Publications by authors named "Bibi Razieh Hosseini Farash"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of zoonotic platyhelminthe infections identified in slaughtered livestock in Iran, 2015-2019.

BMC Vet Res 2021 May 5;17(1):185. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Platyhelminth infections of livestock can result in considerable economic losses. This study aims to evaluate the spatial frequency of cystic echinococcosis (CE), dicrocoeliasis, and fascioliasis in livestock slaughtered in Iran during the years 2015-2019 and estimate direct costs associated with organ condemnation due to these parasites.

Methods: Abattoir data from 413 abattoirs representing all 31 Iranian provinces were collected from the Iran Veterinary Organization. Infection prevalence was calculated per year at the province level. The Local Moran's I statistic was performed to evaluate spatial autocorrelation of animals positive at slaughter for the years 2015-2019. Direct costs associated with condemned livers were calculated for each parasitic condition, with costs associated with condemned lungs also included for CE.

Results: Overall prevalence values for the study timeframe were as follows: sheep and goat fascioliasis 1.56% (95% CI: 1.56-1.56%), cattle fascioliasis 3.86% (95% CI: 3.85-3.88%), sheep and goat dicrocoeliasis 4.63% (95% CI: 4.62-4.63%), cattle dicrocoeliasis 3.08% (95% CI: 3.07-3.09%), sheep and goat CE 5.32% (95% CI: 5.32-5.33%), and cattle CE 7.26% (95% CI: 7.24-7.28%). Northwest Iran had the highest prevalence of CE and fascioliasis. High infection areas for Dicrocoelium spp. included the provinces of Zanjan, Gilan, Qazvin, and Tehran, which are located in northern Iran. Direct economic losses for sheep and goat fascioliasis, dicrocoeliasis, and CE for the study period were US$13,842,759, US$41,771,377, and US$22,801,054, respectively. Direct economic losses for cattle fascioliasis, dicrocoeliasis, and CE for the study period were US$1,989,200, US$1,668,986, and US$2,656,568, respectively.

Conclusion: Our findings provide valuable data for future monitoring of these important parasitic diseases in Iranian livestock. Disease control strategies are required to reduce the economic and public health impact of these platyhelminths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02888-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097913PMC
May 2021

Diagnosis of keratitis in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran: A Gene-Based PCR Assay.

Iran J Parasitol 2021 Jan-Mar;16(1):111-121

Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: The genus is a free-living opportunistic protozoan parasite, which widely distributed in soil and fresh water. keratitis, which causes a sight-threating infection of the cornea, is going to rise in Iran and worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare direct microscopy, culture and PCR for detection of spp in clinical samples and to determine the genotypes of spp by sequencing 18SrRNA gene.

Methods: Among patients clinically suspected to AK referred to a tertiary ophthalmology center at Mashhad, northeastern Iran. During 2017-18, twenty corneal scrapes specimens obtained. The samples were divided into three parts, subjected to direct microscopic examination, culture onto non-nutrient agar and PCR technique. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood ratio were evaluated.

Results: Among 20 persons clinically suspected to amoebic keratitis, 13(69.2%) patients definitely diagnosed as keratitis. Wearing contact lens, eye trauma due to foreign particle and swimming in fresh water were the main predisposing factors. Most of patients suffered from pain and photophobia. Corneal ring infiltration and epithelial defect were common clinical sings. Direct examination had the lowest sensitivity and sensitivity of both Nelson-PCR and JDP-PCR methods were equal and highest. In addition, the results of sequencing identified that all strains belonged to T4 genotype.

Conclusion: Amoebic keratitis is a sporadic parasitic keratitis, which is mainly seen in contact lens user in Mashhad. PCR based on 18S ribosomal DNA with JDP primers is a reliable and highly sensitive method for diagnosis of keratitis in clinically suspected cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijpa.v16i1.5530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988675PMC
March 2021

Study of Infection in Kidney Transplant Patients in Mashhad City, Iran.

Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2020 17;2020:6631224. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: is a flagellate protozoan which is known as an emerging parasite in the human respiratory system. Organ transplant recipients are considered as immunocompromised patients due to prescription of immunosuppressive drugs. This group of patients is susceptible to opportunistic infection as well as lophomoniasis. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestation of pulmonary infections caused by in kidney transplant recipients.

Methods: This is a case-control study including 50 kidney transplant recipients and 50 controls. The sputum samples were collected from 50 kidney transplant recipients with bronchopulmonary infection signs suspected to lophomoniasis admitted in Montaserieh and Imam Reza hospitals, Mashhad, Iran. 50 healthy individuals as the control group were matched for sex and age with case ones. The consent form, checklist, and required information were provided for each patient. All samples were microscopically examined for the flagellated protozoan, , using direct smear.

