Publications by authors named "Bilal Hussain"

51 Publications

Intra-Organ Delivery of Nanotherapeutics for Organ Transplantation.

ACS Nano 2021 Oct 29. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Departments of Surgery and Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, United States.

Targeted delivery of therapeutics through the use of nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged as a promising method that increases their efficacy and reduces their side effects. NPs can be tailored to localize to selective tissues through conjugation to ligands that bind cell-specific receptors. Although the vast majority of nanodelivery platforms have focused on cancer therapy, efforts have begun to introduce nanotherapeutics to the fields of immunology as well as transplantation. In this review, we provide an overview from a clinician's perspective of current nanotherapeutic strategies to treat solid organ transplants with NPs during the time interval between organ harvest from the donor and placement into the recipient, an innovative technology that can provide major benefits to transplant patients. The use of normothermic machine perfusion (NMP), which is associated with preserving the function of the organ following transplantation, also provides an ideal opportunity for a localized, sustained, and controlled delivery of nanotherapeutics to the organ during this critical time period. Here, we summarize previous endeavors to improve transplantation outcomes by treating the organ with NPs prior to placement in the recipient. Investigations in this burgeoning field of research are promising, but more extensive studies are needed to overcome the physiological challenges to achieving effective nanotherapeutic delivery to transplanted organs discussed in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c04707DOI Listing
October 2021

Variations in phytoremediation potential and phytoavailability of heavy metals in different Salix genotypes subjected to seasonal flooding.

J Environ Manage 2021 Dec 31;299:113632. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Climate-related flooding poses a potential challenge to phytoremediation of metal polluted areas. In the present study, uptake, translocation and accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu), and their phytoavailability in six flood-tolerant Salix genotypes were investigated under simulated seasonal flooding conditions (non-flooding conditions were kept as the control). Plants were cultivated in a greenhouse with open windows using the soil polluted with Cd, Zn and Cu for 110 days. All the control (non-flooded) genotypes did not exhibit visible toxic symptoms, whereas the flooded genotypes showed leaf chlorosis and developed both lenticels and adventitious roots. Biomass production and metal accumulation in tissues varied with Salix genotypes. The flooded genotypes dramatically decreased aerial biomass production compared with corresponding non-flooded genotypes. All the control Salix genotypes showed relatively high accumulation for Cd, Zn and Cu in aerial parts due to high EDTA-extractable metals in the rhizosphere, exhibiting phytoextraction features. In contrast, the flooded genotypes drastically decreased uptake, translocation, accumulation, and extraction capacities for Cd, Zn and Cu in aerial parts, differing with genotypes, and tended to phyto-stabilize them in roots, especially Cu. This study indicated that flooding is a leading factor on phytoremediation efficiency for contaminated sites with willows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113632DOI Listing
December 2021

Covert nail injury to the back: A case report.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Jun;71(6):1679-1681

Department of General Surgery Unit-1, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.

Occupational trauma in carpentry is common in our society due to lack of awareness on occupational safety and poor availability and adherence towards protective equipment. Given below is an unusual case of a young carpenter who presented in the orthopaedic outpatient department with complaint of difficulty in walking for the last four days. On examination, restricted movement of the hip joint on extension was observed. On further work up in the form of radiological investigations, a long iron nail was discovered as incidental finding in the back in close proximity to the ascending colon and duodenum in the retroperitoneum. Elective laparotomy was performed to remove the nail, after which the patient improved clinically and his presenting complaints were completely resolved on further follow up. This demonstrates the unusual way in which such a case can present in the outpatient department instead of the emergency department and with symptoms that may prompt one to think of anything but foreign body trauma, emphasising the need for proper history and meticulous relevant clinical examination, as covert foreign body injury can occur to the back, especially in patients involved in such occupations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.DOI Listing
June 2021

A study on risk assessment of effect of hematoxylin dye on cytotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in freshwater fish: Food and water security prospective research.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 20;28(4):2267-2271. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Zoology, College of Science. King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The cytotoxicity in freshwater fishes due to different industrial dyes in industrial effluents is a major worldwide issue. Hematoxylin dye has a wide range of uses in textile industries and laboratories. This study was aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of hematoxylin's sublethal effect in vitro in . The fish was exposed to different grading concentrations of dye in the aquarium. Fish were sacrificed and dissected to remove the kidney after exposure to hematoxylin dye for specific time intervals. Nephrotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by this dye were detected through histopathology by using the paraffin wax method. Immediate mortality of fish was noticed against the exposure to 0.08 g/L (LC) concentration of dye, but at 0.008 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, it showed tremendous tissue damage in the kidneys, significant reduction in fish growth. This dye induced many alterations in the kidney such as tubular degeneration, vacuolation, shrinkage of a glomerulus, reduced lumen, congestion in the kidney, glomerulonephritis, absence of Bowmen space, necrosis of the hematopoietic interstitial tissues, clogging of tubules, necrosis in the glomerulus and increased space between glomerulus and bowmen's capsule. Although this dye has a wide range of biological and industrial applications, a minute amount of hematoxylin released in effluents is quite toxic to aquatic fauna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071821PMC
April 2021

Zig-zag technology adoption behavior among brick kiln owners in Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 16;28(33):45168-45182. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Management Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education and Collaborative Innovation Center On Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters (CIC-FEMD), Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China.

