Publications by authors named "Bilal Aslam"

74 Publications

Antipyretic and antinociceptive potential of Ricinus communis L. and Withania somnifera L. hydroalcoholic extracts in Wistar rats: A comparative study.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Sep;34(5(Supplementary)):1879-1884

Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The present study was designed to evaluate the antipyretic and antinociceptive activities of R. communis leaves and W. somnifera roots hydroalcoholic extracts in Wistar rats. To assess the antipyretic activity, Brewer's yeast suspension was used to induce hyperthermia. Antinociceptive activity was observed using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, formalin-induced paw licking reflex and heat-induced pain models. R. communis and W. somnifera extracts were used at 150, 250 and 500mg/kg. Results showed that administration of both plants significantly (p<0.001) lowered rectal temperature (°C) in a dose-dependent manner from 1h to 4h of study. R. communis and W. somnifera extracts showed a dose-dependent reduction in abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and decreased the paw licking reflex in formalin-induced nociceptive response. In the heat test, R. communis and W. somnifera extracts exhibited significant (p<0.001) analgesic effects evidenced as an increase in latency time. However, R. communis exhibited prominent antipyretic and antinociceptive activities at 250 and 500mg/kg as compared to W. somnifera. Conclusively, R. communis and W. somnifera could be a potential source of antipyretic and analgesic agents which require further studies.
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September 2021

Pattern of clinical drug resistance and occurrence of Gram negative bacterial neonatal sepsis at a tertiary care hospital.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Sep;34(5(Supplementary)):1873-1878

Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal deaths across the world. Gram-negative rods such as Klebsiella and E. coli are major cause of sepsis in neonates. With a mortality rate of 1-4 deaths per thousand live births, sepsis is the second most important cause of neonatal deaths in the developing countries. The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of Gram-negative bacteria in neonatal sepsis and to find antibiotic susceptibility of isolated microbes. Blood samples of 100 neonates (1-89 days old) were sub cultured on MacConkey's and Blood agar for isolation of Gram-negative bacteria. A total of four bacterial species were isolated including Klebsiella (35.71%), E. coli (28.57%), Acinetobacter (21.42%) and Proteus (14.28%). Gram-negative bacteria were isolated more commonly from EOS (early onset sepsis) as compared to LOS (late onset sepsis). Klebsiella isolates from neonates showed sensitivity to imipenem (70%) followed by ceftazidime (40%) and cefotaxime (40%) and high resistance was shown by sulfamethoxazole (80%) and amikacin (70%). E. coli associated with neonatal sepsis were sensitive to imipenem (63%) while highly resistant to cefotaxime (75%) and ciprofloxacin (62%). For Acinetobacter high sensitivity was found for ceftazidime (50%) and resistance was shown to ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole (100%). Proteus showed high sensitivity to amikacin (75%) and high resistance to imipenem and ciprofloxacin (75%). In conclusion, Gram-negative associated neonatal sepsis was found in the studied subjects and drug resistance was observed to clinically used antibiotics.
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September 2021

Cyanobacteria derived compounds: Emerging drugs for cancer management.

J Basic Microbiol 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The wide diversity of cyanobacterial species and their role in a variety of biological activities have been reported in the previous few years. Cyanobacteria, especially from marine sources, constitutes a major source of biologically active metabolites that have gained great attention especially due to their anticancer potential. Numerous chemically diverse metabolites from various cyanobacterial species have been recognized to inhibit the growth and progression of tumor cells through the induction of apoptosis in many different types of cancers. These metabolites activate the apoptosis in the cancer cells by different molecular mechanisms, however, the dysregulation of the mitochondrial pathway, death receptors signaling pathways, and the activation of several caspases are the crucial mechanisms that got considerable interest. The array of metabolites and the range of mechanisms involved may also help to overcome the resistance acquired by the different tumor types against the ongoing therapeutic agents. Therefore, the primary or secondary metabolites from the cyanobacteria as well as their synthetic derivates could be used to develop novel anticancer drugs alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we have discussed the role of cyanobacterial metabolites in the induction of cytotoxicity and the potential to inhibit the growth of cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis, cell signaling alteration, oxidative damage, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. Moreover, the various metabolites produced by cyanobacteria have been summarized with their anticancer mechanisms. Furthermore, the ongoing trials and future developments for the therapeutic implications of these compounds in cancer therapy have been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jobm.202100459DOI Listing
November 2021

Effect of multiple climate change scenarios and predicted land-cover on soil erosion: a way forward for the better land management.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Oct 28;193(11):754. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Geology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.

