Publications by authors named "Bin Chang"

134 Publications

Distribution and Variation of Serotypes and Pneumococcal Surface Protein A Clades of Strains Isolated From Adult Patients With Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Japan.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 19;11:617573. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Toyama Institute of Health, Toyama, Japan.

Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a surface protein of that may be a candidate antigen for new pneumococcal vaccines. This study investigates the distribution of PspA clades of the causative strains of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Japan. Of the 1,939 strains isolated from cases of adult IPD during 2014-2019, the PspA clades of 1,932 (99.6%) strains were determined, and no was detected in the remaining 7 strains (0.4%). PspA clades 1-6 were detected in 786 (40.5%), 291 (15.0%), 443 (22.8%), 369 (19.0%), 33 (1.7%), and 6 (0.3%) strains, respectively. New PspA clades (0.2%) were identified in two non-typeable and two serotype 35B pneumococci. The proportions of clade 1 and clade 2 showed significantly decreased and increased trends, respectively. Furthermore, the PspA clade of pneumococcal strains was partially serotype- and sequence type-dependent. The majority of strains belonging to serotypes contained in both the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) belonged to PspA clades 1 or 3. In contrast, the distribution of clades in non-vaccine serotypes was wider than that of vaccine serotype pneumococci. Our findings demonstrate that almost all pneumococcal strains from adult IPD express PspA clades 1-4, especially for non-vaccine serotypes. These results may be useful for the development of a new pneumococcal vaccine with PspA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.617573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044978PMC
March 2021

Invasive pneumococcal disease affected the fatal outcome in a COVID-19 patient.

J Infect Chemother 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

A 68-year-old man experienced fever and cough and was referred to a hospital for day 4. He had a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. On day 12, his PaO/FiO ratio worsened to 120 and he was transferred to Sapporo Medical University Hospital for treatment using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Venous blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, which were serotype 3, mucoid-type, and penicillin susceptible. Coinfections with coronavirus disease-2019 and invasive pneumococcal disease are rare; however, they are associated with a higher case fatality than either of the conditions manifesting alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2021.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026269PMC
April 2021

High-Performance Organic Photovoltaics Incorporating an Active Layer with a Few Nanometer-Thick Third-Component Layer on a Binary Blend Layer.

Nano Lett 2021 Mar 18;21(5):2207-2215. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Emergent Functional Matter Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 3001, Taiwan.

In this paper, a universal approach toward constructing a new bilayer device architecture, a few-nanometer-thick third-component layer on a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) binary blend layer, has been demonstrated in two different state-of-the-art organic photovoltaic (OPV) systems. Through a careful selection of a third component, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device based on PM6/Y6/layered PTQ10 layered third-component structure was 16.8%, being higher than those of corresponding devices incorporating the PM6/Y6/PTQ10 BHJ ternary blend (16.1%) and the PM6/Y6 BHJ binary blend (15.5%). Also, the device featuring PM7/Y1-4F/layered PTQ10 layered third-component structure gave a PCE of 15.2%, which is higher than the PCEs of the devices incorporating the PM7/Y1-4F/PTQ10 BHJ ternary blend and the PM7/Y1-4F BHJ binary blend (14.2 and 14.0%, respectively). These enhancements in PCE based on layered third-component structure can be attributed to improvements in the charge separation and charge collection abilities. This simple concept of the layered third-component structure appears to have great promise for achieving high-performance OPVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c05045DOI Listing
March 2021

23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23)-targeted serotype-specific identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(2):e0246699. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Division of Pediatric Dentistry, Department of Human Development and Fostering, Meikai University School of Dentistry, Saitama, Japan.

Reports of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae have declined since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13). The incidence of invasive diseases due to S. pneumoniae that are not addressed by the vaccines, however, has increased in children and adults, creating a global public health problem. Previously, we established the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for a PCV13 serotype-specific assay. In the current study, we developed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect serotypes in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) using the LAMP method. In this study, LAMP primer sets for serotypes 2, 8, 9N, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 17F, 20, 22F, and 33F of S. pneumoniae were developed. The reactivity, specificity, and sensitivity of LAMP assays were determined and compared to those of conventional PCR. The feasibility of LAMP assays in clinical application in patients with invasive pneumococcal diseases was validated by defining the detection limit of the LAMP assay with bacterial genomic DNA-spiked blood specimens. The specificity of each LAMP assay was determined using 44 serotypes of pneumococcal strains. Their sensitivity was 100 copies per reaction versus 103 to 106 copies per reaction for PCR assays. Using DNA-spiked blood specimens, excluding the LAMP assay that targeted serotype 22F (103 copies per reaction), the limit of detection of the LAMP assay was similar to that with purified DNA as the template (102 copies per reaction), compared with 103 to >106 copies per reaction for PCR assays. In conclusion, a rapid and simple LAMP-based PPSV23-targeted serotype detection assay was developed for use in many countries. This study is the first report of a LAMP-based assay for identification of PPSV23 serotypes. Further evaluation of this assay is needed through surveillance and vaccine efficacy studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246699PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886117PMC
February 2021

Clinicopathologic and Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of 8 Cases With Uterine Cervical Ewing Sarcoma: Case Series With Literature Review.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 04;45(4):523-530

Departments of Pathology.