This study uses the theory of planned behavior to examine the individual's intentions and zig-zag kiln technology adoption attitude in responding to carbon emissions in Pakistan. This study is based on cross-sectional data and a representative sample of 335 brick kilns owners from 11 districts of Punjab province of Pakistan is collected. Partial least squares structural equation modeling technique was used for the analysis. Results depicted that environmental concern and self-efficacy have a significant influence on attitude toward sustainable technology while subjective norms have a significant effect on intentions toward zig-zag kiln technology. A 1% increase in environmental concern and self-efficacy increases sustainable environmental technology by 24% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, perceived behavioral control and intentions also significantly impact adoption attitude, and a 1% increase in perceived behavioral control and intentions increase the zig-zag kiln adoption attitude by 68% and 30%, respectively. Results depicted that adoption attitude is significantly determined by these explanatory variables. The study's findings provided new evidence for the government to place more emphasis on enhancing kiln owners' attitudes, social norms, and perceived behavioral control, which would lead towards the adoption of this new technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13837-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Myocardial Infarction Induces Cardiac Fibroblast Transformation within Injured and Noninjured Regions of the Mouse Heart.

J Proteome Res 2021 05 31;20(5):2867-2881. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Translational Biology and Engineering Program, Ted Rogers Centre for Heart Research, 661 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1M1.

Heart failure (HF) is associated with pathological remodeling of the myocardium, including the initiation of fibrosis and scar formation by activated cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). Although early CF-dependent scar formation helps prevent cardiac rupture by maintaining the heart's structural integrity, ongoing deposition of the extracellular matrix in the remote and infarct regions can reduce tissue compliance, impair cardiac function, and accelerate progression to HF. In our study, we conducted mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to identify differentially altered proteins and signaling pathways between CFs isolated from 7 day sham and infarcted murine hearts. Surprisingly, CFs from both the remote and infarct regions of injured hearts had a wide number of similarly altered proteins and signaling pathways that were consistent with fibrosis and activation into pathological myofibroblasts. Specifically, proteins enriched in CFs isolated from MI hearts were involved in pathways pertaining to cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, chaperone-mediated protein folding, and collagen fibril organization. These results, together with principal component analyses, provided evidence of global CF activation postinjury. Interestingly, however, direct comparisons between CFs from the remote and infarct regions of injured hearts identified 15 differentially expressed proteins between MI remote and MI infarct CFs. Eleven of these proteins (, and ) were higher in MI infarct CFs, whereas four proteins (, and ) were higher in MI remote CFs. Collectively, our study shows that MI injury induced global changes to the CF proteome, with the magnitude of change reflecting their relative proximity to the site of injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.1c00098DOI Listing
May 2021

Phytoavailability, translocation and soil thresholds derivation of cadmium for food safety through soil-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) system.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 15;28(28):37716-37726. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Ministry of Education (MOE), College of Environmental and Resources Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of China.

Cadmium (Cd) pollution in cultivated soils has posed a great risk to human health through the soil-plant-human pathway. Therefore, it is important to derive soil thresholds for the low-Cd accumulating genotype of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to promote its application in agricultural production on Cd-contaminated sites. Here, a pot experiment was performed to explore the transfer characteristics of Cd in two contrasting wheat genotypes at three different soils and the effect of soil parameters together with soil safety Cd thresholds derivation. Generally, grain Cd highly accumulating wheat genotype (Zhenmai10, HT) showed higher Cd accumulation in grains than grain Cd weakly accumulating wheat genotype (Aikang58, LT). Stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) analysis (log-transformed Freundlich-type) indicated that Cd accumulation in wheat grains was strongly related to soil total Cd concentration and pH for both genotypes (R = 0.907*** for HT; R = 0.910*** for LT). Combining the simple regression model of soil-plant transfer system with the risk assessment method based on human health, soil total Cd thresholds for three soils were calculated with the values of 0.62, 0.82, and 0.62 mg kg in LT genotype and 0.31, 0.77, and 0.49 mg kg in HT genotype. Therefore, we suggested that when deducing soil thresholds, the ability of wheat genotypes to accumulate Cd and soil properties should be considered because of the large differences in soil thresholds between different genotypes and types of soils. We believe our results will promote the application of low-Cd wheat genotypes to agricultural production, thereby ensuring the safety of their products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13385-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Drug-Eluting Balloon for Management of Coronary In-Stent Restenosis in a South Asian Population: Experience From a Tertiary-Care Hospital in Pakistan.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Feb 6;33(2):E127-E134. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Aga Khan University Hospital, Section of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Main Stadium Road, Karachi, Sindh 75500, Pakistan.

Background: Emerging evidence suggests that the South Asian (SA) population has an increased rate of in-stent stenosis (ISR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) when compared with other ethnicities. Drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) have emerged as a viable option for the treatment of ISR. However, data describing the outcomes of DEB-PCI in the SA population are limited. Since the magnitude of the problem is high in the SA population, it is essential to evaluate the outcomes of DEB-PCI for ISR.

Methods: In this cohort study, we investigated the incidence of target-lesion revascularization (TLR) and major adverse cardiac event (MACE) after PCI with DEB for ISR at 1 year and at long-term follow-up in Pakistani patients. From January 2010 to January 2019, a total of 147 ISR lesions in 112 patients were treated with DEB-PCI at our center.

Results: The incidence of clinically driven TLR and MACE after a 1-year follow-up was 15.2% and 16.1%, respectively. At mean long-term follow-up of 2.73 ± 2.14 years, the TLR and MACE rates were 26.8% and 35.7%, respectively. The major predictors for TLR were diffuse and occlusive ISR types, DEB for a recurrent restenosis lesion, and the presence of ≥3 traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Conclusions: The high rates of follow-up TLR and MACE reported in this study may suggest that the outcomes of DEB-PCI for ISR in the SA population may be unsatisfactory. With the increasing use of DEBs, it is imperative to further investigate DEB-PCI outcomes in the SA population with large, prospective studies.
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February 2021

Social Stigmatization of Drug Abusers in a Developing Country: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Cureus 2020 Sep 26;12(9):e10661. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Anaesthesia, King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, PAK.

