Publications by authors named "Bilal Ahmad"

82 Publications

SNPs at 3'UTR of APOL1 and miR-6741-3p target sites associated with kidney diseases more susceptible to SARS-COV-2 infection: in silco and in vitro studies.

Mamm Genome 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan.

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common manifestation of COVID-19 and several cases have been reported in the setting of the high-risk APOL1 genotype (common genetic variants). This increases the likelihood that African American people with the high-risk genotype APOL1 are at increased risk for kidney disease in the COVID-19 environment. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are found in various microRNAs (miRNAs) and target genes change the miRNA activity that leads to different diseases. Evidence has shown that SNPs increase/decrease the effectiveness of the interaction between miRNAs and disease-related target genes. The aim of this study is not only to identify miRSNPs on the APOL1 gene and SNPs in miRNA genes targeting 3'UTR but also to evaluate the effect of these gene variations in kidney patients and their association with SARS-COV-2 infection. In 3'UTR of the APOL1 gene, we detected 96 miRNA binding sites and 35 different SNPs with 10 different online software in the binding sites of the miRNA (in silico). Also we studied gene expression of patients and control samples by using qRT-PCR (in vitro). In silico study, the binding site of miR-6741-3p on APOL1 has two SNPs (rs1288875001, G > C; rs1452517383, A > C) on APOL1 3'UTR, and its genomic sequence is the same nucleotide as rs1288875001. Similarly, two other SNPs (rs1142591, T > A; rs376326225, G > A) were identified in the binding sites of miR-6741-3p at the first position. Here, the miRSNP (rs1288875001) in APOL1 3'UTR and SNP (rs376326225) in the miR-6741-3p genomic sequence are cross-matched in the same binding region. In vitro study, the relative expression levels were calculated by the 2 method & Mann-Whitney U test. The expression of APOL1 gene was different in chronic kidney patients along with COVID-19. By these results, APOL1 expression was found lower in patients than healthy (p < 0.05) in kidney patients along with COVID-19. In addition, miR-6741-3p targets many APOL1-related genes (TLR7, SLC6A19, IL-6,10,18, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, SWT1, NFYB, BRF1, HES2, NFYB, MED12L, MAFG, GTF2H5, TRAF3, angiotensin II receptor-associated protein, PRSS23) by evaluating online software in the binding sites of the miR-6741-3p. miR-6741-3p has not previously shown any association with kidney diseases and SARS-COV-2 infection. It assures that APOL1 can have a significant consequence in kidney-associated diseases by different pathways. Henceforth, this study represents and demonstrates an effective association between miR-6741-3p and kidney diseases, i.e., collapsing glomerulopathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute kidney injury (AKI), and tubulointerstitial lesions susceptibility to SARS-COV-2 infection via in silico and in vitro exploration and recommended to have better insight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-021-09880-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177038PMC
June 2021

Overexpression of the Apple () in Increases Resistance to Powdery Mildew.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 27;22(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang 712100, China.

APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and stress response. Although genes have been extensively investigated in model plants such as , little is known about their role in biotic stress response in perennial fruit tree crops such as apple (). Here, we investigated the role of in powdery mildew resistance in apple. MdERF100 localized to the nucleus but showed no transcriptional activation activity. The heterologous expression of in not only enhanced powdery mildew resistance but also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cell death. Furthermore, -overexpressing plants exhibited differential expressions of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling when infected with the powdery mildew pathogen. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed that MdERF100 physically interacts with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein MdbHLH92. These results suggest that mediates powdery mildew resistance by regulating the JA and SA signaling pathways, and is involved in plant defense against powdery mildew. Overall, this study enhances our understanding of the role of genes in disease resistance, and provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in apple.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197995PMC
May 2021

Understanding Holism in the light of principle underlying practice of Unani Medicine.

Rev Environ Health 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi, India.

The holistic Unani medicine is fundamentally different from the reductionist conventional medicine. It asserts the self-integration amongst its basic disciplines, without considering them underlying principles of Unani system of medicine cannot be understood. The diagnosis, selection of drugs, and plan of treatment is also overlooked. Unani scholars attribute health to the functions or actions of the body in a normal way. The constitution is considered as the result of need based on the amalgamation of (primordial essence). (basic principles) interact at many levels and manifest into (), (Humour), (Pneuma), (faculties), and (Physis) which need to be understood properly for effective management and diagnosis of disease in Unani medicine as well as its treatment. is applied in the prevention of disease as well as in disease causation. In Unani medicine, there should be conformity in between, (causes), (symptoms), and therapeutics. Therefore; the treatment strategy needs the knowledge of . This paper will examine the basic relationship amongst disciplines i.e. Basic principles, diagnosis, and principles of treatment. It will attempt to illustrate the need for awareness of the basic principles of health and disease for a physician for effective management of disease which is what Unani medicine claims to be holistic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2021-0009DOI Listing
May 2021