The ecosystem, biodiversity, and anthropological existence in the Chitral district are in danger due to the sediments and soil erosion stemming from the changes in the land-cover and climate. This research aims to practice the RUSLE model with the changes in the land-cover and climate in upcoming situations for 2030 and 2040 to evaluate soil erosion annually as per the spatial dissemination and the tendency of sediment yield. The multilayer perceptron (MLP), an artificial neural network (ANN), besides the Markov chain analysis was used to model upcoming land-cover. The Max Planck Institute model, which demonstrated a revised bias as well as downscaled grid size under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), was used for examining the future changes in the climate. The modeled land-cover showed that the areas that are primarily comprised of natural trees and shrubs were transformed largely to agriculture and build-up areas. The average rainfall in the future under different RCP situations was elevated compared to the rainfall through historical time. The continuous variability in the R and C factors affects the probable soil erosion rate and sediment yield. Under RCP8.5 for both future years of 2030 and 2040, the extreme erosion rate was assessed at around 500 and 550 t/ha/year. Additionally, under the different RCP scenarios in 2030 and 2040, the outcomes of sediment yield were more significant than the sediment yield through historical time. The results showed that lower regions of the Chitral district are at risk of amplified soil erosion and sediment yield presently, as shown by the historical data and in the future. The produced soil erosion maps using ArcGIS 10.2 can play a valuable role in managing sustainable development, conservation of the watershed of the Chitral River, and reducing soil loss. Effective measures to overcome these concerns and mitigate the possible effects need to be planned and practiced, particularly the decrease in the storage volume of the reservoirs situated on the river.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09559-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Anti-arthritic activity of L. and L. extracts in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats modulating inflammatory mediators and subsiding oxidative stress.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Jul;24(7):951-961

Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of leaves' and roots' hydroalcoholic extracts in Complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar rats.

Materials And Methods: HPLC and FT-IR analysis detected pharmacologically important phytocompounds in both plant extracts. Oral treatments including methotrexate (MTX; 3 mg/kg twice a week) and extracts at 250 and 500 mg/kg/day were initiated after arthritis induction. Changes in paw swelling, arthritic score, body weight, organ indices (thymus and spleen), hematological and biochemical parameters, and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine expression using qRT-PCR were assessed. Oxidative stress markers in hepatic tissue were determined. Histopathological and radiological examinations were also performed.

Results: RCE ( extract) and WSE ( extract) demonstrated a reduction in paw swelling, arthritic score, and restoration of body weight and organ indices. Hematological parameters, serum inflammatory markers such as CRP and RF, and liver function markers of arthritic rats were significantly (<0.01) ameliorated with RCE and WSE treatment. Both plants persuasively down-regulated IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17a, TNF-α, and RANKL and up-regulated IL-4, INF-γ, and OPG relative expression as well as alleviating hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Histopathological and radiological findings revealed a marked reduction in tissue inflammation and bone erosion in extracts treated groups.

Conclusion: The study findings suggest that leaves and roots have markedly subsided inflammation and improved health through modulating pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reducing oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2021.55145.12355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8528258PMC
July 2021

Isolation, characterization and in-vitro antigenicity studies of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Salmonella gallinarum coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs).

Immunobiology 2021 09 24;226(5):152131. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The development of biomimetic nanoparticles by combining the natural cellular material with synthetic nanoparticles has inspired innovative therapeutic strategies as compared to traditional line of therapeutics. Therefore, the research was conducted to prepare the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from Salmonella gallinarum and coated on to the surface of synthetic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The size of the final product was characterized by Zeta sizer and Zeta potential. The coating of outer membrane proteins onto the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The sterility, stability and safety of the prepared antigen was confirmed by standard culture media, in biological buffer solution and in-vitro pyrogenic testing, respectively. In-vitro antigenicity of outer membrane protein alone and coated with gold nanoparticles were observed through macrophage phagocytosis assay. On the basis of results, it was anticipated that bacterial outer membrane protein has immunogenic antigenic properties and coating of bacterial outer membrane protein on the surfaces of synthetic gold nanoparticles not only preserved the complex biological characteristics of bacteria but also provided greater immune responses as compared to outer membrane protein alone. So, it was concluded that the coating of bacterial outer membrane proteins on the surface of synthetic gold nanoparticles have synergistic effects to induce the immune responses and promising potential to develop the effective antibacterial vaccine against salmonellosis in poultry birds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2021.152131DOI Listing
September 2021

The prospects of antimicrobial coated medical implants.

J Appl Biomater Funct Mater 2021 Jan-Dec;19:22808000211040304

Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The implants are increasingly being a part of modern medicine in various surgical procedures for functional or cosmetic purposes. The progressive use of implants is associated with increased infectious complications and prevention of such infections always remains precedence in the clinical settings. The preventive approaches include the systemic administration of antimicrobial agents before and after the surgical procedures as well as the local application of antibiotics. The relevant literature and existing clinical practices have highlighted the role of antimicrobial coating approaches in the prevention of implants associated infections, although the applications of these strategies are not yet standardized, and the clinical efficacy is not much clear. The adequate data from the randomized control trials is challenging because of the unavailability of a large sample size although it is compulsory in this context to assess the clinical efficacy of preemptive practices. This review compares the efficacy of preventive approaches and the prospects of antimicrobial-coated implants in preventing implant-related infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/22808000211040304DOI Listing
October 2021

Hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic activities of Caesalpinia bonduc seed kernels and Gymnema sylvestre leaves extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Jan;34(1(Supplementary)):307-311

Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The objective of the current research was to validate the hepatoprotective and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of C. bonduc seed kernels (CBSK) and G. sylvestre leaves (GSL) hydro-methanolic extracts, separately and in combination (CBSKE+GSLE) in alloxan-induced diabetic rat model for 28 days. Diabetes was induced by i.p. injection of alloxan monohydrate (140 mg/kg body weight) to albino Wistar rats. Six groups of rats (n=9) were used. Group 1 was the normal control; group 2 was diabetic control. After induction of diabetes metformin (150mg/kg), CBSKE (400mg/kg), GSLE (400 mg/kg) and CBSKE+GSLE (400mg/kg) were administered to diabetic rat groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively for a period of 28 days. Diabetic rats exhibited an increase in serum blood glucose, liver function markers and lipid profile. Treatment of diabetic rats with metformin, CBSKE, GSLE and CBSKE+GSLE for 4 weeks significantly produced hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effect via amelioration of raised serum glucose, liver profile, and lipid profile. The outcomes of this study suggest that G. sylvestre leaves and C. bonduc seed kernels have hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic potential which possibly help in managing diabetes-induced liver injury and hyperlipidemia.
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January 2021

Characterization and in vivo evaluation of nanoformulations in FCA induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Mar;34(2(Supplementary)):787-793

Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory arthropathy, autoimmune in nature, leading to disability of joints involving structural destruction of articular bone and cartilage due to inflammation in synovium resulting in joint stiffness, swelling and pain. Nanomedicine has played a crucial role in improving the efficacy of treatment by controlling the release of pharmacologically active ingredients to increase bioavailability and achieve uniform and targeted delivery of drug. In this study, we prepared celecoxib, gingerol and oleanic acid loaded PLGA nanoparticles by solvent evaporation method and nanoparticles were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, entrapement efficiency and FTIR. FCA is induced in right hand paw of rats for induction of arthritis. Celecoxib, gingerol and oleanic acid loaded PLGA nanoparticles coated with chitosan were given orally to rats for the evaluation of anti-arthritic effect of this nanoformulation in rats. Animals were divided into six groups for 21 days trial. On 21st day blood samples were collected for evaluation of hematological and lipid profile parameters. The data was subjected to statistical analysis by applying one way ANOVA and tukey test. At the end of study it was concluded that PLGA loaded celecoxib, gingerol and oleanic acid coated with chitosan have excellent effects in minimizing the side effects and increasing the therapeutic efficacy of drugs.
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March 2021

Bacteriophage Proteome: Insights and Potentials of an Alternate to Antibiotics.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Sep 25;10(3):1171-1193. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500, P.R. China.

Introduction: The mounting incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and the dearth of novel antibiotics demand alternate therapies to manage the infections caused by resistant superbugs. Bacteriophages and phage=derived proteins are considered as potential alternates to treat such infections, and have several applications in health care systems. The aim of this review is to explore the hidden potential of bacteriophage proteins which may be a practical alternative approach to manage the threat of antibiotic resistance.

Results: Clinical trials are in progress for the use of phage therapy as a tool for routine medical use; however, the existing regulations may hamper their development of routine antimicrobial agents. The advancement of molecular techniques and the advent of sequencing have opened new potentials for the design of engineered bacteriophages as well as recombinant bacteriophage proteins. The phage enzymes and proteins encoded by the lysis cassette genes, especially endolysins, holins, and spanins, have shown plausible potentials as therapeutic candidates.

Conclusion: This review offers an integrated viewpoint that aims to decipher the insights and abilities of bacteriophages and their derived proteins as potential alternatives to antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-021-00446-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322358PMC
September 2021

Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of bacterial and fungal pathogens isolated from burn wounds in hospitalized patients.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Mar;71(3):916-920

Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Objective: Current study was designed to isolate the pathogens from burn wounds and determine the antibiogram of these isolates.

Methods: A total of 85 samples were collected from burn patients with the history of different weeks of hospitalization in various public and private hospitals of Faisalabad during September 2017-July 2019 and shifted to Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad for further processing. Isolation and identification of the pathogens was done through conventional microbiological procedures. Disc diffusion method was used for the determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity.

Results: A total of 40(91%) samples were found positive for the presence of bacterial or fungal pathogens. Commonly isolated pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus 15 (21.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 15 (21.4%), Bacillus subtilis 11(15.7%), Escherichia coli 10(14.2%), Candida albicans 8(11.4%), Aspergillus flavus 6(8.5%) and Salmonella Typhi 5(7.1%). Highest resistance was found against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Cefotaxime was the least effective antibiotic, while Gentamicin and Amphotericin-B were the mosteffective antimicrobial drugs against bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively.

Conclusions: Taking together it was concluded that most isolated pathogen was S. aureus and P. aeruginosa followed by B. subtilis, E. coli, C. albicans, A. flavus and S. typhi from burn wound in hospitalized patients. Anti-biogram studies showed S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were the most resistant pathogens whereas S. typhi, C. albicans and A. flavus were susceptible to various commonly used antibiotics. Cefotaxime was the least effective antibiotic, while Gentamicin and Amphotericin-B were the most effective antimicrobial drugs against bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. It is suggested that alternate anti-microbial agents should be investigated to control the infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.1245DOI Listing
March 2021

Health Conditions, Lifestyle Factors and Depression in Adults in Qingdao, China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 14;12:508810. Epub 2021 May 14.