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a highly malignant tumor that rarely occurs in the uterine cervix. Herein, we report 8 cases with ES arising primarily in the uterine cervix by focusing on clinicopathologic and molecular cytogenetic features and differential diagnoses. Eight cases of cervical ES were diagnosed between February, 2012, and September, 2018. The age of patients ranged from 13 to 47 years. Abnormal vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain were the most common symptoms. Histologically, the tumor was composed of uniform, round, and oval cells with a narrow rim of eosinophilic cytoplasm. Fibrous septa were observed between tumor cell nests. The tumors showed brisk mitotic activity and areas of coagulative necrosis. According to immunohistochemical studies, 50% (4/8) of the cases were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), and 87.5% (7/8) were positive for synaptophysin, which resulted in a diagnostic confusion with small cell carcinoma, primarily when dealing with small cervical biopsies. Molecular testing demonstrated the rearrangement of the EWSR1 gene in all of the 8 cases, which confirmed the diagnosis of ES. Although rare, ES should be considered as indicators of cervical small round cell neoplasms. Molecular analysis may greatly contribute to the final diagnosis of ES occurring in this unusual location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001674DOI Listing
April 2021

Boron carbonitride with tunable B/N Lewis acid/base sites for enhanced electrocatalytic overall water splitting.

Nanoscale 2021 Feb 3;13(5):2849-2854. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, P. R. China.

In-depth research on energy storage and conversion is urgently needed; thus, water splitting has become a possible method to achieve sustainable energy utilization. However, traditional carbon material with high graphitization degree exhibits a relatively low electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity as it is electrochemically inert. In this work, according to the Lewis theory of acids and bases and the density functional theory (DFT) results, which show that the enriched heteroatom of B/N in the boron carbonitride (BCN) system may introduce stronger adsorption strength of OH*/HO, respectively, we have designed and synthesized self-supporting BCN materials with different enrichment degrees of B/N (B-BCN/N-BCN) using carbon paper as substrate. Furthermore, by adjusting the contents of B and N, the optimum electrocatalytic performance of overall water splitting was obtained in which the onset voltage of water splitting on B-BCN//N-BCN was lower than 1.60 V. Our strategy of synthesizing materials with different heteroatom enrichment to improve the electronic environment of materials has opened up new opportunities for developing efficient metal-free electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr06857hDOI Listing
February 2021

Subcutaneous abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 28F in an infant: a case report.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Jan 4;21(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital, 4-1-1 Himebara, Izumo, 693-8555, Shimane, Japan.

Background: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is defined by the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae on culture from samples obtained from a normally sterile site. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have been developed for the prevention of IPD that is caused by highly virulent serotypes. Despite the effective reduction of IPD caused by vaccine serotypes after the introduction of PCV, there has been a rapid increase in the incidence of IPD caused by non-vaccine serotypes, and serotype replacement has become a global issue.

Case Presentation: We report a previously healthy 4-month-old girl presenting with a large subcutaneous abscess caused by S. pneumoniae, identified as non-vaccine serotype 28F. The patient had received routine vaccination, including PCV vaccination. After the incision and drainage of the subcutaneous abscess, the patient was treated with antibiotics. She was discharged on Day 7 of hospitalization without any residual sequelae.

Conclusions: Subcutaneous abscess is a common pediatric skin and soft tissue infection, whereas pneumococcal subcutaneous abscesses are quite rare. As the pneumococcal serotype 28F caused a subcutaneous abscess, this serotype possibly has a high virulence. The incidence of IPD caused by non-vaccine serotypes, such as 28F, is expected to increase in the future. The consolidation of international data on pneumococcal serotypes is important for the development of novel PCV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02465-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784344PMC
January 2021

Incorporating Indium Selenide Nanosheets into a Polymer/Small Molecule Binary Blend Active Layer Enhances the Long-Term Stability and Performance of Its Organic Photovoltaics.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Dec 25;12(49):55023-55032. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University 30010 Hsinchu, Taiwan.

In this report, we demonstrated that the incorporation of 15 wt % two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide materials indium selenide (InSe) nanosheets into a polymer (PM6)/small molecule (Y6) active layer not only increased its light absorption but also enhanced the long-term stability of the PM6/Y6/InSe ternary blend organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device was improved from 15.7 to 16.5% for the corresponding PM6/Y6 binary blend device. Moreover, the PM6/Y6/InSe device retained 80% of its initial PCE after thermal treatment at 100 °C for 600 h; in comparison, the binary blend device retained only 62% of its initial value. This relative enhancement of 29% resulted from the InSe nanosheets retarding or facilitating molecule packing in different orientations that stabilizes the morphology of the active layer. We adopted a modified kinetics model to account for the intrinsic degradation of the OPV; the degradation-facilitated energy for the degradation kinetics of the PCE for the ternary blend device was 5.3 kJ/mol, half of that (11.3 kJ/mol) of the binary blend device, indicating a slower degradation rate occurring for the case of incorporating InSe nanosheets. Therefore, the incorporation of transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets having tunable band gaps and large asymmetric shape appears to be a new way to improve the long-term stability of devices and realize the practical use of OPVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c14461DOI Listing
December 2020

Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 12F-CC4846 and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Japan, 2015-2017.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 11;26(11):2660-2668

To prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been implemented in many countries; however, many cases of IPD still occur and can be attributable to nonvaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In Japan, the number of IPD cases attributable to serotype 12F increased from 4.4% in 2015 to 24.6% in 2017 after 13-valent PCV was introduced. To clarify the associated genetic characteristics, we conducted whole-genome sequencing of 75 serotype 12F isolates. We identified 2 sequence types (STs) among the isolates: ST4846, which was the major type, and ST6945. Bayesian analysis suggested that these types diverged in »1942. Among serotype 12F-ST4846, we identified a major cluster, PC-JP12F, whose time of most recent common ancestor was estimated to be »2012. A phylogeographic analysis demonstrated that PC-JP12F isolates spread from the Kanto region, the most populated region in Japan, to other local regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2611.200087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588537PMC
November 2020

An adult case of invasive pneumococcal disease due to serotype 12F-specific polysaccharide antibody failure following a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccination.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):2266-2268

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki City, Japan.

A 68-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for an acute febrile illness with shivering and impaired consciousness. He was a previous smoker and had a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, for which he inhaled steroid with a long-acting bronchodilator. He had received a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination 2 years previously. He was intubated and placed on a ventilator in intensive care unit because of acute respiratory failure and hypercapnia. Streptococcus pneumoniae was grown from his blood, sputum, and urine cultures, and he was diagnosed with invasive pneumococcal disease with acute renal failure. He was treated with intravenous beta-lactam and macrolide with continuous hemodiafiltration and was discharged 3 months later. The pneumococcus was identified as serotype 12F, and his serotype-specific IgG and opsonophagocytic index against serotype 12F indicating a lack of protection from IPD among PPV23 serotypes. This case highlights that some individuals may have a serotype-specific polysaccharide antibody failure that makes them susceptible to serotype 12F invasive pneumococcal disease. This case also illustrates the need for serotype-specific IgG and opsonophagocytic index titre cut-offs for each specific pneumococcal serotype in available vaccines to understand the vaccination protection for individual patients better.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1830716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594767PMC
December 2020

Boron Carbonitride Lithium-Ion Capacitors with an Electrostatically Expanded Operating Voltage Window.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Oct 7;12(42):47425-47434. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, P. R. China.

Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) have emerged as attractive energy storage devices to bridge the gap between lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. While the distinct charge storage kinetics between the anode and the cathode is still a challenge to the widespread application of LICs, the key to improving the energy density of these devices is to widen the operating voltage window and balance the mismatch of the electrode kinetics. To this end, we propose a strategy based on electrostatic attraction by adjusting the B and N atom contents of boron carbonitride (BCN) electrode materials to alter their electronegativities and successfully prepared B-rich and N-rich BCN nanotubes (BCNNTs) via a facile solid-phase synthesis approach. The B-rich BCN (B-BCN) cathode and N-rich BCN (N-BCN) anode noticeably enhance the adsorption of anions and cations, promoting a matching degree between the anode and cathode. In particular, the rationally designed B-BCN//N-BCN LIC achieves a maximum voltage range of 4.8 V, setting a new record for LICs. Furthermore, the energy density reaches up to 200 Wh kg (based on the total mass of cathodic and anodic active materials). Density functional theory calculations provided insight into the mechanism underlying our strategy of widening the voltage range. Our philosophy provides new design guidelines and alternatives for identifying and optimizing high-performance electrodes for energy storage devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c12163DOI Listing
October 2020

Effectiveness of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Adults, Japan, 2013-2017.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 10;26(10):2378-2386

The decline in the proportion of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)-covered serotypes among adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) patients might change the overall effectiveness of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) because its effectiveness differs according to serotype. Using the indirect cohort method, we calculated the effectiveness of PPSV23 against IPD among adults in Japan to assess the impact of the national pediatric PCV program. Clinical and epidemiologic information and pneumococcal isolates were collected from IPD patients >20 years of age through enhanced IPD surveillance during April 2013-December 2017. Adjusted effectiveness against PPSV23-serotype IPD was 42.2%. Despite a substantial decline in the proportion of 13-valent PCV serotypes during the study period (45% to 31%), the change in effectiveness for PPSV23-serotype IPD was limited (47.1% to 39.3%) and only marginal in the elderly population (39.9% to 39.4%). The pediatric PCV program had limited impact on PPSV23 effectiveness against IPD in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2610.191531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510723PMC
October 2020

Recurrent uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors with the growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer 1-nuclear receptor coactivator 2 fusion gene: a case report and literature review.

Diagn Pathol 2020 Sep 14;15(1):110. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors (UTROSCTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms predominantly arising in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. UTROSCTs with growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer 1 (GREB1)-rearrangement or GREB1-rearranged uterine tumors are exceptionally rare, with only 12 previously reported cases. Here, we report a case of UTROSCT with the GREB1-nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCOA2) fusion gene.