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone of the femur and humerus: a case report and review of the literature.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2021 Apr 28;2021(4):omab024. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Lymphoma of bone is a rare neoplasm composed of malignant lymphoid cells, producing a tumefactive lesion within bone. We report a 13-year-old male who presented with progressively increasing swellings at the right shoulder and right mid-thigh for one month. Radiological images revealed lytic destructive lesions associated with soft tissue masses in both sites and a pathological fracture on the right humerus. The patient had no significant medical history. Histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent in-situ hybridization assessment of biopsies from the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone. Unfortunately, due to coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, the patient was unable to follow-up treatment and died shortly after establishment of the diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis and treatment is of serious concern when it comes to improve the prognosis of patients with this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omab024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082228PMC
April 2021

Awareness of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Feb;71(2(B)):651-655

Foundation University Medical College, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Objective: To assess the awareness of diabetic patients about diabetic retinopathy.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Ophthalmology Department, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from April 2018 to April 2019, and comprised diabetic patients of either gender aged 21-80 years. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic, diabetes and diabetic retinopathy characteristics. Fundoscopic examination was done, and the presence and stage of diabetic retinopathy were documented. Data was analysed using SPSS 20.

Results: Of the 132 subjects, 9(6.8%) were male and 123(93.2%) were females. The majority 64(48.5%) was aged 61-80 years. Overall, 74(56.1%) patients were aware that diabetes could affect their eyes, 57(43.2%) were never diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy, 76(57.6%) had gained information about diabetic retinopathy from ophthalmologists, 61(46.2%) and 29(22%) respondents reported that eyes should be examined 'only when vision is affected' and 'every 6 months' respectively, 98(74.2%) said the biggest barrier in getting eyes examined earlier was 'lack of knowledge', 23(17.4%) believed surgery was done for diabetic retinopathy treatment and 33(25%) believed that surgery, laser and injections all can be used. Significant relationship of diabetic retinopathy was found with duration of diabetes and the general health status (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Though more than half the patients were aware that diabetes could affect the eyes, awareness of diabetic retinopathy and its consequences was low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.897DOI Listing
February 2021

Forest biomass carbon pool dynamics in Tibet Autonomous Region of China: Inventory data 1999-2019.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(5):e0250073. Epub 2021 May 3.

College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, PR, China.

According to the forest resources inventory data for different periods and the latest estimation parameters of forest carbon reserves in China, the carbon reserves and carbon density of forest biomass in the Tibet Autonomous Region from 1999 to 2019 were estimated using the IPCC international carbon reserves estimation model. The results showed that, during the past 20 years, the forest area, forest stock, and biomass carbon storage in Tibet have been steadily increasing, with an average annual increase of 1.85×104 hm2, 0.033×107 m3, and 0.22×107 t, respectively. Influenced by geographical conditions and the natural environment, the forest area and biomass carbon storage gradually increased from the northwest to the southeast, particularly in Linzhi and Changdu, where there are many primitive forests, which serve as important carbon sinks in Tibet. In terms of the composition of tree species, coniferous forests are dominant in Tibet, particularly those containing Abies fabri, Picea asperata, and Pinus densata, which comprise approximately 45% of the total forest area in Tibet. The ecological location of Tibet has resulted in the area being dominated by shelter forest, comprising 68.76% of the total area, 64.72% of the total forest stock, and 66.34% of the total biomass carbon reserves. The biomass carbon storage was observed to first increase and then decrease with increasing forest age, which is primarily caused by tree growth characteristics. In over-mature forests, trees' photosynthesis decreases along with their accumulation of organic matter, and the trees can die. In addition, this study also observed that the proportion of mature and over-mature forest in Tibet is excessively large, which is not conducive to the sustainable development of forestry in the region. This problem should be addressed in future management and utilization activities.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250073PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092781PMC
May 2021

Soybean herbage yield, nutritional value and profitability under integrated manures management.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 16;93(1):e20181384. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Poonch Rawalakot (AJK), Rawalakot-12350, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

Organic manures are more preferred and environmentally friendly than chemical fertilizers for minimally contaminating soil, water and environmental resources, but the determination of right source of organic manures continues to remain an unexplored aspect. Considering the important issue, a multi-year field trial was carried out to determine the response of forage soybean to four sources of nutrients such as chemical fertilizers (IF), poultry litter (PL), bovine's farm yard slurry (BFYS) and sewage sludge (SS) and their seven binary combinations (PL+BFYS, PL+SS, PL+IF, BFYS+SS, BFYS+IF, SS+IF and PL+BFYS+SS). Supplementation of organic manures with mineral fertilizers remained superior to their sole application, particularly BFYS + IF was found significantly (p≤0.05) superior for yielding the highest fresh biomass (23.9, 26.4 and 25.7 t ha-1) with improved nutritional quality. The same combination of integrated fertilizer management also recorded higher sustainability as per sustainable forage yield index along with the highest net income and the benefit-cost ratio. PL and SS applied in conjunction with IF performed better than sole or binary application of organic manures. Therefore, BFYS + IF may be recommended for adoption to produce comparable forage yield and nutritional quality of soybean along with reducing dependency on chemical fertilizers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202120181384DOI Listing
April 2021

Design, Synthesis, Molecular Modelling, and Biological Evaluation of Oleanolic Acid-Arylidene Derivatives as Potential Anti-Inflammatory Agents.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 4;15:385-397. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

Introduction: Oleanolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenic acid, is widely distributed in medicinal plants and is the most commonly studied triterpene for various biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory.