Introduction:  Stigma is a label that differentiates a person from others and associates them with unenviable attributes. There are various forms of stigma: enacted stigma, perceived stigma, and self-stigma manifesting as stereotyping and harboring negative thoughts about the stigmatized group. Stigmatization of the drug abuser leads to effects such as low self-esteem, depression, and personality changes in the stigmatized.  Objectives: The purpose of the study is to know the impact of stigma on patients receiving substance abuse treatment in the Psychiatry Department, Mayo Hospital Lahore, Pakistan.

Design: Cross-sectional study.  Place: Psychiatry Department, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan Study Period: Six months (February 22, 2020, to July 18, 2020).

Subjects And Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 100 patients were recruited in the study. The selection was made on laid down criterion after taking due consent. Interviews were conducted through a pretested questionnaire. Data were collected, compiled, and analyzed through SPSS version 20 (IBM Corp., Armonk, USA), and relevant frequency tables were drawn.  Results: On analyzing the data, various forms of stigma were observed: enacted stigma (81% as considered less capable), perceived stigma (99% as having difficulties in the job seeking and relationships), and self-stigma (94% in having devaluation thoughts). Self-esteem was maintained (73% were content). Social support was present (76% from family). Moderate depression was seen in 17% of participants. Over 83% of our study population is aged 21 to 40 years, 15% between ages 41 and 60 years, and only 2% ranging between ages 1 and 20. A total of 80% of the population belonged to a low socioeconomic status, and 55% of participants abused opium, heroin, or brown sugar, followed by white crystal use in 37% of the study population. The majority reported the drug abuse duration of 1-5 years (70%).

Conclusion:  Stigma in its various forms affects the drug abuser undergoing treatment. It results in low self-esteem and mild depression. Individuals from the broader socioeconomic range can be added in future studies, and a larger population can be studied by collecting data from other tertiary care hospitals and mental healthcare facilities. They can be assessed for factors contributing to their addiction and the challenges they had to go through to get the help they needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.10661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586416PMC
September 2020

Evaluation of larvicidal efficacy of (Castor) and synthesized green silver nanoparticles against L.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Sep 21;27(9):2403-2409. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

mosquitoes are the most important group of vectors that transmit pathogens, including arboviruses, and cause human diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika virus, and Chikungunya. Biosynthesis and the use of green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a vital step to identify reliable and eco-friendly controls for these vectors. In this study, (.) larvae (2nd and 3rd instar) were exposed to leaf extracts of (Castor) and AgNPs synthesized from the extract to evaluate their larvicidal potential. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XRD). larvae were treated with different concentrations (50-250 ppm) of the leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs. There were five replicates per treatment, in addition to a positive (temephos) and negative control (dechlorinated water). Mortality was recorded after 12, 24, 36, and 48 h and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. The nanoparticles were more toxic (LC = 46.22 ppm and LC = 85.30 ppm) than the plant extract (106.24 and 175.73 ppm, respectively). The leaf extracts of were subjected to HPLC analysis to identify their chemical constituents. This study suggests that plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles are excellent alternatives to hazardous chemical pesticides used to control vector mosquitoes. This is a potentially useful technique that can reduce aquatic toxicity from insecticide use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7451677PMC
September 2020

Cadmium mobility in three contaminated soils amended with different additives as evaluated by dynamic flow-through experiments.

Chemosphere 2020 Dec 23;261:127763. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

As arable land has become an important sink for cadmium (Cd), soil is being recognized as a major source of metals to the food chain. It becomes, therefore, essential to investigate metal mobility in contaminated soils and to identify suitable remediation strategies. For this, immobilization of Cd was evaluated in contaminated stagnic anthrosol: S1, gleysol: S2 and fluvisol: S3 under flow through conditions. Ten treatments including control were tested alone or in composite form firstly at natural Cd contents (0.58-0.69 mg kg). Here, T2 (lime), T5 (biochar) and T10 (composite amendment) were found better in reducing the Cd concentration in the soils' leachates, so, their efficacy was further investigated in the same soils of higher Cd contents (1 and 2 mg kg imposed by soil spiking). Amendments significantly reduced the leachate metal contents especially in 1 mg kg spiked soils. Characterization of T2, T5 and T10 revealed their structural transformations in all the studied soil types, while active functional groups e.g. C-O, CO, O-H, Si-O-Si, ester and alcoholic groups were notably involved in Cd precipitation or adsorption on amendments surface. Variations in Cd speciation in these soils exhibited the exchange of Cd to more stable fractions with tested amendments. These continuous-flow experiments confirmed the strong efficiency of T2, T5 and T10 in reducing the Cd concentration in the leachate of three soils. This study has strong implications in understanding the role of different amendments in controlling the fate, leaching behavior and immobilization of Cd in diverse soil types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127763DOI Listing
December 2020

Thermal vulnerability detection in integrated electronic and photonic circuits using infrared thermography.