Results: Among 50 kidney transplant recipients suspected to lophomoniasis, was identified in sputum samples of 4 (8%) participants of the case group including one female and three males. None of the samples were positive among the control group. Symptoms in patients of this study were high fever (4 out of 4 patients), cough (3 out of 4 patients), and dyspnea (2 out of 4 patients). Three patients showed a positive response to metronidazole treatment.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that should be considered as a pathogenic agent in kidney transplant recipients. It is necessary to examine sputum samples in posttransplant pneumonia patients, especially in those resistant to antibacterial therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6631224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759399PMC
December 2020

The rK39 Antigen from an Iranian Strain of : Detection of Anti- Antibodies in Humans and Dogs.

Iran J Parasitol 2020 Jan-Mar;15(1):48-56

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis in Iran with high mortality rates in the case of inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to prepare and evaluate a new rk39 recombinant antigen from an Iranian strain of for diagnosis of VL in humans and dogs.

Methods: rK39-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of anti antibodies. We screened 84 human sera and 87 dog sera from clinical cases in the endemic area of Meshkin-Shahr, Iran along with 176 sera from healthy controls (collected from 86 humans and 90 dogs) during 2013-2016.

Results: Using the rK39 ELISA, a sensitivity of 85.7% (95% CI, 95-99%) and a specificity of 86.0% (95% CI, 95%-99%) were detected in human sera at a 1:800 (cut-off) titer when DAT-confirmed cases were compared with healthy controls; a sensitivity of 96.6% (95% CI, 95%-99%) and specificity of 94.4% (95% CI, 95%-99%) were found at a 1:80 (cut-off) titer compared with DAT. Kappa analysis indicated agreement between the rK39 ELISA and DAT (0.718) when using human sera at a 1:800 (cut-off) titer as well as (0.910) at a 1:80 (cut-off) titer when using dog sera (<0.05).

Conclusion: New rk39 recombinant antigen from an Iranian strain of seems to be used for diagnosis of VL in humans and dogs. Further extended field studies are recommended.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244836PMC
June 2020

Urinary Canthariasis Due to Larva in a Ten-Year-Old Boy.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2019 Dec 31;13(4):416-419. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Canthariasis is a human disease caused by infestation of beetle larvae. We report here an unusual cause of urogenital infection due to in a 10-year-old boy suffering from severe and intermittent suprapubic pain from Nehbandan City, Northeastern Iran in 2018. After 9 months, three larvae were excreted. Keratinization of bladder wall was observed in histopathology. All laboratory evaluations were normal except for presence of microscopic hematuria. This report implicated that could infest bladder accidentally and cause canthariasis and clinical symptoms that may lead to severe pain and bladder inflammation and hyperemia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188764PMC
December 2019

Changes in the Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Iran

Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2020 Mar;44(1):52-57

Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University, Tehran, Iran

The province of Khorasan-Razavi in the North East of Iran is an endemic area for anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL caused mainly by ) and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL caused mainly by ). Based on clinical signs, some cities were considered as ACL foci while others were considered to be endemic for ZCL. This paper reviews studies performed on patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) via the use of direct slide examination, ELISA, electrophoresis isoenzyme, RAPD PCR and PCR in Mashhad; the study also includes cases of CL in other cities of the Khorasan-Razavi province where only PCR used as a diagnostic tool. The data show that both and caused CL in most of the cities investigated. Our review shows that was found in areas where ACL is prevalent and was observed in areas with high incidence of ZCL. This distribution represents a major change in the epidemiological pattern of Leishmania in the Khorasan-Razavi province.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2019.6137DOI Listing
March 2020

Diagnosis of Acute Toxoplasmosis by IgG and IgM Antibodies and IgG Avidity in Pregnant Women from Mashhad, Eastern Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2019 Oct-Dec;14(4):639-645

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: We aimed to evaluate the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis by IgG avidity test in pregnant women.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 250 blood samples were collected from pregnant women with the first month of their pregnancy referring to health centers of University in Mashhad during 2016. Samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min for separation of serum and were kept in the -20 until use. To detection of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis, anti- antibodies (IgG and IgM, and IgG avidity tests were performed using ELISA. Then, data analyzed using SPSS software by Frequency, Pearson Chi-Square, Likelihood Ratio, and Exact tests. And <0.05 was statistically considered as significant.

