Publications by authors named "Bibi Rafeiza Khan"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Spatial and temporal localization of SPIRRIG and WAVE/SCAR reveal roles for these proteins in actin-mediated root hair development.

Plant Cell 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Utililization and Life Sciences Office, NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, FL.

Root hairs are single cell protrusions that enable roots to optimize nutrient and water acquisition. These structures attain their tubular shapes by confining growth to the cell apex, a process called tip growth. The actin cytoskeleton and endomembrane systems are essential for tip growth; however, little is known about how these cellular components coordinate their activities during this process. Here, we show that SPIRRIG (SPI), a BEACH domain-containing protein involved in membrane trafficking, and BRK1 and SCAR2, subunits of the WAVE/SCAR (W/SC) actin nucleating promoting complex, display polarized localizations in Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs during distinct developmental stages. SPI accumulates at the root hair apex via post-Golgi compartments and positively regulates tip growth by maintaining tip-focused vesicle secretion and filamentous-actin integrity. BRK1 and SCAR2 on the other hand, mark the root hair initiation domain to specify the position of root hair emergence. Consistent with the localization data, tip growth was reduced in spi and the position of root hair emergence was disrupted in brk1 and scar1234. BRK1 depletion coincided with SPI accumulation as root hairs transitioned from initiation to tip growth. Taken together, our work uncovers a role for SPI in facilitating actin-dependent root hair development in Arabidopsis through pathways that might intersect with W/SC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koab115DOI Listing
April 2021

Spatial and temporal localization of SPIRRIG and WAVE/SCAR reveal roles for these proteins in actin-mediated root hair development.

Plant Cell 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Noble Research Institute LLC, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401.

Root hairs are single cell protrusions that enable roots to optimize nutrient and water acquisition. These structures attain their tubular shapes by confining growth to the cell apex, a process called tip growth. The actin cytoskeleton and endomembrane systems are essential for tip growth; however, little is known about how these cellular components coordinate their activities during this process. Here, we show that SPIRRIG (SPI), a BEACH domain-containing protein involved in membrane trafficking, and BRK1 and SCAR2, subunits of the WAVE/SCAR (W/SC) actin nucleating promoting complex, display polarized localizations in Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs during distinct developmental stages. SPI accumulates at the root hair apex via post-Golgi compartments and positively regulates tip growth by maintaining tip-focused vesicle secretion and filamentous-actin integrity. BRK1 and SCAR2 on the other hand, mark the root hair initiation domain to specify the position of root hair emergence. Consistent with the localization data, tip growth was reduced in spi and the position of root hair emergence was disrupted in brk1 and scar1234. BRK1 depletion coincided with SPI accumulation as root hairs transitioned from initiation to tip growth. Taken together, our work uncovers a role for SPI in facilitating actin-dependent root hair development in Arabidopsis through pathways that might intersect with W/SC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koab110DOI Listing
April 2021

Chemical Genetics to Uncover Mechanisms Underlying Lipid-Mediated Signaling Events in Plants.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2213:3-16

Noble Research Institute LLC, Ardmore, OK, USA.

Like animals, plants use various lipids as signaling molecules to guide their growth and development. The focus of our work is on the N-acylethanolamine (NAE) group of lipid mediators, which have been shown to play important physiological roles in plants. However, mechanisms by which NAEs modulate plant function remain elusive. Chemical genetics has emerged as a potent tool to elucidate signaling pathways in plants, particularly those orchestrated by plant hormones. Like plant hormones, exogenous application of NAEs elicits distinct plant growth phenotypes that can serve as biological readouts for chemical genetic screens. For example, N-lauroylethanolamide (NAE 12:0) inhibits seedling development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Thus, a library of small synthetic chemical compounds can be rapidly screened for their ability to reverse the inhibitory effect of NAE 12:0 on seedling development. Chemicals identified through such screens could be potential agonists/antagonists of NAE receptors or signaling pathways and therefore serve as additional tools for understanding NAE function in plants. In this chapter, we describe general protocols for NAE 12:0-based chemical genetic screens in Arabidopsis. Although such screens were designed primarily for NAE 12:0, they could potentially be applied for similar work with other NAE species or plant lipid mediators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0954-5_1DOI Listing
March 2021

Seedling Chloroplast Responses Induced by -Linolenoylethanolamine Require Intact G-Protein Complexes.