Appl Opt 2020 Jun;59(17):E97-E106

Failure prediction of any electrical/optical component is crucial for estimating its operating life. Using high temperature operating life (HTOL) tests, it is possible to model the failure mechanisms for integrated circuits. Conventional HTOL standards are not suitable for operating life prediction of photonic components owing to their functional dependence on the thermo-optic effect. This work presents an infrared (IR)-assisted thermal vulnerability detection technique suitable for photonic as well as electronic components. By accurately mapping the thermal profile of an integrated circuit under a stress condition, it is possible to precisely locate the heat center for predicting the long-term operational failures within the device under test. For the first time, the reliability testing is extended to a fully functional microwave photonic system using conventional IR thermography. By applying image fusion using affine transformation on multimodal acquisition, it was demonstrated that by comparing the IR profile and GDSII layout, it is possible to accurately locate the heat centers along with spatial information on the type of component. Multiple IR profiles of optical as well as electrical components/circuits were acquired and mapped onto the layout files. In order to ascertain the degree of effectiveness of the proposed technique, IR profiles of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor RF and digital circuits were also analyzed. The presented technique offers a reliable automated identification of heat spots within a circuit/system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.389960DOI Listing
June 2020

Cataloging of Cd Allocation in Late Rice Cultivars Grown in Polluted Gleysol: Implications for Selection of Cultivars with Minimal Risk to Human Health.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 21;17(10). Epub 2020 May 21.

Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic trace metal that has polluted 20% of agricultural land in China where its concentration exceeds the standards for Chinese farmland. Plants are capable of accumulating Cd and other trace metals, but this capacity varies with species and cultivars within a species. Rice is a staple food consumed by half of the global population. In order to select safe late rice cultivars that are suitable late rice cultivars that can be cultivated in for growing in slightly contaminated soil, a two-year field experiment was conducted with 27 in the first year and 9 late rice cultivars in the second year. The results showed that plant Cd concentrations varied among the cultivars, with high magnitudes of variation occurred in straw and grains. Five genotypes including LR-12, LR-17, LR-24, LR-25 and LR-26 were identified as low accumulators for the first year while LR-15 and LR-17 were identified as promising cultivars based on Cd concentration in the polished rice grains (<0.02 mg kg DW). In addition, these cultivars had favorable traits, including mineral nutrition and grain yield. Therefore, these genotypes should be considered for cultivation in slightly or moderately Cd contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277880PMC
May 2020

Adsorption of Cd and Pb in contaminated gleysol by composite treatment of sepiolite, organic manure and lime in field and batch experiments.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Jun 2;196:110539. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Lab of Environ Remediation and Ecol Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Contamination of arable land with trace metals is a global environmental issue which has serious consequences on human health and food security. Present study evaluates the adsorption of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by using different quantities of composite of sepiolite, organic manure and lime (SOL) at field and laboratory scale (batch experiments). Characterization of SOL by SEM, EDS and FTIR spectroscopy revealed the presence of elemental and functional groups (hydroxyl, C⋯H and -COOH groups) on its surface. The field experiment was performed in a paddy field of gleysol having moderate contamination of Cd and Pb (0.64 mg kg and 53.44 mg kg). Here, different rates of SOL (0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w) were applied by growing low and high Cd accumulator rice cultivars. Application of SOL at 2% w/w showed considerable efficiency to increase soil pH (up to 19%) and to reduce available Cd (42-66%) and Pb (22-55%) as compared to the control. Moreover, its application reduced metal contents in roots, shoots and grains of rice by 31%, 36% and 72% (for Cd) and 41%, 81% and 84% (for Pb), respectively in low accumulator cultivar. Further, the batch sorption experiment was performed to evaluate the adsorption capacity of SOL in a wide range of contamination. Obtained sorption data was better fitted to the Langmuir equation. Our results highlight the strong efficiency of composite treatment for an enhanced in-situ metal immobilization under field and lab conditions. Further, applied treatments greatly reduced the metal contents in rice grains. In a nut shell, application of SOL in a contaminated gleysol should be considered for soil remediation and safe food production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110539DOI Listing
June 2020

Multivessel Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Patient With Bernard-Soulier Syndrome.

JACC Case Rep 2020 Apr 25;2(4):621-625. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Bernard-Soulier syndrome, a congenital bleeding disorder, can rarely present with atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Acute coronary syndrome in such patients present a unique challenge as no standard set of guidelines exist for successful treatment. ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccas.2019.12.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298559PMC
April 2020

Foliage application of selenium and silicon nanoparticles alleviates Cd and Pb toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Sci Total Environ 2020 Apr 7;712:136497. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Direct discharge of untreated industrial waste water in water bodies and then irrigation from these sources has increased trace metals contamination in paddy fields of southern China. Among trace metals, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are classified as most harmful contaminants in farmland to many organisms including plants, animals and humans. Rice is a staple food which is consumed by half population of the world; due to longer growth period it can easily absorb and accumulate the trace metals from soil. The objective of study was to check the efficacy of Se and Si NPs (nanoparticles) alone or in combination on metals accumulation and Se-fortified rice (Oryzasativa L.) production as their efficiency remained untested. Alone as well as combined application of Se- and Si-NPs (5, 10 and 20 mg L) was achieved along with CK. All the treatments significantly reduced the Cd and Pb contents in brown rice, except CK, Se3, Si1 and Se1Si3. Combined application of Se and Si (Se3Si2) was more effective in reducing the Cd and Pb contents by 62 and 52%, respectively. In addition, foliar application of both NPs improved the rice growth and quality by increasing the grain yield, rice biomass, and Se contents in brown rice. Highest concentration of Se (1.35 mg kg) in brown rice was observed with combined application of Se- and Si-Nps (Se3Si2). Selenium speciation revealed the presence of organic species (74%) in brown rice. The combinations of different doses of Se- and Si-Nps are the main determining factor for total concentration of metals in grains. These results demonstrate that foliage supplementation of Se and Si-Nps alleviate the Cd and Pb toxicity by reducing the metals' concentration in brown rice. Additionally foliage supplementation improved the nutritional quality by reducing the phytic acid contents in rice grains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136497DOI Listing
April 2020

Interactions between cadmium and zinc in uptake, accumulation and bioavailability for with respect to phytoremediation.