Results: Total prevalence of IgG and IgM was 23.2% and 7.2%, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the mean age and IgG level (<0.05). It was not found any correlation between the history of raw meat consumption, cats keeping, education, and residency site. Moreover, 16 people (6.4%) had IgM antibody, of which, 10 cases (62.5%) with low avidity for IgG and 1 people (6.2%) with moderate avidity and 5 cases (31.3%) with high avidity for IgG. Moreover, 76% of pregnant women were seronegative.

Conclusion: More than half of the women (62.5%) with positive IgM antibody in their serum had a low avidity for IgG which revealed an acute infection among pregnant women. infection should be considered as an important factor that affects the pregnancy and IgG avidity as an important test for screening the women who need the treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028235PMC
February 2020

Fish tank granuloma: An emerging skin disease in Iran mimicking Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(9):e0221367. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Khorasan-e-Razavi, Iran.

Objective: Mycobacterium marinum causes a rare cutaneous disease known as fish tank granuloma (FTG). The disease manifestations resemble those associated with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). The aim of this study was to determine whether FTG was the cause of cutaneous lesions in patients who were referred to the Parasitology laboratory of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad to be investigated for CL.

Materials/methods: One hundered patients, clinically diagnosed with CL between April 2014 and March 2015, were included in this study. Ziehl-Neelsen staining was performed to identify acid-fast Mycobacterium in addition to bacterial cultures using Löwenstein-Jensen medium. Skin lesion samples were also collected and kept on DNA banking cards for PCR testing.

Results: Twenty-nine of the 100 individuals with skin lesions, and therefore suspected of suffering from CL, tested positive for Mycobacterium marinum by PCR. Of these, 21 (72.4%) were male and 8(27.6%) were female. In 97% of these cases the lesions were located on hands and fingers. These patients had a history of manipulating fish and had been in contact with aquarium water. A sporotrichoid appearance was observed in 58.6% of the patients with mycobacterial lesions; 67% of patients had multiple head appearance.

Conclusion: Patients suspected to have CL and who test negative for CL could be affected by FTG. Therefore, after obtaining an accurate case history, molecular diagnosis is recommended for cases that give a negative result by conventional methods.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221367PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752854PMC
March 2020

Diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis by IgG avidity method in pregnant women referred to health centers in south-eastern Iran.

J Parasit Dis 2019 Sep 3;43(3):517-521. Epub 2019 May 3.

5Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common parasitic infections, can cause abortions in human. The purpose of this study was to determine seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and acute form of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. 208 pregnant women who referred to health centers in south-eastern Iran were taken under study after signing the informed consent forms and filling out the checklists. For those with high levels of IgG or IgM antibody titers, IgG Avidity test was performed to determine the acute infection. High level of IgG anti-body were found in sera of 81 pregnant women and 7 persons had borderline titer. IgM antibody results were positive in 33 and borderline in 4 cases. Then, the samples with positive and borderline results for IgM and IgG were evaluated by IgG avidity test. In this study, approximately 60% of pregnant women were not immune to risks posed by Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, this group are at risk of acquiring primary infection of toxoplasmosis during gestation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-019-01120-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6667513PMC
September 2019

In Vitro and In Vivo Effectiveness of Carvacrol, Thymol and Linalool against .

Molecules 2019 May 30;24(11). Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro, Italy.

Background: One of the most important causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is , which is mainly spread by and sandflies in the Old and New World, respectively. Novel and effective drugs to manage this neglected vector-borne disease are urgently required. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of carvacrol, thymol and linalool, three common essential oil constituents, on amastigotes and promastigotes of . : in vitro experiments were performed by 24 h MTT assay. Carvacrol, thymol and linalool at concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 10 μg/mL were tested on promastigotes of . For in vivo test, two groups of hamsters () received 100 mg/kg of body weight/day of carvacrol and thymol as intraperitoneal injection on day 7 post-infection, followed by a 48 h later injection. The third group was treated with the glucantime as standard drug (500 mg/kg) and the last group (control) just received normal saline. On the 16th day, the number of parasites and histopathological changes in liver and spleen were investigated.

Results: 24 h MTT assay showed promising antileishmanial activity of thymol and carvacrol, with IC values of 7.2 (48 μM) and 9.8 μg/mL (65 μM), respectively. Linalool at all concentrations did not affect promastigote viability. In vivo toxicity data of carvacrol and thymol showed that the former at 100 mg/kg was the safest and most effective treatment with little side effects on the liver.

Conclusions: Overall, thymol and carvacrol are highly promising candidates for the development of effective and safe drugs in the fight against VL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6600403PMC
May 2019

species population found in pond water of parks in Mashhad city, Can the physicochemical factors affect it?