Plant Physiol 2020 09 14;184(1):459-477. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Biological Sciences and BioDiscovery Institute, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203

In animals, several long-chain -acylethanolamines (NAEs) have been identified as endocannabinoids and are autocrine signals that operate through cell surface G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors. Despite the occurrence of NAEs in land plants, including nonvascular plants, their precise signaling properties and molecular targets are not well defined. Here we show that the activity of -linolenoylethanolamine (NAE 18:3) requires an intact G-protein complex. Specifically, genetic ablation of the Gβγ dimer or loss of the full set of atypical Gα subunits strongly attenuates an NAE-18:3-induced degreening of cotyledons in Arabidopsis () seedlings. This effect involves, at least in part, transcriptional regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and catabolism genes. In addition, there is feedforward transcriptional control of G-protein signaling components and G-protein interactors. These results are consistent with NAE 18:3 being a lipid signaling molecule in plants with a requirement for G-proteins to mediate signal transduction, a situation similar, but not identical, to the action of NAE endocannabinoids in animal systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.19.01552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479873PMC
September 2020

Deletion analysis of AGD1 reveals domains crucial for plasma membrane recruitment and function in root hair polarity.

J Cell Sci 2018 01 29;131(2). Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Noble Research Institute, LLC, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK, 73401, USA

AGD1, a plant ACAP-type ADP-ribosylation factor-GTPase activating protein (ARF-GAP), functions in specifying root hair polarity in To better understand how AGD1 modulates root hair growth, we generated full-length and domain-deleted AGD1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) constructs, and followed their localization during root hair development. AGD1-GFP localized to the cytoplasm and was recruited to specific regions of the root hair plasma membrane (PM). Distinct PM AGD1-GFP signal was first detected along the site of root hair bulge formation. The construct continued to mark the PM at the root hair apical dome, but only during periods of reduced growth. During rapid tip growth, AGD1-GFP labeled the PM of the lateral flanks and dissipated from the apical-most PM. Deletion analysis and a single domain GFP fusion revealed that the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain is the minimal unit required for recruitment of AGD1 to the PM. Our results indicate that differential recruitment of AGD1 to specific PM domains is an essential component of the membrane trafficking machinery that facilitates root hair developmental phase transitions and responses to changes in the root microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.203828DOI Listing
January 2018

A chemical genetic screen uncovers a small molecule enhancer of the N-acylethanolamine degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, in Arabidopsis.

Sci Rep 2017 01 23;7:41121. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Plant Biology Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation Inc., Ardmore, OK, 73401, USA.

N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are a group of fatty acid amides that play signaling roles in diverse physiological processes in eukaryotes. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades NAE into ethanolamine and free fatty acid to terminate its signaling function. In animals, chemical inhibitors of FAAH have been used for therapeutic treatment of pain and as tools to probe deeper into biochemical properties of FAAH. In a chemical genetic screen for small molecules that dampened the inhibitory effect of N-lauroylethanolamine (NAE 12:0) on Arabidopsis thaliana seedling growth, we identified 6-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-2,4(3 H,6 H)-dione (or MDPD). MDPD alleviated the growth inhibitory effects of NAE 12:0, in part by enhancing the enzymatic activity of Arabidopsis FAAH (AtFAAH). In vitro, biochemical assays showed that MDPD enhanced the apparent V of AtFAAH but did not alter the affinity of AtFAAH for its NAE substrates. Structural analogs of MDPD did not affect AtFAAH activity or dampen the inhibitory effect of NAE 12:0 on seedling growth indicating that MDPD is a specific synthetic chemical activator of AtFAAH. Collectively, our study demonstrates the feasibility of using an unbiased chemical genetic approach to identify new pharmacological tools for manipulating FAAH- and NAE-mediated physiological processes in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep41121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5253734PMC
January 2017

Malonylation of Glucosylated N-Lauroylethanolamine: A NEW PATHWAY THAT DETERMINES N-ACYLETHANOLAMINE METABOLIC FATE IN PLANTS.

J Biol Chem 2016 12 17;291(53):27112-27121. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

From the Plant Biology Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Inc., Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401,