Int J Phytoremediation 2020 3;22(6):628-637. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The willow ( spp.) is a potential accumulator of cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn), and the interaction between Cd and Zn is an important factor influencing their phytoextraction potentials. In this study, interactions between Cd and Zn in uptake, accumulation and bioavailability for clone SI63 were investigated through nutrient solution and soil culture methods. The result of the soil culture showed that Cd had additive effects for Zn-caused biomass reduction. The result from nutrient solution indicated that added Zn showed antagonistic (low Cd level) or synergistic (moderate and high Cd levels) effects on shoot Cd accumulation and antagonistic effects on root Cd accumulation. Irrespective of nutrient solution or soil culture experiment, Cd addition always had antagonistic effects on Zn accumulation in both shoots and roots. Under Cd10Zn50 condition, the clone accumulated higher Cd and Zn concentrations (95 μg g Cd and 165 μg g Zn) in shoots. Cd slightly increased bioavailable Zn in the rhizosphere, and EDTA well predicted bioavailable Cd and Zn in the rhizosphere. Interactions of Cd-Zn markedly changed their respective phytoextraction potentials, especially for Zn. This result will provide a new insight into improving phytoextraction potentials of both Cd and Zn using willows through applying metal interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2019.1701981DOI Listing
April 2020

Assessment of DNA integrity through MN bioassay of erythrocytes and histopathological changes in and in response to freshwater pollution.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jan 3;27(1):251-260. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of this study was to determine the level of contamination and genotoxic impact through micronucleus assay and histopathology in and procured from the polluted site of the River Chenab at industrial and sewage waste disposal. The water sample was found viciously contaminated with heavy metals i.e. Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, Pb, Hg, Zn, Sn, Cu while all other physio-chemical variables crossed the suggested limits of WHO. The heavy metals load induced histopathological alterations were correlated to environmental degradation and the productivity of this biological system. and harvested from contaminated sites of the river indicated higher intensity of DNA damage through micronucleus induction and nuclear abnormalities with 5.46 ± 0.17, 1.23 ± 0.08 and 4.2 ± 0.11, 0.4 ± 0.04‰ respectively. Muscle sections of and harvested from the polluted section of river demonstrated the necrosis, degeneration of muscle fibers, intra-fibular edema and release of the blood into the tissues due to the bursting of blocked of the blood vessels. Dermal layers showed degeneration of the collagen bundles those were found loose or collapsed in some regions. Photomicrography also revealed vacuolar degeneration in muscle tissues and atrophy of muscle bundles. Intra fibular edema and splitting of muscle fibers were also seen along with bioaccumulation of toxicants. showed maximum incidence of alterations with highest histopathological alteration index related to environmental degradation. Control fish samples showed normal muscle tissues with normal equally spaced muscle bundles and myotomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933249PMC
January 2020

Immobilization and sorption of Cd and Pb in contaminated stagnic anthrosols as amended with biochar and manure combined with inorganic additives.

J Environ Manage 2020 Mar 20;257:109999. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, Florida, 34945, USA.

The present study evaluated the efficiency of pre-selected composite amendments (CA-1: biochar-lime-sepiolite-zeolite and CA-2: manure-lime-sepiolite) for immobilization and sorption of Cd and Pb in field and batch sorption experiments. The field experiment was performed in a co-contaminated clay purple soil (stagnic anthrosols). Along with a control experiment (T1), CA-1 and CA-2 were tested at different rates including 750, 1500, 3000 and 6000 kg ha by growing wheat as the test crop. The obtained results revealed that the highest dose of both composites (T5: 6000 kg ha and T9: 6000 kg ha) increased the soil pH to 6.85 and 6.81, respectively as compared to the control (5.63). DTPA-extractable Cd and Pb contents decreased with composite treatments (T7 and T4) at harvest stage samples. Metal fractionation depicted that application of amendments decreased the exchangeable fraction at harvesting stage. Application of CA-2 and CA-1 (3000 kg ha) significantly increased the plant biomass (by 28% and 24%, respectively) and grain yield (by 26% and 22%, respectively) of wheat. Furthermore, batch sorption experiment results revealed that Langmuir adsorption model better fitted the sorption results with R values ranging between 0.99 and 0.91 for Cd and Pb, respectively. CA-1 and CA-2 exhibited the maximum adsorption capacity for Cd with no significant difference among treatments but Pb adsorption capacity was highest in CA-1 followed by CA-2 and control. The results of our experiments revealed that the application of organics combined with inorganic materials enhanced Cd and Pb immobilization and sorption, consequently reducing metals availability in laboratory and field conditions. Moreover, for field trials, application of the composite amendments at 3000 kg ha emerged as the suitable treatment for tested wheat-grown area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109999DOI Listing
March 2020

Organic soil additives for the remediation of cadmium contaminated soils and their impact on the soil-plant system: A review.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Mar 15;707:136121. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Lab of Environ Remediation and Ecol Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

Immobilization is among the most-suitable strategies to remediate cadmium (Cd) contaminated sites. Organic additives (OAs) have emerged as highly efficient and environment-friendly immobilizers to eradicate Cd contamination in a wide range of environments. This review article is intended to critically illustrate the role of different OAs in Cd immobilization and to highlight the key findings in this context. Owing to the unique structural features (high surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), presence of many functional groups), OAs have shown strong capability to remediate Cd polluted soils by adsorption, electrostatic interaction, complexation and precipitation. Research data is compiled about the efficiency of different OAs (bio-waste, biochar, activated carbon, composts, manure, and plant residues) applied alone or in combination with other amendments in stabilization and renovation of contaminated sites. In addition to their role in remediation, OAs are widely advocated for being classical sources of essential plant nutrients and as agents to improve the soil health and quality which has also been focused in this review. OAs may contain considerable amounts of metals and therefore it becomes essential to assess their final contribution. Elimination of Cd contamination is essential to attenuate the contaminant effect and to produce the safe food. Therefore, deployment of environment-friendly remediation strategies (alone or in combination with other suitable technologies) should be adopted especially at early stages of contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136121DOI Listing
March 2020

Efficiency of lime, biochar, Fe containing biochar and composite amendments for Cd and Pb immobilization in a co-contaminated alluvial soil.