Methods: The present study was carried out to synthesize arylidene derivatives of oleanolic acid at the C-2 position by Claisen Schmidt condensation to develop more effective anti-inflammatory agents. The derivatives were screened for anti-inflammatory activity by scrutinizing NO production inhibition in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS and their cytotoxicity. The potential candidates were further screened for inhibition of LPS-induced interleukin (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in RAW 264.7 cells.

Results: The results of in vitro studies revealed that derivatives 3d, 3e, 3L, and 3o are comparable to that of the oleanolic acid on the inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6 release. However, derivative 3L was identified as the most potent inhibitor of IL-6 (77.2%) and TNF-α (75.4%) when compared to parent compound, and compounds 3a (77.18%), 3d (71.5%), and 3e (68.8%) showed potent inhibition of NO than oleanolic acid (65.22%) at 10µM. Besides, from docking score and Cyscore analysis analogs (3e, 3L, 3n) showed greater affinity towards TNF-α and IL-1β than dexamethasone.

Conclusion: Herein, we report a series of 15 new arylidene derivatives of oleanolic acid by Claisen Schmidt condensation reaction. All the compounds synthesized were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity against NO, TNF-α and IL-6. From the data, it was evident that most of the compounds exhibited better anti-inflammatory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S291784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871991PMC
February 2021

Brown/Beige adipose tissues and the emerging role of their secretory factors in improving metabolic health: The batokines.

Biochimie 2021 May 4;184:26-39. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University Lakeside Campus, Subang Jaya, 47500, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Brown and beige adipose tissues are the primary sites for adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis. Although they have been known principally for their thermogenic effects, in recent years, it has emerged that, just like white adipose tissue (WAT), brown and beige adipose tissues also play an important role in the regulation of metabolic health through secretion of various brown adipokines (batokines) in response to various physiological cues. These secreted batokines target distant organs and tissues such as the liver, heart, skeletal muscles, brain, WAT, and perform various local and systemic functions in an autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine manner. Brown and beige adipose tissues are therefore now receiving increasing levels of attention with respect to their effects on various other organs and tissues. Identification of novel secreted factors by these tissues may help in the discovery of drug candidates for the treatment of various metabolic disorders such as obesity, type-2 diabetes, skeletal deformities, cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia. In this review, we comprehensively describe the emerging secretory role of brown/beige adipose tissues and the metabolic effects of various brown/beige adipose tissues secreted factors on other organs and tissues in endocrine/paracrine manners, and as well as on brown/beige adipose tissue itself in an autocrine manner. This will provide insights into understanding the potential secretory role of brown/beige adipose tissues in improving metabolic health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2021.01.015DOI Listing
May 2021

Flavonol morin targets host ACE2, IMP-α, PARP-1 and viral proteins of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV critical for infection and survival: a computational analysis.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Feb 1:1-32. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Orthopedics, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Era University, Lucknow, UP, India.

A sudden outbreak of a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 has now emerged as a pandemic threatening to efface the existence of mankind. In absence of any valid and appropriate vaccines to combat this newly evolved agent, there is need of novel resource molecules for treatment and prophylaxis. To this effect, flavonol morin which is found in fruits, vegetables and various medicinal herbs has been evaluated for its antiviral potential in the present study. PASS analysis of morin reference antiviral drugs baricitinib, remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine revealed that morin displayed no violations of Lipinski's rule of five and other druglikeness filters. Morin also displayed no tumorigenic, reproductive or irritant effects and exhibited good absorption and permeation through GI (clogP <5). In principal component analysis, morin appeared closest to baricitinib in 3D space. Morin displayed potent binding to spike glycoprotein, main protease 3CLPro and papain-like protease PLPro of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV using molecular docking and significant binding to three viral-specific host proteins human ACE2, importin-α and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, further lending support to its antiviral efficacy. Additionally, morin displayed potent binding to pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, 8 and 10 also supporting its anti-inflammatory activity. MD simulation of morin with SARS-CoV-2 3CLPro and PLPro displayed strong stability at 300 K. Both complexes exhibited constant RMSDs of protein side chains and Cα atoms throughout the simulation run time. In conclusion, morin might hold considerable therapeutic potential for the treatment and management of not only COVID-19, but also SARS and MERS if studied further. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2021.1871863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869441PMC
February 2021

A comparative study on the effects of selected pesticides on hemato-biochemistry and tissue histology of freshwater fish (Hamilton, 1822).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 2;28(1):603-611. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Zoology, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the comparative effects of pesticides Chlorfenapyr, Dimethoate and Acetamiprid on the health of under long term exposure. Eighty were divided in four equal groups; one control and three treated groups. The blood was collected from both control and treated groups at intervals of 10th, 20th and 30th days for hemato-biochemistry and histopathological alterations. The result indicates significant difference (P < 0.05) in RBCs, Hb, PCV and MCHC whereas elevation in WBCs and Platelets counts were recorded. In 10th day sampling, MCV value of Dimethoate and Acetamiprid treatment had no difference in comparison with the control group, however it is significantly increased (P < 0.05) in rest of sampling. The MCH value of exposed fish showed significant increased (P < 0.05) after 20th and 30th days for Chlorfenapyr and after 30th days for Acetamiprid exposure while insignificantly increased for rest of sampling. It was also found that these pesticides significantly decrease (p < 0.05) the T3 and T4 levels while increase in the TSH, cortical, ALP, AST, ALT and LDH levels in the serum of the treated fishes in contrast to control group. Similarly, histopathological analysis of gills and liver showed significant alterations in all the treated groups. Toxicity trends of these pesticides was ranked as Chlorfenapyr > Acetamiprid > Dimethoate. It is concluded that indiscriminate use of such pesticides poses a noxious threat to non-target organisms, harm the ecosystems and jeopardizes human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.10.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783810PMC
January 2021