Biomedical Research Center, Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou, China.

Depression is a common mental illness. Previous studies suggested that health conditions and lifestyle factors were associated with depression. However, only few studies have explored the risk factors of depression in a large representative sample of the general population in the world. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the 2006 survey and 2009 survey in Qingdao, China. The participants with insufficient information were excluded: Zung score, body mass index (BMI), diabetes items, physical activity, smoking, or drinking. Finally, a total of 3,300 participants were included in this analysis. The category of depression was used in the Zung self-rating depression scale (ZSDS). The associations between different indicators of health conditions (diabetic status, BMI), lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption), and depression were assessed by the logistic regression model. The mean Zung scores for all participants, male participants, and female participants were 29.73 ± 7.57, 28.89 ± 7.30, 30.30 ± 7.70, respectively. In all participants, those who were pre-diabetes status (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.04-2.27), and irregular physical activity (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17-0.89) had an increased risk of depression. In man, the analysis showed an increased risk of depression those with pre-diabetes (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.25-4.97), previously diagnosed diabetes (OR: 4.44, 95% CI: 1.58, 12.48), and in those irregular activities (OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01-0.61). In women, those who were underweight (OR: 5.66, 95% CI: 1.04-30.71) had a greater risk of depression. These results suggested that health conditions and lifestyle factors were the potential risk factors for depression. Men with pre-diabetes, previously diagnosed diabetes, and irregular activity had an increased risk for depression; women with underweight status had a higher risk for depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.508810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160228PMC
May 2021

Asymmetric macroeconomic determinants of CO emission in China and policy approaches.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 1;28(31):41923-41936. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Since the nonlinear ARDL approach is introduced in advanced econometric, some old relationships are getting new empirical attention. Therefore, we examine the asymmetric macroeconomic determinants of carbon dioxide (CO) emission in China, covering the time from 1971 to 2019 and using a nonlinear ARDL model. The study results show that GDP and industrialization have an asymmetric effect on CO emission in long-run in direction and magnitude, while agriculturalization has also an asymmetric effect on environmental pollution in magnitude, but not in the direction. In short, GDP and industrialization have also asymmetric response on CO emissions in the short term only in magnitude, but agriculturalization has an asymmetric response in magnitude and direction in short-run. Therefore, this empirical research is more applicable for policymakers in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13743-7DOI Listing
August 2021

The Sequence Type 131 Harboring Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases and Carbapenemases Genes from Poultry Birds.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 2;14:805-813. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background And Aim: The extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), as well as carbapenemases, are considered as the foremost resistance determinants throughout the world. However, the relevant data especially related to the sequence types of ESBL and carbapenemases producing from the poultry is limited from Pakistan. Here, we present the data on the genetic diversity of strains isolated from the poultry birds from the poultry farms located in Islamabad, Pakistan, and the underlying resistance mechanisms to beta-lactam agents.

Methods: Of 250 broilers from 25 different farms (10 birds from each farm), the cecal samples were obtained and analyzed for the presence of ESBLs producing (ESBL-Ec) as well as carbapenemases producing (CPEc) strains using selective agar for ESBL and carbapenemases screening. The susceptibility profiling of the ESBL-Ec and CPEc isolates was evaluated followed by multi-locus sequence typing.

Results: A total of 119 strains were positive for ESBL production whereas 37 strains were found positive to produce carbapenemases in addition to ESBLs. The MLST analysis has shown a diversity of isolates as the isolates from poultry birds correspond to a total of 16 sequence types (STs). The ST131 (22/48, 46%) followed by ST8051 (10/48, 21%) were the main STs in this study. The bla gene was detected in all the poultry strains whereas the bla was found in 45.5% of strains. The bla was found in all 37 CPEc isolates whereas the bla and bla were found in 31/37 (83.8%) and 16/37 (43.2%) CPEc isolates respectively.

Conclusion: The overall results have shown the prevalence of diverse genotypes among the ESBL-Ec and carbapenemase-producing (CPEC) from poultry. Furthermore, the study documents poultry birds as a persisting reservoir of extensively antimicrobial-resistant ST131 in Pakistan, suggesting a potential threat to public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S296219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936925PMC
March 2021

Fish protein intake is a novel dietary approach for managing diabetes-associated complications in diabetic Wistar rat model.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Feb 23;9(2):1017-1024. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Food Engineering Faculty of Engineering University of Gezira Wad Medani Sudan.

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder associated with short term as well as long-term undesirable complications caused by persistent hyperglycemia. Recently, there has been emerging evidence that natural foods and their bioactive compounds are the key contributors to the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. This study was designed to explore the therapeutic efficacy of a fish protein-rich diet for managing diabetes and associated complications in the diabetic Wistar rat model. A high-protein (HP) diet (45% and 55% fish protein rich in ω3 fatty acids) was given to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 28 days. Blood samples were collected for monitoring serum glucose, oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, kidney function markers, serum proteins, and liver function markers. Results indicated that there was a noteworthy control ( < .05) of serum glucose, oxidative stress, and lipid profile in HP diet treated diabetic rats. Treatment with 45% and 55% fish diet appreciably improved the concentration of serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and exhibited a vibrant improvement in renal functions. Our results confirmed that the HP diet restored total protein and albumin concentration in blood. The HP diet treatment also restored the normal serum aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866565PMC
February 2021

The present danger of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase: a threat to public health.