Case Presentation: A 57-year-old woman presented with a 10.0 cm uterine mass. The tumor was composed of short spindle or epithelioid cells, arranged in diffused sheets, nested, and trabecular/cordlike. The tumor harbored the GREB1-NCOA2 fusion gene, as confirmed by RNA sequencing. The tumor recurred in the pelvis at 30 months after the initial diagnosis. We also compared the clinical and pathologic features of this case with those of the 12 previously published uterine GREB1-rearranged tumors. Of the combined 13 cases (present case and 12 previous cases), the mean age of patients was 64.8 years (range, 51-74 years). Of the nine reported cases of GREB1-rearranged tumor with follow up, four cases recurred or metastasized (44.4%). Microscopically, most tumors (10/12, 83.3%) showed infiltrative growth, and two were well demarcated. Mitotic figures ranged from 0 to 14 per 10 high-power fields (2 mm; mean: 3.6). Lymphovascular invasion and necrosis were each present in two cases (2/12, 16.7% and 2/7, 28.6%, respectively).

Conclusions: This case provided further evidence that UTROSCTs with GREB1-rearrangement may have a high risk of recurrence/metastasis. Further studies are necessary to clarify the clinical features of this type of tumor, particularly the prognosis, potential treatment, and range of possible molecular events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13000-020-01025-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489201PMC
September 2020

Genetic characteristics of piliated Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 35B, increased after introduction of pneumococcal vaccines in Japan.

J Infect Chemother 2020 Nov 15;26(11):1198-1204. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, International University of Health and Welfare, Chiba, Japan.

Introduction: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commensal bacterium of the human nasopharynx and a major causative pathogen of bacterial diseases worldwide. Pilus of S. pneumoniae is one of the virulence factors which enhance the adhesion to the host epitherial cells in the upper respiratory tract.

Methods: We analyzed the serotype distribution and presence of pilus genes, rrgC and sipA, among 785 S. pneumoniae isolates from specimens of patients with invasive or non-invasive disease in a regional Japanese hospital between October 2014 and August 2018. We next performed multilocus sequence typing and penicillin-resistant genotyping for 86 isolates of serotype 35B.

Results: Serotype 35B was the most frequent serotype which accounted for 11.0% of total isolates and had pilus genes at high rate (80.2%). Clonal complex (CC) 558 isolates accounted for 77.9% of serotype 35B and were highly positive for rrgC and gPRSP (98.5%). In contrast, all CC2755 isolates (19.8%) were rrgC-negative and gPISP.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that CC558 may assist the prevalence of serotype 35B after the introduction of vaccines, as that clone has pili as adhesins in addition to non-susceptibility against penicillin. These results may be useful information for development of optimal preventive strategies. Continuous studies on serotype distribution and virulence factors of S. pneumoniae are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2020.06.016DOI Listing
November 2020

Late onset group B streptococcus disease manifesting as acute suppurative parotitis.

IDCases 2020 11;21:e00799. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

Few patients with acute suppurative parotitis (ASP) due to group B streptococcus (GBS) have been documented. Limited data on clinical and microbiological features and infectious route are available. We present a 21-day-old boy with invasive GBS disease manifesting as ASP. The patient was admitted because of irritability, fever, and erythematous swelling over the right parotid area. No purulent material exuded from the Stensen's duct. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of the neck showed findings indicative of ASP. On the day after admission, blood culture yielded GBS. The isolate was determined as GBS serotype Ia and sequence type-23, and the patient was successfully treated with intravenous ampicillin for 10 days. A review of the literature revealed 11 GBS ASP infants including ours with age at onset between 13 days and 12 weeks. All infants had bacteremia while pus from the Stensen's duct was detected in only one case. This finding remarkably contrasts with ASP caused by pathogens other than GBS, where the infection usually spreads via a retrograde route from Stensen's duct. The present case and literature review indicate GBS ASP primarily arises from bloodstream infection, and that ASP should be included in an infectious focus as late onset GBS disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2020.e00799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242865PMC
May 2020

Successful intervention for overwhelming postsplenectomy infection caused by non-vaccine pneumococcal serotype 23A.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2020 Mar 6;2020(3):omaa018. Epub 2020 May 6.

Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chitose City Hospital, Hokkaido 066-8550, Japan.

The spleen plays an important role in the body's immune defense against invasive infections, particularly those caused by encapsulated bacteria. Encapsulated bacterial infection in asplenic patients is a medical emergency called overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI) and has a mortality rate of 50-70%. Here, we report the case of a 51-year-old Asian man who complained of emesis and diarrhea as primary symptoms. He rapidly progressed to coma and was eventually diagnosed with OPSI (pyogenic ventriculitis/spondylitis) caused by non-vaccine pneumococcal serotype 23A. Aggressive management, including empiric antibiotic therapy, a staircase approach for intracranial pressure-targeted therapy and laminectomy/laminoplasty, resulted in a good recovery. Our report highlights that non-vaccine pneumococcal serotypes can cause disease in vaccinated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omaa018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202049PMC
March 2020

Ultrasonic-Ball Milling: A Novel Strategy to Prepare Large-Size Ultrathin 2D Materials.