Exploring the non-coding regions in the mtDNA of some honey bee species and subspecies.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 29;28(1):204-209. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

The sequence of the DNA contains coding and non-coding regions. The role of the non-coding regions is not known and is hypothesized to maintain the structure of the DNA. This study aimed to investigate the structure of the non-coding sequences in honey bees utilizing bioinformatics. The non-coding sequences of the mtDNA of three honey bee species , , , and ten subspecies of were investigated. Different techniques were utilized to explore the non-coding regions of these bees including sequence analysis, phylogenetic relationships, enzymatic digestion, and statistical tests. Variations in size and sequences of nucleotides were detected in the studied species and subspecies, but with the same nucleotide abundance (i.e. nucleotides A were more than T and nucleotides G were less than C). The phylogenetic tree based on the non-coding regions was partially similar to the known phylogenetic relationships between these bees. The enzymatic digestion using four restriction enzymes confirmed the results of the phylogenetic relationships. The statistical analysis based on numerical codes for nucleotides showed the absence of significant variations between the studied bees in their sequences in a similar way to results of neutrality tests. This study suggests that the non-coding regions have the same functional role in all the studied bees regardless of the number of nucleotides, and not just to maintain the structure of the DNA. This is approximately the first study to shade lights on the non-coding regions of the mtDNA of honey bees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.09.047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783669PMC
January 2021

Chemiluminescent-microparticle-immunoassay-based detection and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Islamabad, Pakistan.

Arch Virol 2021 Feb 8;166(2):581-586. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Abasyn University Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan.

An advanced detection assay is important for clinical diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in asymptomatic individuals. The first step in timely treatment and management of the infection is the early detection of HIV. In this study, we determined the prevalence of HIV in Islamabad for the first time using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), which is an advanced serological diagnostic technique. A total of 3659 samples were obtained from the general public in Islamabad, Pakistan, and 85 of them were found to be positive for HIV infection (2.32% prevalence). Of the positive subjects, 78.82% (67/85) were male, 10.6% (9/85) were female, and 10.6% (9/85) were of unidentified gender. The results revealed a significant relationship between age groups and HIV status. The age group of 21- to 30-year-olds was found to have the highest rate of HIV infection, and the rate of HIV infection in males was higher than in females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04897-9DOI Listing
February 2021

The Role of Bone Scintigraphy with SPECT/CT in the Characterization and Early Diagnosis of Stage 0 Charcot Neuroarthropathy.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 21;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Diabetic Foot Clinic, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, UK.

We describe the use of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) in the investigation and diagnosis of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) in patients with a hot swollen foot but normal radiographs and clinical suspicion of CN, usually termed Stage 0. This was a retrospective cohort review of 46 diabetes patients who underwent 3 phase bone scintigraphy with "High Resolution" SPECT/CT. The imaging demonstrated that Stage 0 Charcot foot has a distinct bone pathology, which can be classified into three groups: (1) fractures on Computed Tomography (CT) with accompanying focal uptake of tracer on SPECT, (2) bony abnormalities apart from fracture on CT with focal uptake of tracer on SPECT, and (3) normal CT but focal bony uptake of tracer on SPECT. The CT component of SPECT/CT detected bony fractures in 59% of patients. Early treatment with below knee cast and follow-up for 24 months showed only 4 patients who developed Stage 1 Eichenholtz Charcot foot. Our findings support the use of 3 phase bone scintigraphy with SPECT/CT in the characterization and early diagnosis of CN. Stage 0 Charcot foot has a distinct bone pathology which requires urgent treatment to prevent progression to Stage 1 Eichenholtz Charcot foot. If SPECT/CT is unavailable, CT alone will detect bone fracture in 59% patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767116PMC
December 2020

Biostimulation of Rhodovulum sp., for enhanced degradation of di-n-butyl phthalate under optimum conditions.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 28;266:128998. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology Lab, Integral University, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India; Department of Biochemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202001, UP, India. Electronic address:

Di-butyl phthalate (DBP) is an extensively applied synthetic plasticizer, toxic organic compound with elevated concentrations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem that cause serious risk to the human health. A marine bacterium Rhodovulum sp. DBP07 isolated from sea water with proficient of efficiently degrading DBP. The maximum DBP degradation (70.2%) and the cell growth (1.3 OD) were observed at 600 mg/L. The DBP degradation characteristics of the isolate Rhodovulum sp. DBP07 with diverse preliminary concentrations of DBP was found to be 200 ˃ 400 ˃ 600 ˂ 800 ˂ 1000 mg/L DBP. Glucose was identified as most favorable nutrient factor for the enhanced growth and showed 79.8 and 77.4% of degradation rate at 5.0 and 2.0 g/L respectively. The influence of the carbon sources on DBP degradation was found to be Glucose ˃ fructose ˃ sucrose ˃ maltose ˃ lactose ˃ citric acid ˃ starch. Box-Behnken (BBD) statistical optimization results showed enhanced DBP biodegradation rate (91.1%) at pH 7.0, 3% of NaCl concentration with 3 days of incubation. Two intermediate compounds were observed in the retention times of 10.8 and 12.2 which are identified as diethyl phthalate (DEP) and mono-nbutyl phthalate (MBP) using Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Furthermore, the phthalate (pht) gene expression pattern under DBP stress was analyzed using RT-qPCR and the maximum fold change (5.7 fold) was observed at 3 day of incubation. Overall, the observed results indicate the possibility of utilizing Rhodovulum sp. for remediation of DBP contaminated environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128998DOI Listing
March 2021

Virtual screening of phytoconstituents from miracle herb targeting nucleocapsid protein and papain-like protease of SARS-CoV-2 for COVID-19 treatment.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Dec 8:1-21. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Chancellor, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Era University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). , commonly known as black seed or black cumin, has been a historical and traditional plant since thousands of years. Based on their therapeutic efficacy, the chief components of terpenoids and flavonoids were selected from seeds and seed oil. This study was designed to check the antiviral efficacy of main phytoconstituents against five potential targets of SARS-CoV-2 using structure-based virtual screening approach. Out of twenty five phytocomponents, ten components showed best binding affinity against two viral proteins N-terminal RNA binding domain (NRBD; PDB ID: 6M3M) of nucleocapsid protein and papain-like protease (PL-; PDB ID: 6W9C) of SARS-CoV-2 using AutoDock 4.2.6, AutoDock Vina and iGEMDOCK. PASS analyses of all ten phytocomponents using Lipinski's Rule of five showed promising results. Further, druglikeness and toxicity assessment using OSIRIS Data Warrior v5.2.1 software exhibited the feasibility of phytocomponents as drug candidates with no predicted toxicity. Molecular dynamics simulation study of NRBD of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein-alpha-spinasterol complex and PL--cycloeucalenol complex displayed strong stability at 300 K. Both these complexes exhibited constant root mean square deviation (RMSDs) of protein side chains and Cα atoms throughout the simulation run time. Interestingly, PL- and NRBD are key proteins in viral replication, host cell immune evasion and viral assembly. Thus, NRBD and PL- have the potential to serve as therapeutic targets for phytoconstituents in drug discovery process against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1852117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738213PMC
December 2020

Exploring nature's bounty: identification of as a promising source of therapeutic agents against COVID-19 by virtual screening and evaluation.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Nov 27:1-51. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Pathology, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Era University, Lucknow, UP, India.

Coronaviruses are etiological agents of extreme human and animal infection resulting in abnormalities primarily in the respiratory tract. Presently, there is no defined COVID-19 intervention and clinical trials of prospective therapeutic agents are still in the nascent stage. (L.) Dunal (WS), is an important medicinal plant in Ayurveda. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiviral potential of selected WS phytoconstituents against the novel SARS-CoV-2 target proteins and human ACE2 receptor using methods. Most of the phytoconstituents displayed good absorption and transport kinetics and were also found to display no associated mutagenic or adverse effect(s). Molecular docking analyses revealed that most of the WS phytoconstituents exhibited potent binding to human ACE2 receptor, SAR-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins as well as the two main SARS-CoV-2 proteases. Most of the phytoconstituents were predicted to undergo Phase-I metabolism prior to excretion. All phytoconstituents had favorable bioactivity scores with respect to various receptor proteins and target enzymes. SAR analysis revealed that the number of oxygen atoms in the withanolide backbone and structural rearrangements were crucial for effective binding. Molecular simulation analyses of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and papain-like protease with Withanolides A and B, respectively, displayed a stability profile at 300 K and constant RMSDs of protein side chains and Cα atoms throughout the simulation run time. In a nutshell, WS phytoconstituents warrant further investigations and to unravel their molecular mechanism(s) and modes of action for their future development as novel antiviral agents against COVID-19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1835725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755033PMC
November 2020

Mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD are responsible for stronger ACE2 binding and poor anti-SARS-CoV mAbs cross-neutralization.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2020 12;18:3402-3414. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Physiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a novel beta coronavirus. SARS-CoV-2 uses spike glycoprotein to interact with host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and ensure cell recognition. High infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 raises questions on spike-ACE2 binding affinity and its neutralization by anti-SARS-CoV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here, we observed Val-to-Lys417 mutation in the receptor-binding domains (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, which established a Lys-Asp electrostatic interaction enhancing its ACE2-binding. Pro-to-Ala475 substitution and Gly482 insertion in the GSTPCNV-loop of RBD possibly hinders neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 by anti-SARS-CoV mAbs. In addition, we identified unique and structurally conserved conformational-epitopes on RBDs, which can be potential therapeutic targets. Collectively, we provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the high infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and development of effective neutralizing agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2020.11.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7657873PMC
November 2020

It is time to control the worst: testing COVID-19 outbreak, energy consumption and CO emission.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 12;28(15):19008-19020. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Business Administration, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan.

