the treatment outcomes of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) in Zhejiang, China and to evaluate possible risk factors associated with poor outcomes of M/XDR-TB.

Methods: Two-hundred-and-sixty-two patients having M/XDR-TB who received the diagnosis and treatment at nine referral hospitals from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016 in Zhejiang, China were included. All patients received second-line regimens recommended by WHO under the DOTS-Plus strategy.

Results: Among the 262 patients, the treatment success rate was 55.34% (n = 145) with 53.44% (n = 140) cured and 1.91% (n = 5) who completed treatment, 62 (23.66%) failed, 27 (10.31%) died, 16 (6.11%) defaulted and 12 (4.58%) transferred out. Forty (64.52%) of the 62 M/XDR-TB patients who failed treatment were due to adverse effects in the first 10 months of treatment. Eighteen patients (6.37%) had XDR-TB. Treatment failure was significantly higher among patients with XDR-TB at 50% than that among patients with non-XDR-TB at 21.72% (P = 0.006). Failure outcomes were associated with a baseline weight less than 50 kg (OR, 8.668; 95% CI 1.679-44.756; P = 0.010), age older than 60 years (OR, 9.053; 95% CI 1.606-51.027; P = 0.013), hemoptysis (OR, 8.928; 95% CI 1.048-76.923; P = 0.045), presence of cavitary diseases (OR, 10.204; 95% CI 2.032-52.631; P = 0.005), or treatment irregularity (OR, 47.619; 95% CI 5.025-500; P = 0.001).

Conclusion: Treatment outcomes for M/XDR-TB under the DOTS-Plus strategy in Zhejiang, China were favorable but still not ideal. Low body weight (< 50 kg), old age (> 60 years), severe symptoms of TB including cavitary disease, hemoptysis and irregular treatment were independent prognostic factors for failure outcomes in patients with M/XDR-TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40001-021-00502-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019161PMC
April 2021

Steroidal alkaloids from the bulbs of Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk and their anti-inflammatory activity.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Mar 22;112:104845. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Center for Natural Products Research, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

Steroidal alkaloids (1-11), including one new 24-hydroxylated cevanine-type steroidal alkaloid, named yibeinone F (1), were isolated from the bulbs of Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk. Their structures were elucidated by analyses of extensive spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with those reported previously, and the structures of compounds 1, 7 and 11 were further confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction analyses. The anti-inflammatory effects of all the isolated alkaloids were evaluated in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Among them, compounds 9 (stenanzine) and 10 (hapepunine) showed significant inhibitory effects against LPS-induced NO production with IC values of 8.04 μM and 20.85 μM, respectively. Furthermore, compound 9 effectively inhibited the release of cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE), and suppressed the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Further experiments revealed the underlying mechanism that 9 blocked LPS-induced phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor-α of nuclear transcription factor κB (IκBα) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, compound 9 may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104845DOI Listing
March 2021

Reduction of Human Mobility Matters during Early COVID-19 Outbreaks: Evidence from India, Japan and China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 10;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Mobility restrictions have been a heated topic during the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, multiple recent findings have verified its importance in blocking virus spread. Evidence on the association between mobility, cases imported from abroad and local medical resource supplies is limited. To reveal the association, this study quantified the importance of inter- and intra-country mobility in containing virus spread and avoiding hospitalizations during early stages of COVID-19 outbreaks in India, Japan, and China. We calculated the time-varying reproductive number () and duration from illness onset to diagnosis confirmation (), to represent conditions of virus spread and hospital bed shortages, respectively. Results showed that inter-country mobility fluctuation could explain 80%, 35%, and 12% of the variance in imported cases and could prevent 20 million, 5 million, and 40 million imported cases in India, Japan and China, respectively. The critical time for screening and monitoring of imported cases is 2 weeks at minimum and 4 weeks at maximum, according to the time when the Pearson's Rs between and imported cases reaches a peak (>0.8). We also found that if local transmission is initiated, a 1% increase in intra-country mobility would result in 1430 (±501), 109 (±181), and 10 (±1) additional bed shortages, as estimated using the in India, Japan, and China, respectively. Our findings provide vital reference for governments to tailor their pre-vaccination policies regarding mobility, especially during future epidemic waves of COVID-19 or similar severe epidemic outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001886PMC
March 2021

Variations in root morphological indices of rice (Oryza sativa L.) induced by seedling establishment methods and their relation to arsenic accumulation in plant tissues.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 22;281:116999. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China. Electronic address:

Understanding how the seedling establishment method affects arsenic (As) accumulation in rice is important for safe agricultural production. In a field experiment with three seedling establishment methods and two rice cultivars, the effects of direct seeding (DS), manual transplanting (MT), and seedling throwing (ST) on root morphological indices and the distribution, translocation, and accumulation of As in rice tissues across growth stages were compared. DS method resulted in the greatest accumulation of As in the two rice cultivars and led to more As distributed in aboveground tissues during the entire growth period. Especially in DS brown rice, the concentration of total As increased by 24.0%-40.8%, and that of inorganic As increased by 24.4%-40.0%, compared with the concentrations in MT and ST rice. A multiple regression model was developed with root morphological indices and the total As concentration in brown rice, and the R value of the model was 0.819, which was significant at the 1% level. Compared with the other establishment methods, the thinner diameters, smaller volumes, larger specific surface areas, and greater numbers of root tips in DS rice roots across growth stages promoted As uptake. The concentrations of As in root tips were approximately five times greater than those in the root base, and root tips were the key factor determining the difference in As accumulation in rice roots under the different seedling establishment methods. The results of this study demonstrate that the choice of an appropriate rice seedling establishment method is important to avoid the environmental consequences of As contamination and safely produce rice grain. Therefore, despite the current trend of increased use of DS, transplantation is recommended as a safer pattern of rice seedling establishment in As-contaminated areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116999DOI Listing
March 2021