N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are bioactive fatty acid derivatives present in trace amounts in many eukaryotes. Although NAEs have signaling and physiological roles in animals, little is known about their metabolic fate in plants. Our previous microarray analyses showed that inhibition of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling growth by exogenous N-lauroylethanolamine (NAE 12:0) was accompanied by the differential expression of multiple genes encoding small molecule-modifying enzymes. We focused on the gene At5g39050, which encodes a phenolic glucoside malonyltransferase 1 (PMAT1), to better understand the biological significance of NAE 12:0-induced gene expression changes. PMAT1 expression was induced 3-5-fold by exogenous NAE 12:0. PMAT1 knockouts (pmat1) had reduced sensitivity to the growth-inhibitory effects of NAE 12:0 compared with wild type leading to the hypothesis that PMAT1 might be a previously uncharacterized regulator of NAE metabolism in plants. To test this hypothesis, metabolic profiling of wild-type and pmat1 seedlings treated with NAE 12:0 was conducted. Wild-type seedlings treated with NAE 12:0 accumulated glucosylated and malonylated forms of this NAE species, and structures were confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. By contrast, only the peak corresponding to NAE 12:0-glucoside was detected in pmat1 Recombinant PMAT1 catalyzed the reaction converting NAE 12:0-glucoside to NAE 12:0-mono- or -dimalonylglucosides providing direct evidence that this enzyme is involved in NAE 12:0-glucose malonylation. Taken together, our results indicate that glucosylation of NAE 12:0 by a yet to be determined glucosyltransferase and its subsequent malonylation by PMAT1 could represent a mechanism for modulating the biological activities of NAEs in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M116.751065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5207141PMC
December 2016

Effects of synthetic alkamides on Arabidopsis fatty acid amide hydrolase activity and plant development.

Phytochemistry 2015 Feb 6;110:58-71. Epub 2014 Dec 6.

Center for Plant Lipid Research, Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA. Electronic address:

Alkamides and N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are bioactive, amide-linked lipids that influence plant development. Alkamides are restricted to several families of higher plants and some fungi, whereas NAEs are widespread signaling molecules in both plants and animals. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has been described as a key contributor to NAE hydrolysis; however, no enzyme has been associated with alkamide degradation in plants. Herein reported is synthesis of 12 compounds structurally similar to a naturally occurring alkamide (N-isobutyl-(2E,6Z,8E)decatrienamide or affinin) with different acyl compositions more similar to plant NAEs and various amino alkyl head groups. These "hybrid" synthetic alkamides were tested for activity toward recombinant Arabidopsis FAAH and for their effects on plant development (i.e., cotyledon expansion and primary root length). A substantial increase in FAAH activity was discovered toward NAEs in vitro in the presence of some of these synthetic alkamides, such as N-ethyllauroylamide (4). This "enhancement" effect was found to be due, at least in part, to relief from product inhibition of FAAH by ethanolamine, and not due to an alteration in the oligomerization state of the FAAH enzyme. For several of these alkamides, an inhibition of seedling growth was observed with greater results in FAAH knockouts and less in FAAH over-expressing plants, suggesting that these alkamides could be hydrolyzed by FAAH in planta. The tight regulation of NAE levels in vivo appears to be important for proper seedling establishment, and as such, some of these synthetic alkamides may be useful pharmacological tools to manipulate the effects of NAEs in situ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.11.011DOI Listing
February 2015

Synthesis of phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides and their effects on fatty acid amide hydrolase activity.

J Biol Chem 2014 Mar 20;289(13):9340-51. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

From the Center for Plant Lipid Research, Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203.

N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are involved in numerous biological activities in plant and animal systems. The metabolism of these lipids by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a key regulatory point in NAE signaling activity. Several active site-directed inhibitors of FAAH have been identified, but few compounds have been described that enhance FAAH activity. Here we synthesized two sets of phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides from natural products, 3-n-pentadecylphenolethanolamide and cardanolethanolamide, with structural similarity to NAEs and characterized their effects on the hydrolytic activity of FAAH. Both compounds increased the apparent Vmax of recombinant FAAH proteins from both plant (Arabidopsis) and mammalian (Rattus) sources. These NAE-like compounds appeared to act by reducing the negative feedback regulation of FAAH activity by free ethanolamine. Both compounds added to seedlings relieved, in part, the negative growth effects of exogenous NAE12:0. Cardanolethanolamide reduced neuronal viability and exacerbated oxidative stress-mediated cell death in primary cultured neurons at nanomolar concentrations. This was reversed by FAAH inhibitors or exogenous NAE substrate. Collectively, our data suggest that these phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides act to enhance the activity of FAAH and may stimulate the turnover of NAEs in vivo. Hence, these compounds might be useful pharmacological tools for manipulating FAAH-mediated regulation of NAE signaling in plants or animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.533315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3979395PMC
March 2014

N-Acylethanolamines: lipid metabolites with functions in plant growth and development.

Plant J 2014 Aug 25;79(4):568-83. Epub 2014 Feb 25.

Plant Biology Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation Inc., 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK, 73401, USA.