Future Microbiol 2020 12 6;15:1759-1778. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Medical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, Institute of Infection & Immunity, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, CF10 3AT, Cardiff, UK.

The evolution of antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative pathogens is a substantial menace to public health sectors, notably in developing countries because of the scarcity of healthcare facilities. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is a potent β-lactam enzyme able to hydrolyze several available antibiotics. NDM was identified from the clinical isolates of and from a Swedish patient in New Delhi, India. This enzyme horizontally passed on to various Gram-negative bacteria developing resistance against a variety of antibiotics which cause treatment crucial. These bacteria increase fatality rates and play an integral role in the economic burden. The efficient management of NDM-producing isolates requires the coordination between each healthcare setting in a region. In this review, we present the prevalence of NDM in children, fatality and the economic burden of resistant bacteria, the clonal spread of NDM harboring bacteria and modern techniques for the detection of NDM producing pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2020-0069DOI Listing
December 2020

First Case Report on Quantification of Antimicrobial Use in Corporate Dairy Farms in Pakistan.

Front Vet Sci 2020 26;7:575848. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Intensive livestock farming has become indispensable to meet the rapidly increasing demand for animal-based nutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where antimicrobials are frequently used for treatment and prophylactic or metaphylactic purposes. However, very little is known about the trends of antimicrobial use (AMU) in dairy animals in LMICs. The objective of this study was to quantify AMU in two large commercial dairy farms in Pakistan. A retrospective study was conducted at two large corporate commercial dairy farms located in Punjab province for the year 2018. AMU was calculated using three metrics: active ingredient (AI; kg) and milligrams per population unit (mg/PU; mg/kg), which quantifies the amount of AI used, and antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI; DDDA/1,000 cow-days), which estimates the per-day number of treatments to 1,000 cows. Total on-farm AMU was found to be 138.34 kg, 65.88 mg/kg, and 47.71 DDDA/1,000 cow-days. Measured in ATI, aminoglycosides (11.05 DDDA/1,000 cow-days), penicillins (8.29 DDDA/1,000 cow-days), and tetracyclines (8.1 DDDA/1,000 cow-days) were the most frequently used antimicrobial classes. A total of 42.46% of all the antimicrobials used belonged to the critically important antimicrobials for human medicine as defined by the World Health Organization. Considerably high AMU was found compared to other farm-level studies across the world. This was the first study to quantify AMU in the dairy industry in Pakistan. Our results showed that corporate commercial dairy management practices are associated with increased antimicrobial consumption and highlight the need for antimicrobial stewardship programs to encourage prudent use of antimicrobials in commercial dairy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.575848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725763PMC
November 2020

Appraisal of One Health approach amid COVID-19 and zoonotic pandemics: insights for policy decision.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 11 18;53(1):11. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Institute of Physiology & Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02479-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672166PMC
November 2020

The Therapeutic Prospects of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Indole Alkaloids for Depression and Anxiety Disorders.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 16;2020:8836983. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Depression and anxiety are the most common disorders among all age groups. Several antidepressant drugs including benzodiazepine, antidepressant tricyclics, azapirone, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, serotonin, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors have been used to treat these psychiatric disorders. However, these antidepressants are generally synthetic agents and can cause a wide range of side effects. The potential efficacy of plant-derived alkaloids has been reviewed against various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and epilepsy. However, data correlating the indole alkaloids and antidepressant activity are limited. Natural products, especially plants and the marine environment, are rich sources of potential new drugs. Plants possess a variety of indole alkaloids, and compounds that have an indole moiety are related to serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that regulates brain function and cognition, which in turn alleviates anxiety, and ensures a good mood and happiness. The present review is a summary of the bioactive compounds from plants and marine sources that contain the indole moiety, which can serve as potent antidepressants. The prospects of naturally occurring as well as synthetic indole alkaloids for the amelioration of anxiety and depression-related disorders, structure-activity relationship, and their therapeutic prospects have been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8836983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585661PMC
October 2020

Emergence of Harboring ST29 and ST11 in Veterinary Settings and Waste of Pakistan.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 26;13:3033-3043. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Biomedical Research Center, Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou 730030, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Intense livestock farming practices enforcing the farmers to use antibiotics as food supplements on a routine basis. Aberrant use of antibiotics is associated with the emergence of antibiotics resistance and resistant superbugs. Keeping in view the current scenario, the present study was designed for the first time from Pakistan with a specific aim to estimate the prevalence of the carbapenem-resistant in veterinary settings and the waste in Pakistan.