Environ Pollut 2020 Feb 14;257:113609. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Present study reports the laboratory and field scale application of different organic and inorganic amendments to immobilize cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a co-contaminated alluvial paddy soil. For that purpose, lime, biochar, Fe-biochar and two composite amendments (CA) composed of biochar, lime, sepiolite and zeolite (CA1: composite amendment 1) and manure, lime and sepiolite (CA2: composite amendment 2) were firstly tested in an incubation experiment to ameliorate Cd and Pb co-contaminated alluvial soil. It was observed that liming and CA2 elevated the soil pH and reduced DTPA extractable Cd and Pb in the incubated soil leading to higher metal immobilization. Therefore, efficiency of lime and CA2 was further investigated in field conditions with mid rice as the test crop to evaluate field scale immobilization and precise application rate for the tested soil type. DTPA and CaCl extractable Cd (46 and 51%) and Pb (68 and 70%) in field soil were decreased with applied treatments. Speciation of Cd and Pb also promoted conversion of metal exchangeable contents to less-available forms. Activated functional groups on amendments' surface (OH bonding, CO and CO, -O-H, Si-O-Si, carboxylic and ester groups) sequestered metals by precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange or electro static attributes. Application of lime at 2400 kg/acre (T4) and CA2 at 1200 kg/acre was more effective in reducing rice shoot and grains metal contents. Moreover, obtained results in terms of pH, extractable content, speciation and yield, and microanalysis of amendments highlights the remarkable efficiency of lime and composite amendment to sorb Cd and Pb providing the key evidence of these amendments for metals immobilization and environmental remediation. Considering these results, lime and CA2 are potential amendments for co-contaminated rice field especially in context of alluvial soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113609DOI Listing
February 2020

Severity of Chest Pain among Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients with Diagonal Branch Vessel Disease: A Pilot Study.

Cureus 2019 Aug 29;11(8):e5519. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Cardiology, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction:  Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients present with variable clinical manifestations such as shortness of breath, nausea, etc. among which chest pain is the most common. Previous studies have reported that the clinical presentation of AMI patients with branch vessel disease is indistinguishable from epicardial coronary vessel disease. However, our experience suggests patients with branch vessel disease experience severe chest pain, especially those with a diagonal branch. Therefore, we aim to study the association of chest pain severity with isolated diagonal branch vessel disease as a culprit vessel in AMI patients.

Methods:  It is a retrospective case-control design, where 10 cases and 40 historic controls were recruited in the study. Cases were patients with isolated diagonal branch disease, whereas controls were patients with epicardial vessel disease in AMI. We reviewed Coronary Angiograms of adult patients who presented with acute myocardial infarction and had undergone coronary angiography at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi (AKUH). Information on pain scores was measured using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NRS) before administration of analgesics. Other relevant variables were also recorded on a pre-structured questionnaire.

Results: The mean age of all the participants in the study was 60 ± 11.0 years, with 16% of the patients being women. Among all AMI patients, the intensity of chest pain in patients with isolated diagonal branch vessel disease was 2.6 units higher as compared to those with other epicardial coronary vessel diseases (p-value: <0.001; 95% CI: 1.67 - 3.46).

Conclusion:  This preliminary study indicates severe chest pain can be a differentiating symptom in AMI patients with diagonal branch disease. It emphasizes clinicians to look for a possibility of a diagonal branch as a culprit vessel in AMI for better judgment, as it is often overlooked. future studies may be conducted at multiple centers for larger sample size and better generalizability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.5519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819063PMC
August 2019

Identification of high cadmium-accumulating oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cultivars for phytoremediation of an Oxisol and an Inceptisol.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Jan 1;187:109857. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

Forty oilseed sunflower cultivars were screened in two soil types for phytoremediation of Cd coupled with maximum biomass yield and oil production. Several cultivars exhibited a significant difference in biomass and yield with enhanced uptake in shoots and low accumulation in roots from two Cd-contaminated soil types, an Oxisol and an Iceptisol. The Transfer Factor of Cd was >1 in several cultivars in both soil types, where as a significant difference in phytoextraction of Cd was observed in the Oxisol (acidic soil), greater than in the Inceptisol (alkaline soil). The results revealed that of the 40 cultivars, S9178, Huanong 667in the Oxisol and cvs. DW 667, HN 667, Huanong 667 and 668F1 in the Inceptisol showed a high biomass, better yield and enhanced accumulation of Cd in the shoots but a lesser accumulation in oil. The screened cultivar S 9178 produced the greatest amount of oil (55.6%) with 77% oleic acid, which makes it suitable for human consumption. Cultivar Huanong 667 was found to be the highest accumulating cultivar in both soil types. It is therefore suggested that some sunflower cultivars do exhibit phytoremediation potential together with agro-production potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109857DOI Listing
January 2020

Platform for ergonomic intraoral photodynamic therapy using low-cost, modular 3D-printed components: Design, comfort and clinical evaluation.