MethodsX 2018 24;5:1427-1430. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

species are the ubiquitous free-living amoebas that are found worldwide in soil and water. Among spp., can cause primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Ninety water samples were collected from the pond of parks. Also, the water quality parameters were measured at the sampling site (such as temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and Turbidity). After filtering, the samples were cultured on Bacto-agar enriched with . A PCR assay was conducted on the culture-positive samples in the ITS1, 5.8SrDNA and ITS2 regions, and then the PCR products were sequenced. The pond water of parks was contaminated with some spp. (except ) and a . There was no significant relationship between water quality parameters and the presence of (p > 0.05). Our protocol investigates to detect spp. from ponds water of parks in Mashhad city and the relations between the water quality parameters and its presence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2018.10.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232641PMC
October 2018

Cloning of K26 Hydrophilic Antigen from Iranian Strain of .

Iran J Public Health 2017 Oct;46(10):1359-1365

Zoonosis Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by is the most severe form of leishmaniasis in Iran, which causes a high mortality rate in the case of inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to clone of K26 gene from Iranian strain of and register the sequencing results in Genbank to facilitate the preparation a new K26 antigen for the detection of infection.

Methods: was obtained from an infected domestic dog in Meshkin-Shahr area from northwestern Iran in 2015. Canine visceral leishmaniasis was confirmed by direct agglutination test (DAT), rK39 dipstick and parasitological methods. was confirmed by N-acetyl glucosamine -1-phosphate transferase (nagt)-PCR and its sequencing. The band of interest for k26 form Iranian strain of was purified by gel extraction kit after PCR amplification and then ligated into pBluescript II SK (+) and pET-32a (+), respectively. The sequences of recombinant plasmids were analyzed and submitted to Genbank.

Results: The submission of rk26 nucleotide sequence was performed to the GeneBank/NCBI Data Base under accession number KY212883. The related gene was showed a homology about 99% to and k26 gene, while the level of homology in comparison with different strains of ranged from 84-94%.

Conclusion: The successful rk26 cloning into an expression vector performed in this study could help to produce a new recombinant antigen for serodiagnosis of VL especially in areas where is the main causative agent.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5750347PMC
October 2017

Identification of Cysticercoid Larvae in (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Beetles from Iran.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2017 Jun 27;11(2):338-343. Epub 2017 May 27.

Department of Parasitology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect cysticercoids in red flour beetles, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran.

Methods: The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010-2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of DNA in beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene.

Results: Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52%) of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12-14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, including the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97-100% with similar sequences from GenBank database.

Conclusion: Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the populations.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5641622PMC
June 2017

A Case of Secondary Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2015 Jun 16;9(1):125-30. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

Deptartment of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Myiasis is the invasion of vertebrates' tissue by the larvae of a fly of the order Diptera. The objective of this paper is to present a rare case of secondary myiasis of ocular infestation by Chrysomya bezziana. A 55-year-old female from Sar village of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran), referred to Khatam Al-Anbia Hospital of Mashhad with extensive destruction of left orbital cavity. Existence of larvae was the major complaint in recent months. Some live larvae were removed from her destructed left eye. Primary diagnosis was myiasis of left upper lid (LUL) and suspected recurrent Basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The laboratory diagnosis was done in parasitology lab of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad and collected larvae were identified and confirmed to be larvae of the C. bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae). It is a case report of secondary ophtalmiomyiasis due to C. bezziana of a patient lives in Mazandaran Province.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4478413PMC
June 2015

Emergence of co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients in northeast Iran: a preliminary study.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2014 Mar-Apr;12(2):173-8. Epub 2013 Sep 26.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) serosurvey was carried out on 49 HIV/AIDS patients among 500 asymptomatic HIV/infected patients who registered in the Khorasan Razavi Province during the last 14 years. HIV infections were detected by ELISA and confirmed using western blot assay at the AIDS centre of the Khorasan Razavi Province. All collected sera were screened using the direct agglutination test (DAT). The sera with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies at a titre of 1:100 were considered positive for VL infection and serum titration was performed from 1:100 to 1:102,400. Nine (18.4%) patients were sero-positive according to DAT. The distribution of sera titrations were as follows: 1:100 (n = 6) 1:1600 (n = 1); 1:25,600 (n = 1) and 1:102,400 (n = 1). All sero-positive cases showed clinical signs and symptoms. The most predominant signs and symptoms of co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients were pneumonia (n = 2), hepatosplenomegaly (n = 2), lymphadenopathy (n = 2), anaemia (n = 1), prolonged fever (n = 1) and cachexia (n = 1). Our finding shows that VL (or kala-azar) is an opportunistic disease in HIV-positive patients that may be occurred in VL endemic areas of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2013.09.001DOI Listing
December 2014
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