Small 2020 04 1;16(13):e1906734. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250100, P. R. China.

Large-size ultrathin 2D materials, with extensive applications in optics, medicine, biology, and semiconductor fields, can be prepared through an existing common physical and chemical process. However, the current exfoliation technologies still need to be improved upon with urgency. Herein, a novel and simple "ultrasonic-ball milling" strategy is reported to effectively obtain high quality and large size ultrathin 2D materials with complete lattice structure through the introduction of moderate sapphire (Al O ) abrasives in a liquid phase system. Ultimately numerous high-quality ultrathin h-BN, graphene, MoS , WS , and BCN nanosheets are obtained with large sizes ranging from 1-20 µm, small thickness of ≈1-3 nm and a high yield of over 20%. Utilizing shear and friction force synergistically, this strategy provides a new method and alternative for preparing and optimizing large size ultrathin 2D materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201906734DOI Listing
April 2020

ID1 confers cancer cell chemoresistance through STAT3/ATF6-mediated induction of autophagy.

Cell Death Dis 2020 02 20;11(2):137. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Cancer Institute, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Chemoresistance is one of the major reasons leading to ovarian cancer high mortality and poor survival. Studies have shown that the alteration of cellular autophagy is associated with cancer cell chemoresistance. Here, we investigated whether the ovarian cancer chemoresistance is associated with the autophagy induced by the inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1). By using gene overexpression or silencing, luciferase assay and human specimens, we show that ID1 induces high autophagy and confers cancer cell chemoresistance. The mechanistic study demonstrates that ID1 first activates the NF-κB signaling through facilitating the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, which strengthens the expression and secretion of IL-6 from cancer cells to subsequently activate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) through the protein phosphorylation at Y705. We further identified that STAT3 functions to promote the transcription of the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), which induces endoplasmic reticulum stress to promote cellular autophagy, granting cancer cell resistance to both cisplatin and paclitaxel treatment. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between the expression of ID1 and ATF6 in 1104 high grade serous ovarian cancer tissues, and that patients with the high expression of ID1 or ATF6 were resistant to platinum treatment and had the poor overall survival and progression-free survival. Thus, we have uncovered a mechanism in which ID1 confers cancer cell chemoresistance largely through the STAT3/ATF6-induced autophagy. The involved molecules, including ID1, STAT3, and ATF6, may have a potential to be targeted in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to improve ovarian cancer survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2327-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033197PMC
February 2020

SnO Quantum Dots@Graphene Framework as a High-Performance Flexible Anode Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Mar 4;12(11):12982-12989. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Haiquan Road 100, 201418 Shanghai, China.

Three-dimensional (3D) layered tin oxide quantum dots/graphene framework (SnO QDs@GF) were designed through anchoring SnO QD on the graphene surface under the hydrothermal reaction. SnO QDs@GF have a 3D skeleton with a large number of mesopores and ultrasmall SnO QDs with a large surface area. The unique design of this structure improves the specific area and promotes ion transport. The mechanically strong SnO QDs@GF can directly be used as the anode of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs); it displays a high reversible capacity (1300 mA h g at 100 mA g), excellent rate performance (642 mA h g at 2000 mA g), and superior cyclic stability (when the current density is 10 A g, the capacity loss is less than 2% after 5000 cycles). This novel synthetic method can further be expanded for the production of other quantum dots/graphene composites with a 3D structure as high-performance electrodes for LIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b22679DOI Listing
March 2020

Streptococcus pneumoniae triggers hierarchical autophagy through reprogramming of LAPosome-like vesicles via NDP52-delocalization.

Commun Biol 2020 01 13;3(1):25. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1, Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8640, Japan.

In innate immunity, multiple autophagic processes eliminate intracellular pathogens, but it remains unclear whether noncanonical autophagy and xenophagy are coordinated, and whether they occur concomitantly or sequentially. Here, we show that Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative of invasive pneumococcal disease, can trigger FIP200-, PI3P-, and ROS-independent pneumococcus-containing LC3-associated phagosome (LAPosome)-like vacuoles (PcLVs) in an early stage of infection, and that PcLVs are indispensable for subsequent formation of bactericidal pneumococcus-containing autophagic vacuoles (PcAVs). Specifically, we identified LC3- and NDP52-delocalized PcLV, which are intermediates between PcLV and PcAV. Atg14L, Beclin1, and FIP200 were responsible for delocalizing LC3 and NDP52 from PcLVs. Thus, multiple noncanonical and canonical autophagic processes are deployed sequentially against intracellular S. pneumoniae. The Atg16L1 WD domain, p62, NDP52, and poly-Ub contributed to PcLV formation. These findings reveal a previously unidentified hierarchical autophagy mechanism during bactericidal xenophagy against intracellular bacterial pathogens, and should improve our ability to control life-threating pneumococcal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-0753-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6957511PMC
January 2020

Impact of thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage in healthy children under 24 months in Okinawa, Japan.