Methods: A total of 138 samples from various veterinary sources were collected by employing a nonprobability sampling technique. Isolation and phenotypic identification of carbapenem-resistant were performed according to the CLSI standard. Molecular detection of various antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was done through PCR by using specific primers against each ARG. According to the pasture scheme, the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to characterize the sequence types (STs).

Results: According to the results of the study, overall 9.4% (13/138) isolates were confirmed carbapenem-resistant . Among various carbapenem ARGs particularly, the was found in 92.3% (12/13) isolates followed by 84.6% (11/13). MLST results revealed that overall 3 STs were found in the study which includes ST29, ST11, and ST258. Taking together, this is the first study to our best knowledge which demonstrated the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant and its various STs prevalent in veterinary settings and the waste of Pakistan.

Conclusion: Based on the above-mentioned facts, we suggested that veterinary settings and waste are the potential source and reservoir of carbapenem-resistant , which may be disseminated to the environment and ultimately can affect the public and companion livestock health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S248091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457595PMC
August 2020

Sequence Types Harboring Genes Encoding Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes and 16SrRNA Methylase; a Multicenter Study from Pakistan.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 18;13:2855-2862. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Institute of Antibiotics, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: The aminoglycosides are widely used for the therapeutic management of infections caused by gram-negative bacteria, including the strains. However, the resistance to the members of the aminoglycoside family, such as amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin, is increasingly being common among the clinical isolates.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the presence of 16SrRNA methylases and aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AMEs) genes among aminoglycoside resistant isolates and to study the genetic diversity of the clinical population of in local hospitals.

Material And Methods: The 143 clinical strains were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility, genetic screening for enzymes conferring aminoglycosides resistance followed by the multilocus sequence typing.

Results: The 133/143 (93%) isolates were non-susceptible to at least one of the tested aminoglycosides, including amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. The MIC distribution has shown that 87.486.7% strains were resistant to amikacin and gentamicin, respectively. The 6, B, 1, and 1 were found in 74.1%, 59.4%, 16.1%, and 11.2% isolates, respectively, whereas the A was found in 28% of the strains having a higher MIC value (MIC; ≥256µg/mL). The MLST data have shown that the ST589 and ST2 were the most common STs and corresponded to 51 (35.7%) and 38 (26.6%) isolates, respectively, and few of the isolates corresponding to these STs were found to harbor the A gene with a variable genotypic profile for AMEs.

Discussion: The study has reported the incidence of various enzymes conferring aminoglycoside resistance among the clones for the first time from Pakistan. The findings suggest the possibility of transmission of aminoglycoside resistance determinants through the lateral gene transfer as well as clonal dissemination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S260643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7443399PMC
August 2020

CRISPR-Cas system: a potential alternative tool to cope antibiotic resistance.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2020 08 10;9(1):131. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Biomedical Research Center, Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou, 730030, P. R. China.

Antibiotic exposure leads to massive selective pressures that initiate the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in commensal and pathogenic bacteria. The slow process of developing new antibiotics makes this approach counterintuitive for combatting the rapid emergence of new antibiotic resistant pathogens. Therefore, alternative approaches such as, the development of nucleic acid-based anti-bacterial treatments, anti-bacterial peptides, bacteriocins, anti-virulence compounds and bacteriophage therapies should be exploited to cope infections caused by resistant superbugs. In this editorial, we discuss how the newly popular CRISPR-Cas system has been applied to combat antibiotic resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-020-00795-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418376PMC
August 2020

Pharmacokinetic profile of chitosan modified poly lactic co-glycolic acid biodegradable nanoparticles following oral delivery of gentamicin in rabbits.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 29;164:1493-1500. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Allied Health Sciences, Lahore College for Women University, Jail Road, Lahore, Pakistan.

Gentamicin (GM) is a well know antibiotic and drug of choice for various infections and is available in the form of parenteral and topical formulations. Gentamicin has no oral dosage form due to its enzymatic degradation and poor bioavailability. This study was designed to optimize controlled release oral dosage form of GM using poly lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) which were surface modified with chitosan. Nanoparticles were characterized for size, potential, scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Drug concentration in plasma samples was determined by microbiological assay against Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 9372). In vitro release pattern was studied and the best formulation was administered to healthy rabbits for pharmacokinetic studies. Various pharmacokinetic parameters determined for oral formulation were area under the curve (AUC) 43.2 ± 2.16 h.mg/L, volume of distribution (Vd) 1.54 ± 0.25 L, half-life phase-1 (tα) 0.59 ± 0.12 h, mean residence time (MRT) 11.22 ± 0.42 h, time to reach maximum concentration (Tmax) 2.56 ± 0.09 h and maximum concentration (Cmax) was 3.49 ± 0.10 mg/L. It is concluded that chitosan modified GM loaded PLGA NPs has potential for oral absorption and can be used for achieving therapeutic benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.07.206DOI Listing
December 2020