During the COVID-19 outbreak, managing energy consumption and CO emission remained a serious problem. The previous literature rarely solved this real-time issue, and there is a lack of public research proposing an effective way forward on it. However, the study examines the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on energy consumption and CO emission. The design of the study is quantitative, and the data is acquired from different online databases. The model of the study is inferred by using panel unit root test and ARDL test. The robustness of study findings was checked through panel quantile regression. The findings highlighted that the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively significant with energy consumption and CO emission. The study suggested revising the energy consumption patterns by developing and implementing the national action plan for energy consumption and environmental protection. The study also contributed in knowledge by suggesting the novel insight into CO emission and energy consumption patterns during COVID-19 pandemic and recommended to consider renewable energy transition methods as an opportunity for the society. For a more effective management of energy consumption and environmental pollution, country-specific measures are suggested to be taken, and the national government should support the concerned public departments, ministries and private organizations on it. To the best of our study, this is one of the pioneer studies studying this novel link and suggesting the way forward on recent topicality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11462-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7659900PMC
April 2021

Improving Just-in-Time Delivery Performance of IoT-Enabled Flexible Manufacturing Systems with AGV Based Material Transportation.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 6;20(21). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG), University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

Autonomous guided vehicles (AGVs) are driverless material handling systems used for transportation of pallets and line side supply of materials to provide flexibility and agility in shop-floor logistics. Scheduling of shop-floor logistics in such systems is a challenging task due to their complex nature associated with the multiple part types and alternate material transfer routings. This paper presents a decision support system capable of supporting shop-floor decision-making activities during the event of manufacturing disruptions by automatically adjusting both AGV and machine schedules in Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs). The proposed system uses discrete event simulation (DES) models enhanced by the Internet-of-Things (IoT) enabled digital integration and employs a nonlinear mixed integer programming Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find near-optimal production schedules prioritising the just-in-time (JIT) material delivery performance and energy efficiency of the material transportation. The performance of the proposed system is tested on the Integrated Manufacturing and Logistics (IML) demonstrator at WMG, University of Warwick. The results showed that the developed system can find the near-optimal solutions for production schedules subjected to production anomalies in a negligible time, thereby supporting shop-floor decision-making activities effectively and rapidly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20216333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664292PMC
November 2020

Anti-bacterial, anti-scavenging and cytotoxic activity of garden cress polysaccharides.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Nov 13;27(11):2929-2935. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Division of Veterinary, Biochemistry, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shuhama, Alustang, J&K 190006, India.

Plants polysaccharides are an infinite stock of drug composites with varying pharmacological and biological activities. The present investigation aimed to examine the antibacterial, anti-scavenging and cytotoxic potential of garden cress (GC) polysaccharides. The antibacterial effects and as well as of GC polysaccharides were examined by means of agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), outer and inner cell membrane permeability. Antioxidant potential of the GC polysaccharides were performed by free radical DPPH scavenging, superoxide anion scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing power potential assay, and hydrogen peroxide method. Cytotoxicity potential of GC polysaccharides were evaluated by MTT assay in human cervical (HeLa) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. The findings showed that GC polysaccharides MIC were 1.06 and 0.56 mg mL against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Compared to the standard inhibitor, the GC polysaccharides showed essential inhibitor assays in a very dose dependent approach, and notable actions to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also due to the large quantities of hydrophilic polyphenols. The IC values of all tested parameters were measured against standard ascorbic acid antioxidant agent. The GC polysaccharides diminish the cell viability percentage of HeLa and HepG2 in a concentration dependent manner. GC polysaccharides at a dose of 500 µg ml exhibited higher anti-tumor activity in both HeLa (65.33 ± 3.75%) and HepG2 (60.33 ± 3.48%). The findings obtained in this study indicate that GC polysaccharides has antibacterial and has a possible source of natural antioxidant and also has cytotoxic effect on different carcinoma cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569137PMC
November 2020

Pathogenesis and Immune Response in Resistant and Susceptible Cultivars of Grapevine ( spp.) Against Infection.

Phytopathology 2021 Apr 13:PHYTO03200079R. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

is the main cause of grape anthracnose, and the majority of grapevine cultivars are susceptible to this fungus. Some Chinese wild grape cultivars are resistant, however. It is therefore apt to compare the pathogenesis and immune responses in susceptible and resistant cultivars of grapevine to explore the detailed molecular and biochemical mechanisms of resistance to this fungus. In this study, ultrastructural and histopathological observations were used to demonstrate the resistance responses to in the resistant Chinese wild cultivar clone 'Shang-24' and the susceptible cultivars 'Tangwei' and 'Thompson Seedless'. Seventy-two hours postinoculation (hpi) with , brown necrotic spots were clearly visible on the leaves of the susceptible 'Tangwei' and 'Thompson Seedless'. The infection was characterized by rapid colonization of the host cells by hyphae and massive spread of the pathogen in the intercellular spaces, ultimately leading to host cell collapse, cuticle dissolution, and extensive hyphal growth. In the resistant clone 'Shang-24', the conidia were lysed, a large quantity of electronically dense matter appeared, the hyphal growth was suppressed, and the host cells remained intact. In addition, six genes associated with disease resistance were differentially expressed in the susceptible and resistant cultivars. These disease-related genes were significantly up-regulated following infection with . This study illustrates the differences in infection and colonization of in resistant and susceptible grape leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-03-20-0079-RDOI Listing
April 2021