Twenty years ago, N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) were considered by many lipid chemists to be biological 'artifacts' of tissue damage, and were, at best, thought to be minor lipohilic constituents of various organisms. However, that changed dramatically in 1993, when anandamide, an NAE of arachidonic acid (N-arachidonylethanolamine), was shown to bind to the human cannabinoid receptor (CB1) and activate intracellular signal cascades in mammalian neurons. Now NAEs of various types have been identified in diverse multicellular organisms, in which they display profound biological effects. Although targets of NAEs are still being uncovered, and probably vary among eukaryotic species, there appears to be remarkable conservation of the machinery that metabolizes these bioactive fatty acid conjugates of ethanolamine. This review focuses on the metabolism and functions of NAEs in higher plants, with specific reference to the formation, hydrolysis and oxidation of these potent lipid mediators. The discussion centers mostly on early seedling growth and development, for which NAE metabolism has received the most attention, but also considers other areas of plant development in which NAE metabolism has been implicated. Where appropriate, we indicate cross-kingdom conservation in NAE metabolic pathways and metabolites, and suggest areas where opportunities for further investigation appear most pressing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12427DOI Listing
August 2014

Peroxisomal Acyl-CoA oxidase 4 activity differs between Arabidopsis accessions.

Plant Mol Biol 2012 Jan 3;78(1-2):45-58. Epub 2011 Nov 3.

Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA.

In plants, peroxisomes are the primary site of fatty acid β-oxidation. Following substrate activation, fatty acids are oxidized by Acyl-CoA Oxidase (ACX) enzymes. Arabidopsis has six ACX genes, although ACX6 is not expressed. Biochemical characterization has revealed that each ACX enzyme acts on specific chain-length targets, but in a partially overlapping manner, indicating a degree of functional redundancy. Genetic analysis of acx single and double mutants in the Columbia (Col-0) accession revealed only minor phenotypes, but an acx3acx4 double mutant from Wassileskija (Ws) is embryo lethal. In this study, we show that acx3acx4(Col) and acx1acx3acx4(Col) mutants are viable and that enzyme activity in these mutants is significantly reduced on a range of substrates compared to wild type. However, the triple mutant displays only minor defects in seed-storage mobilization, seedling development, and adult growth. Although the triple mutant is defective in the three most active and highly-expressed ACX proteins, increases in ACX2 expression may support partial β-oxidation activity. Comparison of acx mutant alleles in the Col-0 and Ws accessions reveals independent phenotypes; the Ws acx4 mutant uniquely shows increased sensitivity to propionate, whereas the Col-0 acx4 allele has sucrose-dependent growth in the light. To dissect the issues between Col-0 and Ws, we generated mixed background mutants. Although alleles with the Col-0 acx4 mutant were viable, we were unable to isolate an acx3acx4 line using the Ws acx4 allele. Reducing ACX4 expression in several Arabidopsis backgrounds showed a split response, suggesting that the ACX4 gene and/or protein functions differently in Arabidopsis accessions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-011-9843-4DOI Listing
January 2012

pex5 Mutants that differentially disrupt PTS1 and PTS2 peroxisomal matrix protein import in Arabidopsis.

Plant Physiol 2010 Dec 25;154(4):1602-15. Epub 2010 Oct 25.

Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, USA.

PEX5 and PEX7 are receptors required for the import of peroxisome-bound proteins containing one of two peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS1 or PTS2). To better understand the role of PEX5 in plant peroxisomal import, we characterized the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pex5-10 mutant, which has a T-DNA insertion in exon 5 of the PEX5 gene. Sequencing results revealed that exon 5, along with the T-DNA, is removed in this mutant, resulting in a truncated pex5 protein. The pex5-10 mutant has germination defects and is completely dependent on exogenous Suc for early seedling establishment, based on poor utilization of seed-storage fatty acids. This mutant also has delayed development and reduced fertility, although adult pex5-10 plants appear normal. Peroxisomal metabolism of indole-3-butyric acid, propionate, and isobutyrate also is disrupted. The pex5-10 mutant has reduced import of both PTS1 and PTS2 proteins, and enzymatic processes that occur in peroxisomes are disrupted. To specifically study the import and importance of PTS1 proteins, we made a truncated PEX5 construct lacking the PTS1-binding region (PEX5(454)). Transformation of this construct into pex5-10 resulted in the rescue of PTS2 import, thereby creating a line with PTS1-specific import defects. The pex5-10 (PEX5(454)) plants still had developmental defects, although restoring PTS2 import resulted in a less severe mutant phenotype. Comparison of pex5-10 and pex5-10 (PEX5(454)) phenotypes can separate the import mechanisms for enzymes acting in different peroxisomal processes, including indole-3-butyric acid/2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid oxidation, isobutyrate and propionate metabolism, and photorespiration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.110.162479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2996013PMC
December 2010