SHISA3, an antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, is epigenetically silenced and its ectopic expression suppresses growth in breast cancer.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(7):e0236192. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Breast cancer (BC) is the foremost cause of cancer related deaths in women globally. Currently there is a scarcity of reliable biomarkers for its early stage diagnosis and theranostics monitoring. Altered DNA methylation patterns leading to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes are considered as an important mechanism underlying tumor development and progression in various cancer types, including BC. Very recently, epigenetic silencing of SHISA3, an antagonist of β-catenin, has been reported in various types of tumor. However, the role of SHISA3 in BC has not been investigated yet. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the contribution of SHISA3 in BC causation by analyzing its expression and methylation levels in BC cell lines (MDA-MB231, MCF-7 and BT-474) and in 103 paired BC tissue samples. The SHISA3 expression and methylation status was determined by qPCR and methylation specific PCR (MSP) respectively. The role of SHISA3 in BC tumorigenesis was evaluated by proliferation and migration assays after ectopic expression of SHISA3. The association between SHISA3 hypermethylation and clinicopathological parameters of BC patients was also studied. The downregulation of SHISA3 expression was found in three BC cell lines used and in all BC tissue samples. However, SHISA3 promoter region was hypermethylated in 61% (63/103) tumorous tissues in comparison to the 18% of their matched normal tissues. The 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment restored SHISA3 expression by reversing promoter hypermethylation in both MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SHISA3 significantly reduced the proliferation and migration ability of these cells. Taken together, our findings for the first time reveal epigenetic silencing and tumor suppressing role of SHISA3 in BC. Henceforth, this study has identified SHISA3 as potentially powerful target for the development of new therapies against BC, as well as novel diagnostic and therapy response monitoring approaches.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236192PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373276PMC
September 2020

Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Biofilm Formation and EPS Production of Multidrug-Resistant .

Biomed Res Int 2020 19;2020:6398165. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Antibiotic resistance against present antibiotics is rising at an alarming rate with need for discovery of advanced methods to treat infections caused by resistant pathogens. Silver nanoparticles are known to exhibit satisfactory antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against different pathogens. In the present study, the AgNPs were synthesized chemically and characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Antibacterial activity against MDR strains was evaluated by agar diffusion and broth microdilution assay. Cellular protein leakage was determined by the Bradford assay. The effect of AgNPs on production on extracellular polymeric substances was evaluated. Biofilm formation was assessed by tube method qualitatively and quantitatively by the microtiter plate assay. The cytotoxic potential of AgNPs on HeLa cell lines was also determined. AgNPs exhibited an MIC of 62.5 and 125 g/ml, while their MBC is 250 and 500 g/ml. The production of extracellular polymeric substance decreased after AgNP treatment while cellular protein leakage increased due to higher rates of cellular membrane disruption by AgNPs. The percentage biofilm inhibition was evaluated to be 64% for strain MF953600 and 86% for MF953599 at AgNP concentration of 100 g/ml. AgNPs were evaluated to be minimally cytotoxic and safe at concentrations of 15-120 g/ml. The data evaluated by this study provided evidence of AgNPs being safe antibacterial and antibiofilm compounds against MDR .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6398165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189323PMC
February 2021

Effect of Caesalpinia bonduc Polyphenol Extract on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats in Attenuating Hyperglycemia by Upregulating Insulin Secretion and Inhibiting JNK Signaling Pathway.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 17;2020:9020219. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.

Caesalpinia bonduc has been used in herbal medicines for the treatment of a wide range of diseases from decades. The present study has explored the remedial potential and underlying mechanism of polyphenol extract of Caesalpinia bonduc in alloxanized diabetic rats. HPLC/MS analysis confirmed the presence of phenolics in considerable concentrations in Caesalpinia bonduc extract. Administration of different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) of CPP extract to hyperglycemic rats for 8 weeks restored blood and serum glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, leptin, amylin, and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes level towards normal compared to alloxanized diabetic group. The effect of CPP extract on various genes such as Pdx-1, Ins-1, ngn-3, GLUT-4, and IRS-1 in insulin signaling pathway and Traf-4, Traf-6, and Mapk-8 in MAPK downstream JNK cascade was examined through qRT-PCR to access the core molecular mechanism involved in CPP-induced recovery of diabetes. Results have revealed that CPP extract reduced oxidative stress in pancreatic cells by restoring free radical scavenging potential, reducing the mRNA expression of Mapk-8, Traf-4, and Traf-6, and increasing the Pdx-1, Ins-1, ngn-3, GLUT-4, and IRS-1 expression ensuing regeneration of cells and subsequent insulin release from pancreas. The results obtained in this study recommend that CPP extract may be a promising therapeutic restorative agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9020219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7103044PMC
December 2020

Triglycerides and Total Cholesterol Concentrations in Association with Hyperuricemia in Chinese Adults in Qingdao, China.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2020 2;13:165-173. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Biomedical Research Center, Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou 730030, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To assess the association between triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and hyperuricemia (HUA) in the general Chinese population.

Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey included 9680 participants aged 35-74 years in 2006 and 2009 in Qingdao, China. TG, TC and uric acid (UA) were measured. The logistic regression model was performed to estimate the association between TG, TC, and HUA with an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meanwhile, age stratification analysis (<55 years group and ≥55 years group) was performed to evaluate whether age potentially affects the association between TG, TC and HUA using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Higher TG and TC showed significantly increased HUA prevalence in both men and women ( all <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that borderline high TG (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.31, 2.15 and HTG (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 2.39, 3.72) indicated increased risk for HUA in men, and borderline high TG (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.68,2.62); HTG (OR: 3.62; 95% CI: 2.90,4.51), borderline high TC (OR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.68, 2.62) and HTC (OR: 3.62, 95% CI: 2.90, 4.51) showed significant association with HUA in women after adjusted age, school years, marital status, geographic division, personal monthly income, BMI and HDL-C. Age stratification analyses demonstrated that the association between TG and HUA was stronger in males aged ≥55 years and female aged <55 years, and the association between TC and HUA was stronger in both gender aged <55 years.

Conclusion: This large cross-sectional study focusing on the association between single indictor of blood lipid as exposure and HUA as outcome on the east coast of China for the first time. From a sample of Chinese adults, this study demonstrated that elevated TG in men and women and TC in women were associated with increased HUA prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S243381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060026PMC
March 2020

The First Harboring ST258 Strain Isolated in Pakistan.

Microb Drug Resist 2020 Jul 28;26(7):783-786. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Biomedical Research Center, Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou, P.R. China.

is an important pathogen that causes pneumonia and bloodstream infections, especially in neonates and intensive care patients. The carbapenems remain an important therapeutic option for clinicians, particularly against cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. This increased use of carbapenems at clinics has resulted in the evolution and spread of carbapenem-resistant . In this study, we isolated six bla carbapenemase (KPC)-producing strains belonging to sequence type 258 (ST258) from clinical, environmental, and veterinary sources. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed on these isolates and the genes responsible for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and metallo-beta-lactamase production were screened. The molecular typing was done using multilocus sequence typing. Isolated strains were resistant to various antibiotic classes, including carbapenems, and carried the carbapenem-resistant gene, blaKPC. All strains were susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. This is the first report detecting ST258 strains in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2019.0420DOI Listing
July 2020

Pathological and clinical investigations of an outbreak of Blackleg disease due to C. chauvoei in cattle in Punjab, Pakistan.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2019 09 30;13(9):786-793. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Jena, Germany.

Introduction: Clostridium chauvoei (C. chauvoei) is an anaerobic, histotoxic Gram-positive, bacterium causing fatal myonecrosis in livestock with high mortalities. The disease is common in dairy animals, but little is known about the pathophysiology of the disease in exotic (non-native) animals kept under local conditions in Pakistan.

Methodology: Diagnosis of blackleg was made based on hematological and serum biochemical analysis, PCR, necropsy and histopathology.

Results: Clinically sick animals exhibited fever, lameness, subcutaneous gaseous swelling and edema particularly in hindquarter and front legs. Hematological analysis showed increases in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and reduces in number of red blood cells, packed cell volume, leukocytes and differential leukocyte count. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, urea, creatinine, creatine kinase, and creatinine phosphokinase were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the infected animals. At necropsy, swelling areas contained straw-colored fluid with gas bubbles. The muscles were swollen, dark to black and exhibited crepitation sounds at the time of incisions with a rancid odor. Severe pulmonary edema, myocarditis along with petechial hemorrhages, as well as enlargement and congestion of liver and spleen have been observed. Microscopic examination revealed severe inflammatory reaction, edema, and disruption of the myofibrils. Examination of heart, spleen, liver, kidneys, intestine, and lungs showed congestion, severe inflammatory changes with neutrophilic infiltration and necrosis accompanied by dissociation of the normal tissue structure. PCR confirmed C. chauvoei in exudates and different samples of muscles.

Conclusion: The pathophysiology should be considered in diagnosis of blackleg. The disease is exist in the non-native cattle farms and biosecurity measures have to be elevated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.11635DOI Listing
September 2019

Dissemination of bla-harbouring carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clones in Pakistan.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2020 06 30;21:357-362. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Institute of Antibiotics, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

Objectives: The rise of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii represents a challenge for the therapeutic management of infections. The present study aimed to investigate the sequence types (STs) and carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii strains collected from various clinical specimens from patients admitted to five tertiary-care hospitals in Pakistan.

Methods: A total of 156 A. baumannii clinical strains were analysed for antimicrobial susceptibility, followed by genetic screening for carbapenem resistance determinants. All of the strains were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) according to the Pasteur scheme.

Results: Of the 156 A. baumannii isolates, 139 (89.1%) were carbapenem-resistant, of which 136 carried bla genes. Interestingly, the most commonly identified ST was ST589 (n = 52), classified as clonal complex 1 (CC1). ST2 was the second most common (n = 38), corresponding to CC2/92 (Pasteur/Oxford scheme), which was distributed in all five hospitals.

Conclusion: Diverse clones of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, including previously reported STs as well as new STs, carrying bla are distributed in Pakistan. This is the first study to describe the molecular epidemiology of widely disseminated A. baumannii isolates in Pakistan. The findings will help to improve our knowledge of the predominant STs and will be valuable for a deeper understanding of resistance mechanisms among various STs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2020.01.001DOI Listing
June 2020
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