Emergence and molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV to target host cells and potential therapeutics.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 11 6;85:104583. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University, Lakeside Campus, Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan 47500, Malaysia. Electronic address:

The emergence of a new coronavirus, in around late December 2019 which had first been reported in Wuhan, China has now developed into a massive threat to global public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has named the disease caused by the virus as COVID-19 and the virus which is the culprit was renamed from the initial novel respiratory 2019 coronavirus to SARS-CoV-2. The person-to-person transmission of this virus is ongoing despite drastic public health mitigation measures such as social distancing and movement restrictions implemented in most countries. Understanding the source of such an infectious pathogen is crucial to develop a means of avoiding transmission and further to develop therapeutic drugs and vaccines. To identify the etiological source of a novel human pathogen is a dynamic process that needs comprehensive and extensive scientific validations, such as observed in the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases. In this context, this review is devoted to understanding the taxonomic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV. Herein, we discuss the emergence and molecular mechanisms of both viral infections. Nevertheless, no vaccine or therapeutic drug is yet to be approved for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, although it is highly likely that new effective medications that target the virus specifically will take years to establish. Therefore, this review reflects the latest repurpose of existing antiviral therapeutic drug choices available to combat SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536551PMC
November 2020

Mechanisms of action for the anti-obesogenic activities of phytochemicals.

Phytochemistry 2020 Dec 30;180:112513. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences Taylor's University Lakeside Campus, No 1 Jalan Taylor's, 47500, Subang Jaya, Malaysia. Electronic address:

The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly globally and has recently reached pandemic proportions. It is a multifactorial disorder linked to a number of non-communicable diseases such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Over-nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle are considered the most significant causes of obesity; a healthy lifestyle and behavioural interventions are the most powerful ways to achieve successful weight loss, but to maintain this in the long term can prove difficult for many individuals, without medical intervention. Various pharmacological anti-obesogenic drugs have been tested and marketed in the past and have been moderately successful in the management of obesity, but their adverse effects on human health often outweigh the benefits. Natural products from plants, either in the form of crude extracts or purified phytochemicals, have been shown to have anti-obesogenic properties and are generally considered as nontoxic and cost-effective compared to synthetic alternatives. These plant products combat obesity by targeting the various pathways and/or regulatory functions intricately linked to obesity. Their mechanisms of action include inhibition of pancreatic lipase activities, an increase in energy expenditure, appetite regulation, lipolytic effects, and inhibition of white adipose tissue development. In this review, we discuss the distinct anti-obesogenic properties of recently reported plant extracts and specific bioactive compounds, along with their molecular mechanisms of action. This review will provide a common platform for understanding the different causes of obesity and the possible approaches to using plant products in tackling this worldwide health issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112513DOI Listing
December 2020

Transcriptome Analysis of the Grape- Pathosystem Reveals Novel Effectors and a Robust Defense Response.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Jan 23;34(1):110-121. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

is an ascomycetous fungus that causes grape anthracnose, a potentially devastating disease worldwide. In this study, a dual RNA-seq analysis was used to simultaneously monitor the fungal genes related to pathogenesis and grape genes related to defense during the interaction at 2, 3, 4, and 5 days postinoculation. Consistent with their potential roles in pathogenicity, genes for carbohydrate-active enzymes, secondary metabolite synthesis, pathogen-host interaction, and those encoding secreted proteins are upregulated during infection. Based on -mediated transient assays in , we further showed that eight and nine candidate effectors, respectively, suppressed BAX- and INF1-mediated programmed cell death. The host response was characterized by the induction of multiple defense systems against , including synthesis of phenylpropanoids, stilbenes, and terpenoid biosynthesis, cell-wall modifications, regulation by phytohormones, and expression of defense-related genes. Together, these findings offer new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the grape- interaction.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-08-20-0227-RDOI Listing
January 2021

Murine in vitro cellular models to better understand adipogenesis and its potential applications.

Differentiation 2020 Sep - Oct;115:62-84. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University Lakeside Campus, 47500, Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Adipogenesis has been extensively studied using in vitro models of cellular differentiation, enabling long-term regulation of fat cell metabolism in human adipose tissue (AT) material. Many studies promote the idea that manipulation of this process could potentially reduce the prevalence of obesity and its related diseases. It has now become essential to understand the molecular basis of fat cell development to tackle this pandemic disease, by identifying therapeutic targets and new biomarkers. This review explores murine cell models and their applications for study of the adipogenic differentiation process in vitro. We focus on the benefits and limitations of different cell line models to aid in interpreting data and selecting a good cell line model for successful understanding of adipose biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diff.2020.08.003DOI Listing
August 2020

Bioinformatics and expression analysis of histone modification genes in grapevine predict their involvement in seed development, powdery mildew resistance, and hormonal signaling.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Sep 4;20(1):412. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

College of Horticulture, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, 071000, Hebei, China.