J Infect Chemother 2020 May 8;26(5):465-470. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

In November 2013, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) for all infants aged younger than 5 years was incorporated into the Japan national immunization program. An annual survey of nasopharyngeal carriage rates was performed on healthy infants aged 2-24 months from Okinawa, Japan to evaluate the effect of PCV13 on pneumococcal colonization. Of 756 evaluable infants, 203 pneumococcal strains were detected in 193 infants. The overall nasopharyngeal carriage rate was 25.5%, which was not different from our previously reported isolation rate before the introduction of PCV13. The main serotypes of the Streptococcus pneumoniae strains are 15A (18.2%), non-typeable (14.8%), and 15B (11.8%). The carriage rates of pneumococcal strains with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes and PCV13 serotypes were 3.0% and 9.9%, respectively. These values were significantly lower than we reported before the introduction of PCV13. However, the carriage rates of non-PCV13 serotypes have increased. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that siblings and day care attendance are risk factors for pneumococcal carriage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.12.009DOI Listing
May 2020

Molecular serotype-specific identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

Sci Rep 2019 12 27;9(1):19823. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 173-8610, Japan.

In children, the incidence of pneumococcal meningitis has decreased since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 and PCV13). However, since the introduction of the vaccine, developed countries have seen the emergence of non-PCV13 serotypes. However, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by PCV13-targeted serotypes still represents an important public health problem in resource-limited countries. To develop a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, we developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on the sequences available for the 13 capsular types that are included in PCV13: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 A, 6B, 7 F, 9 V, 14, 18 C, 19 A, 19 F, and 23 F. We evaluated test reactivity, specificity, sensitivity and performance, and compared the results between established LAMP and conventional PCR assays. To support its clinical use, the detection limits of the LAMP assay were evaluated using bacterial genomic DNA-spiked cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood specimens. We confirmed the specificity of the LAMP assay using 41 serotypes of pneumococcal strains. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 10 to 100 copies per reaction, compared to 10 to 10 copies per reaction for PCR assays. The detection limits of the LAMP assay were comparable when using DNA-spiked CSF and blood specimens, as compared to using purified DNA as the template. In conclusion, a rapid and simple LAMP-based pneumococcal serotyping method has been developed. This is the first report of a LAMP method for a PCV13 serotype-specific identification assay, which could be a promising step to facilitate epidemiological studies of pneumococcal serotyping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-56225-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934563PMC
December 2019

Nationwide surveillance of paediatric invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal disease in Japan after the introduction of the 13-valent conjugated vaccine, 2015-2017.

Vaccine 2020 02 24;38(7):1818-1824. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Japan, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)7 and PCV13 were licensed in 2010 and 2013, respectively. We conducted a nationwide paediatric invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and non-IPD surveillance study in Japan between 2015 and 2017. We collected 498 IPD isolates and 231 non-IPD isolates from a total of 187 medical institutions in Japan. We performed serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST) for the collected isolates. Among the 498 IPD isolates, the most prevalent serotype was 24F, followed by 12F, 15A and 15B/C. However, 12F increased and 24F significantly decreased during the study period (p < 0.001), resulting in 12F becoming the most prevalent serotype in 2017. Among the IPD isolates, the PCV7 and PCV13 coverage rates were 0.8% and 9.2%, respectively. The most prevalent serotype among the non-IPD isolates was 15A, followed by 35B, 15B/C and 19A. The overall resistance rates to penicillin (PG), cefotaxime (CTX), meropenem (MEM), erythromycin (EM) and levofloxacin (LFX) were 40.5%, 12.2%, 19.4%, 91.8% and 0.5%, respectively. PG, CTX and MEM resistance rates were significantly higher in non-IPD isolates than in IPD isolates (p < 0.001). Serotype 15A-CC63 and serotype 35B-CC558 tended to be multi-drug resistant. In conclusion, the PCV13 coverage rate was significantly lower than that in a previous surveillance study in Japan between 2012 and 2014, and IPD cases attributable to serotype 19A also decreased. We should note the rapid increase in the prevalence of serotype 12F in IPD cases and the spread of the multi-drug resistant serotype 15A-CC63 and 35B-CC558 lineages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.12.022DOI Listing
February 2020

Concurrent Bacteremia Due to Non-vaccine Serotype 24F Pneumococcus in Twins: A Rapid Increase in Serotype 24F-invasive Pneumococcal Disease and its High Invasive Potential.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 01;39(1):85-87

Department of Microbiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan.

Although concurrent bacteremia in siblings is rare, serotype 24F Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from the blood of twin 1-year-old girls within a 3-day interval, supporting the high invasive potential of this serotype. As the prevalence of childhood serotype 24F-invasive pneumococcal diseases increases in Europe and the Western Pacific Region, investigation and surveillance of this serotype are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002508DOI Listing
January 2020

Malignant Gastrointestinal Neuroectodermal Tumor: Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Analysis of 19 Cases.

Am J Surg Pathol 2020 04;44(4):456-466

Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center.

A malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is rare, and it is therefore yet to be completely understood. This study aimed to present the clinicopathologic features of GNET, including treatment information. We included 19 patients with GNET with a mean tumor size of 4.2 cm. The most common site of tumor origin was the small intestine (57.9%), followed by the stomach (15.8%), colon (10.5%), ileocecal junction (5.3%), lower esophagus (5.3%), and anal canal (5.3%). Microscopically, the tumors were composed of epithelioid cells with eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm arranged in nest, sheet-like, papillary, or pseudoalveolar patterns and/or spindle tumor cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm arranged in a fascicular pattern. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells stained positively for S100 (19/19,100%), SOX10 (14/15, 93.3%), vimentin (17/17, 100%), synaptophysin (Syn) (7/17, 41.2%), CD56 (4/13, 30.8%), CD99 (1/5, 20%), and CD117 (1/15, 6.7%), and negatively for HMB45, Melan A, DOG1, CD34, AE1/AE3, CAM5.2, chromogranin A, smooth muscle actin, and desmin. In total, 14/15 (93.3%) cases showed split Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 gene (EWSR1) signals consistent with a chromosomal translocation involving EWSR1. Within a mean follow-up of 29.7 months (range: 3 to 63 mo), 2/15 (13.3%) patients died of disease, 5 (33.3%) were alive with disease, and 8 (53.3%) had no evidence of disease. Two and 1 patients showed partial response to apatinib and anlotinib, respectively. In conclusion, GNET has distinctive morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features and should be distinguished from other gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Apatinib and anlotinib might be effective for the treatment of advanced GNET and could prolong patient survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001396DOI Listing
April 2020

Hydrogen plasma-treated MoSe nanosheets enhance the efficiency and stability of organic photovoltaics.

Nanoscale 2019 Oct 18;11(37):17460-17470. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan. and Center for Emergent Functional Matter Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan.

In this paper we report the effect on the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of photovoltaic devices after incorporating hydrogenated two-dimensional (2D) MoSe nanosheets into the active layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV). The surface properties of 2D MoSe nanosheets largely affect their dispersion in the active layer blend and, thus, influence the carrier mobility, PCE, and stability of corresponding devices. We treated MoSe nanosheets with hydrogen plasma and investigated their influence on the polymer packing and fullerene domain size of the active layer. For the optimized devices incorporating 37.5 wt% of untreated MoSe, we obtained a champion PCE of 9.82%, compared with the champion reference PCE of approximately 9%. After incorporating the hydrogen plasma-treated MoSe nanosheets, we achieved a champion PCE of 10.44%-a relative increase of 16% over that of the reference device prepared without MoSe nanosheets. This PCE is the one of the highest ever reported for OPVs incorporating 2D materials. We attribute this large enhancement to the enhanced exciton generation and dissociation at the MoSe-fullerene interface and, consequently, the balanced charge carrier mobility. The device incorporating the MoSe nanosheets maintained 70% of its initial PCE after heat-treatment at 100 °C for 1 h; in contrast, the PCE of the reference device decreased to 60% of its initial value-a relative increase in stability of 17% after incorporating these nanosheets. We also incorporated MoSe nanosheets (both with and without treatment) into a polymer donor (PBDTTBO)/small molecule (IT-4F) acceptor system. The champion PCEs reached 7.85 and 8.13% for the devices incorporating the MoSe nanosheets with and without plasma treatment, respectively-relative increases of 8 and 12%, respectively, over that of the reference. These results should encourage a push toward the implementation of transition metal dichalcogenides to enhance the performances of BHJ OPVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr06611jDOI Listing
October 2019

ALK rearrangement: a high-frequency alteration in ovarian metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma.

Diagn Pathol 2019 Aug 28;14(1):96. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Fudan University, 270 Dong An Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Ovarian metastatic tumors from lung adenocarcinoma are rare, and a serial study of these tumors is lacking to date. Additionally, a better understanding of the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of metastatic tumors is needed.

Methods: Seven cases of ovarian metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma from 2013 to 2017 at our institute were investigated. The results were combined with those found in literature review. A total of 16 cases were analyzed in the present study. We examined clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics, further detected ALK rearrangement by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization), and assessed EGFR and KRAS mutations using Sanger sequencing or the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS).

Results: The mean age of the patients was 44.6 years (range, 33-56 years). Eleven of sixteen patients developed ovarian tumors within a mean time of 18.5 months (range, 5-48 months) from the initial diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma; 5 patients had lung tumors and ovarian masses simultaneously. Five tumors (5/16, 31%) occurred in the bilateral ovaries, and the others were unilateral ovarian tumors (11/16, 69%). All seven cases from our institute were positive for TTF-1 and Napsin A but negative for PAX8. In four cases, ALK (D5F3) was diffusely and strongly expressed, with ALK rearrangements (4/7, 57%). Overall, ALK rearrangement was found by FISH or immunohistochemistry in 11/16 (69%) cases. In two cases, EGFR mutations in exons 19 and 21, respectively, were found. One patient did not detected EGFR or ALK mutation in the metastatic tumor, but the primary lung adenocarcinoma did harbor an EGFR mutation. Two cases had no alterations in three genes above. Although the mean survival time of the patients with ALK rearrangement was longer than those without (mean survival time 25 m vs. 20 m), no statistical significance of the difference was found.