Sci Rep 2019 11 1;9(1):15830. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Oral cancer prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, especially in developing countries which lack the medical infrastructure to manage it. For example, the oral cancer burden in India has been identified as a public health crisis. The high expense and logistical barriers to obtaining treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy often result in progression to unmanageable late stage disease with high morbidity. Even when curative, these approaches can be cosmetically and functionally disfiguring with extensive side effects. An alternate effective therapy for oral cancer is a light based spatially-targeted cytotoxic therapy called photodynamic therapy (PDT). Despite excellent healing of the oral mucosa in PDT, a lack of robust enabling technology for intraoral light delivery has limited its broader implementation. Leveraging advances in 3D printing, we have developed an intraoral light delivery system consisting of modular 3D printed light applicators with pre-calibrated dosimetry and mouth props that can be utilized to perform PDT in conscious subjects without the need of extensive infrastructure or manual positioning of an optical fiber. To evaluate the stability of the light applicators, we utilized an endoscope in lieu of the optical fiber to monitor motion in the fiducial markers. Here we showcase the stability (less than 2 mm deviation in both horizontal and vertical axis) and ergonomics of our applicators in delivering light precisely to the target location in ten healthy volunteers. We also demonstrate in five subjects with T1N0M0 oral lesions that our applicators coupled with a low-cost fiber coupled LED-based light source served as a complete platform for intraoral light delivery achieving complete tumor response with no residual disease at initial histopathology follow up in these patients. Overall, our approach potentiates PDT as a viable therapeutic option for early stage oral lesions that can be delivered in low resource settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51859-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825190PMC
November 2019

New insight into the impact of biochar during vermi-stabilization of divergent biowastes: Literature synthesis and research pursuits.

Chemosphere 2020 Jan 27;238:124679. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Soil and Water Science Department, Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL, 34945, USA.

Biochar amendment for compost stabilization of divergent biowastes is gaining considerable attention due to environmental, agronomic and economic benefits. Research to date exhibits its favorable physico-chemical characteristics, viz. greater porosity, surface area, amount of functional groups, and cation exchange capacity (CEC), which allow interface with main nutrient cycles, favor microbial activities during composting, and improve the reproduction of earthworms during vermicomposting. Biochar amendment during composting and vermicomposting of biowastes boosts physico-chemical properties of compost mixture, microbial activities and organic matter degradation; and reduces nitrogen loss and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). It also improves the quality of final compost by increasing concentration of plant available nutrients, enhancing maturity, decreasing composting duration and reducing the toxicity of compost. Due to these characteristics, biochar could be considered a beneficial additive for the stabilization of different biowastes during composting and vermicomposting processes. Hence, good quality vermicompost, efficient recycling and management of biowastes could be achieved by addition of biochar through composting and vermicomposting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124679DOI Listing
January 2020

Tetracycline uptake by pak choi grown on contaminated soils and its toxicity in human liver cell line HL-7702.

Environ Pollut 2019 Oct 5;253:312-321. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Tetracycline (TC) can enter the human body via the soil-vegetable-human food chain; therefore, it is necessary to understand the toxicity of TC to humans through vegetables grown on contaminated soils. The present study combined an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and an HL-7702 cell model and assessed the bioavailability and toxicity of TC from pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) grown on TC-contaminated soils. The results showed that the degradation rate of TC in black soil was significantly higher than that in purplish clay, while the results for TC uptake in pak choi were opposite. The bioaccessibility of TC was found to be higher in pak choi grown on purplish clay (5.67-7.59%) than in that grown on black soil (5.22-6.77%). It is suggested that soil properties contribute to the uptake of TC by pak choi. More fertile soil contained lower TC concentrations and thus mediated lower TC toxicity to humans. It may seem comforting that TC concentrations in the edible parts of pak choi are often found to be below safe limits. However, the TC diagnosis method showed that even moderate increases in TC concentrations in pak choi may induce oxidative stress, liver injury, mitochondrial cristae and rough endoplasmic reticulum swelling, and early apoptosis in liver cells HL-7702. The pak choi grown in purplish clay showed higher TC cytotoxicity than that grown in black soil. The TC cytotoxicity of raw pak choi was found to be higher than that of cooked pak choi. These results provide direct evidence of effective ways to prevent TC toxicity in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.06.086DOI Listing
October 2019

Impact of Water Pollution on Trophic Transfer of Fatty Acids in Fish, Microalgae, and Zoobenthos in the Food Web of a Freshwater Ecosystem.

Biomolecules 2019 06 14;9(6). Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

This research work was carried out to determine the effects of water contamination on the fatty acid (FA) profile of periphyton, zoobenthos, two Chinese carps and a common carp ( and ), captured from highly polluted (HP), less polluted (LP), and non-polluted (NP) sites of the Indus river. We found that the concentration of heavy metals in the river water from the polluted locations exceeded the permissible limits suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Fatty acid profiles in periphyton, zoobenthos, , , and in the food web of river ecosystems with different pollution levels were assessed. Lauric acid and arachidic acids were not detected in the biomass of periphyton and zoobenthos from HP and LP sites compared to NP sites. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosadienoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid were not recorded in the biomass samples of periphyton and zoobenthos in both HP and LP sites. Caprylic acid, lauric acid, and arachidic acid were not found in , , and captured from HP. In this study, 6 and 9 omega series FAs were identified in the muscle samples of , and captured from HP and LP sites compared to NP sites, respectively. Less polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed in the muscle samples of , , and collected from HP than from LP. The heavy metals showed significant negative correlations with the total FAs in periphyton, zoobenthos, and fish samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom9060231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627475PMC
June 2019

Eisenia fetida and biochar synergistically alleviate the heavy metals content during valorization of biosolids via enhancing vermicompost quality.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Sep 28;684:597-609. Epub 2019 May 28.

Soil and Water Science Department, Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA.