Background: Histone modification genes (HMs) play potential roles in plant growth and development via influencing gene expression and chromatin structure. However, limited information is available about HMs genes in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

Results: Here, we described detailed genome-wide identification of HMs gene families in grapevine. We identified 117 HMs genes in grapevine and classified these genes into 11 subfamilies based on conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships with Arabidopsis. We described the genes in terms of their chromosomal locations and exon-intron distribution. Further, we investigated the evolutionary history, gene ontology (GO) analysis, and syntenic relationships between grapes and Arabidopsis. According to results 21% HMs genes are the result of duplication (tandem and segmental) events and all the duplicated genes have negative mode of selection. GO analysis predicted the presence of HMs proteins in cytoplasm, nucleus, and intracellular organelles. According to seed development expression profiling, many HMs grapevine genes were differentially expressed in seeded and seedless cultivars, suggesting their roles in seed development. Moreover, we checked the response of HMs genes against powdery mildew infection at different time points. Results have suggested the involvement of some genes in disease resistance regulation mechanism. Furthermore, the expression profiles of HMs genes were analyzed in response to different plant hormones (Abscisic acid, Jasmonic acid, Salicylic acid, and Ethylene) at different time points. All of the genes showed differential expression against one or more hormones.

Conclusion: VvHMs genes might have potential roles in grapevine including seed development, disease resistance, and hormonal signaling pathways. Our study provides first detailed genome-wide identification and expression profiling of HMs genes in grapevine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02618-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7473812PMC
September 2020

Oreganum Vulgare: In-vitro assessment of cytotoxicity, Molecular docking studies, Antioxidant, and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

Med Chem 2020 Sep 4. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Inflammation Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, JammuTawi, Jammu 180001. India.

Background: Inflammation involves a dynamic network that is highly regulated by signals that initiate the inflammation process as well as signals that downregulate it. However, an imbalance between the two leads to tissue damage. Throughout the world, inflammatory disease becomes common in the aging society. The drugs which are used clinically suffer serious side effects. Natural products or compounds derived from natural products show diversity in structure and play an important role in drug discovery and development.

Objective: Oreganum Vulgare is used in traditional medicine for various ailments including respiratory and rheumatic disorders, severe cold, suppression of tumors. The current study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential by evaluating various in-vitro parameters.

Results: The extracts (OVEE, OVEAF) as well as the isolated compound(OVRA)of Oreganum Vulgare inhibit the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) and NO without affecting cell viability.

Conclusion: our study established that the leaf extracts of Oreganum Vulgare exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and thus confirm its importance in traditional medicine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573406416666200904110828DOI Listing
September 2020

Evaluation of larvicidal efficacy of (Castor) and synthesized green silver nanoparticles against L.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Sep 21;27(9):2403-2409. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

mosquitoes are the most important group of vectors that transmit pathogens, including arboviruses, and cause human diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika virus, and Chikungunya. Biosynthesis and the use of green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a vital step to identify reliable and eco-friendly controls for these vectors. In this study, (.) larvae (2nd and 3rd instar) were exposed to leaf extracts of (Castor) and AgNPs synthesized from the extract to evaluate their larvicidal potential. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XRD). larvae were treated with different concentrations (50-250 ppm) of the leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs. There were five replicates per treatment, in addition to a positive (temephos) and negative control (dechlorinated water). Mortality was recorded after 12, 24, 36, and 48 h and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. The nanoparticles were more toxic (LC = 46.22 ppm and LC = 85.30 ppm) than the plant extract (106.24 and 175.73 ppm, respectively). The leaf extracts of were subjected to HPLC analysis to identify their chemical constituents. This study suggests that plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles are excellent alternatives to hazardous chemical pesticides used to control vector mosquitoes. This is a potentially useful technique that can reduce aquatic toxicity from insecticide use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7451677PMC
September 2020

Increased production of valuable secondary products in plants by leaf applied radiation-processed polysaccharides.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 17;164:286-294. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.

Oligosaccharides derived through irradiation of polysaccharides act as efficient plant elicitors and stimulate responses associated with primary as well as secondary metabolic pathways in plants. Reduced molecular weight together with the structural rearrangement, induce plant growth promotion activity in the polysaccharides after irradiation. In addition to the increased activities of different enzymes involved in photosynthesis and nutrient assimilation, various secondary metabolism enzymes are up-regulated by the leaf-applied oligomers. Oligosaccharide-induced elicitation of different signal transduction cascades leads to the increased biosynthesis of valuable secondary metabolism products in plants. The present review presents a comprehensive approach regarding the irradiation-induced structural changes and molecular weight reduction in polysaccharides and their role in increasing the production of economically valuable secondary products in various medicinally important plants. This review also encompasses the role of oligosaccharides in regulation of plant growth and enzyme activities as well as the signal transduction mechanism involved in the elicitation of secondary metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.07.121DOI Listing
December 2020