Conclusions: As the largest case series of ovarian metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma, our findings indicate that ALK rearrangement is the most common molecular alteration. Although patients with ALK rearrangement appear to have a better prognosis than do those without ALK rearrangement, more cases with longer follow-up and multivariant analysis are needed to clarify this point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13000-019-0864-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712650PMC
August 2019

Distribution of Alleles, , and Genes of Lipopolysaccharide and Sequence-Based Types Among Serogroup 1 Isolates in Japan and China.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 5;9:274. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Approximately 85% of cases of Legionnaires' disease are caused by serogroup 1. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of alleles, and genes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and sequence-based types of 616 serogroup 1 strains isolated in Japan (206 clinical, 225 environmental) and China (13 clinical and 172 environmental). The gene was harbored by significantly more of the clinical isolates compared with the environmental isolates (90.3 vs. 19.1% and 61.6 vs. 3.0%, respectively; both < 0.001). genes were detected in 51.0% of Japanese clinical and 36.0% of Japanese environmental ( = 0.001) isolates, as well as 15.3% of Chinese clinical and 9.9% of Chinese environmental isolates ( = 0.544). genes were detected in 12.1% of Japanese clinical and 5.8% of Japanese environmental ( = 0.017) isolates, as well as 7.7% of Chinese clinical and 3.4% of Chinese environmental isolates ( = 0.388). The Japanese and Chinese isolates were assigned to 203 and 36 different sequence-types (ST), respectively. ST1 was predominant. Most isolates with the same ST also had the same , and gene subgroups. In conclusion, the was present in most of the clinical isolates, but was absent from most of the environmental isolates from both China and Japan, regardless of the water source and SBT type. PCR-based serotyping and subgrouping methods can be used to define a hierarchy of virulence genotypes that require stringent surveillance to prevent human disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691400PMC
July 2020

Distribution and annual changes in the proportion of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in Japanese adults with pneumococcal pneumonia from 2011 to 2017.

J Infect Chemother 2019 Nov 24;25(11):925-929. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Unit of Translational Medicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Japan.

In 2014, vaccinations with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) were implemented in Japan for all adults aged ≥65 years. We previously clarified reductions in the proportions of PCV7-, PCV13-, and PPSV23-covered serotypes in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia after the initiation of PCV7 and PCV13 vaccinations for Japanese children; however, information about the annual changes in the proportion of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia after the initiation of routine PPSV23 vaccinations remains unclear. We retrospectively studied 229 adults with pneumococcal pneumonia which S. pneumoniae was cultured from their lower respiratory tract samples between 2011 and 2017 and investigated the annual changes in the proportion of S. pneumoniae serotypes. The proportion of PPSV23-covered serotypes decreased from 71.4% in 2011 to 52.2% in 2014, but it remained essentially unchanged from 2015 to 2017. The proportions of PCV7-covered serotypes decreased from 46.4% in 2011 to 4.3% in 2014; however, this rate increased beginning in 2015 and reached 20.6% in 2017. Among the PCV7-covered serotypes, the proportion of the 19F serotype increased from 2015 to 2017. In conclusion, there were no obvious changes in the proportion of PPSV23-covered and PCV13-covered serotypes in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia after the initiation of routine PPSV23 vaccinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.07.007DOI Listing
November 2019

Penicillin-Binding Protein Typing, Antibiotic Resistance Gene Identification, and Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Meropenem-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A-CC3111 Strains in Japan.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 09 23;63(9). Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the prevalence of non-meropenem-susceptible pneumococci has been increasing in Japan. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that multidrug-resistant serotype 15A-ST63 in Japan has a specific sequence (-13) that could promote meropenem resistance. To trace the origin of , we analyzed isolates of serotype 19A-CC3111, which is the most prevalent non-meropenem-susceptible clone in Japan. We analyzed a total of 119 serotype 19A-CC3111 strains recovered in Japan using whole-genome sequencing. Of the 119 isolates, 53 (44.5%) harbored -13, indicating that the clone may be the primary reservoir of the type and that the region may be horizontally transferred between different serotype strains. The single acquisition of -13 seemed to cause only penicillin resistance and not multidrug resistance; a combination of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) recombination in the and/or region(s) with acquisition of -13 caused multidrug resistance. Conserved amino acid motif analysis suggested that the 370SXXK, 448SXN, and 337SXXN motifs were the candidates for amino acid substitutions increasing the MICs of meropenem, cefotaxime, and penicillin. We identified a specific clone that was correlated with multidrug resistance, although no correlation was observed between phylogenetic trees generated using core genomes and those generated with only the locus. All tested isolates were highly erythromycin resistant, and most harbored within macrolide efflux genetic assembly (MEGA) elements and within Tn, which was inserted within Tn and exhibited a structure identical to that of Tn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00711-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6709488PMC
September 2019