Impact of different biochars supplemented (10% w/w) to promote vermicomposting of sewage sludge (SS) and kitchen waste (KW) mixture (SS + KW, 70:30) was studied on the growth, reproduction and survival of earthworms, and ultimately the quality of vermicompost. Four types of biochar used as secondary material for preincubation (16 days) and vermicomposting (30 days) were: pine tree biochar (PTB), poplar plant biochar (PPB), wetland plant biochar (WPB) and yard waste biochar (YWB). Preincubation and vermicomposting of biomass mixture were undertaken in 60 L and 2 L capacity round-shaped bioreactors, respectively. Samples of biomass undergoing degradation were drawn after every 2 days during preincubation and with 5 days interval during vermicomposting to analyze them for plant nutrients and heavy metals contents. Amendment of vermicompost substrate (SS + KW) with biochars; PTB, PPB, WPB and YWB increased the reproduction rate of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) by 44.6, 53.9, 29.3 and 38.8%, respectively as compared to control (no biochar, NB). There has been significant reduction in total content of Cd (0.2-5.1%), Cr (7.3-10.8%), Cu (3.1-7.4%), Mn (3.2-8.4%), Pb (9.0-45.9%) and Zn (1.1-5.7%) by the application of different biochars as compared to NB after vermicomposting. The SEM/EDS images also reflected reduced concentration of these heavy metals in the final vermicompost as compared to initial mixtures. Progressively, biochar amendments increased the concentration of all macronutrients, viz., TN (15.8-31.0%), TP (8.6-9.9%), TK (2.8-17.3%), Ca (4.1-9.9%) and Mg (0.8-12.2%); while, reduced the pH (1.9-2.3%), content of Na (6.6-22.3%), TOC (6.6-15.4%), OM (5.0-8.2%) and C:N ratio (2.6-18.9%). Earthworm body accumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals was: Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > Mn > Cr at the termination stage of experiment. In conclusion, amending the SS + KW mixture with 10% (w/w) PPB for vermicomposting rendered higher count of cocoons, growth rate and reproduction rate of earthworms, which ultimately produce nutrients-rich vermicompost lower in heavy metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.370DOI Listing
September 2019

Outcomes of Left Main Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2019 Jun;29(6):498-501

Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To study the outcomes of left main percutaneous coronary artery (LMCA) revascularisation.

Study Design: A descriptive study.

Place And Duration Of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, from February till July 2016.

Methodology: The study included all adult patients aged 18 years or more, who underwent percutaneous LMCA revascularisation at study centre from April 2006 till April 2015. In-hospital outcomes were ascertained of patients via charts along with telephonic follow-up for outcome ascertainment at 1-year and 5-year. Results were expressed in terms of means and standard deviation for quantitative variables and percentages for qualitative variables.

Results: Of the 86 patients, the mean age was 66.05 ±12.6 years and 69% (59 cases, n=86) of them were males. Sixteen (18.6%) patients presented with cardiogenic shock and 17.4% (15 cases, n=86) required mechanical ventilation upon arrival. Among the 86 patients, 23.3% (20 patients, n=86) underwent PCI because of unstable condition for CABG and refusal by the surgeons. Mean follow up time for participants was 40.5 ±25.7 months with mean length of hospital stay of 4.36 ±2.4 days. In-hospital mortality was 12.8%, while mortality at 1-year and at mean follow-up was 7.3% and 6.9%, respectively.

Conclusion: LM percutaneous coronary intervention is a viable option for patients who are hemodynamicaly unstable and require urgent revascularisation or for patients denying bypass surgery due to other reasons in Pakistan. Prospective studies in future may be required to evaluate the role of PCI for LM lesions in elective setting in contrast to existing treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2019.06.498DOI Listing
June 2019

Preincubation and vermicomposting of divergent biosolids exhibit vice versa multielements stoichiometry and earthworm physiology.

J Environ Manage 2019 Aug 16;243:144-156. Epub 2019 May 16.

Soil and Water Science Department, Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL, 34945, USA.

Sewage sludge and kitchen refuse are ubiquitously mounting wastes with high organic load, which if reprocessed they could salvage the environment. Reckoned with this certitude, an incubating study was initiated on sequential preincubation of sewage sludge with kitchen waste in 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70 ratios for 16 days ensued by vermicomposting of 30 days using Eisenia fetida. Concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) in the biosolid mixtures increased during preincubation but reduced progressively through vermicomposting due to bioaccumulation of these metals in the earthworm tissues. Earthworm growth parameters data reflected that sewage sludge and kitchen waste mixture with 70:30 ratio increased the number of cocoons (10.6%), biomass (8.2%), growth rate (8.3%), reproduction rate (12.2%), and decreased their mean mortality rate (80.1%) as compared to that in sole sewage sludge (control). Results of chemical analysis and SEM/EDS imaging, showed that alkalinity, organic carbon, C/N ratio, organic matter and concentration of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) reduced while macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) increased in the final vermicompost as compared to that in initial mixtures. The FT-IR analysis also revealed that various biochemical functional groups underwent biodegradation during combined preincubation-vermicomposting. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of all trace elements in the earthworm tissues was higher with 70:30 ratio of substrates, with the trend of Cd > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr. Hence, this study concludes that combined preincubation-vermicomposting is the most efficient and ecofriendly technique for biodegradation, stabilization, and conversion of sewage sludge and kitchen waste into organic fertilizer. The nutrient rich vermicompost can be safely used as horticultural substrate and soil conditioner for efficient management of degraded soils. Finally, combined preincubation-vermicomposting is a sustainable system of recycling the sewage sludge along with kitchen waste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.116DOI Listing
August 2019
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