Publications by authors named "Bibhudendu Mohapatra"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Management of AO-type C thoracolumbar fractures during COVID-19 pandemic using distractor device: a novel technique.

Br J Neurosurg 2021 May 31:1-8. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Spine Services, Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, New Delhi, India.

Study Design: Prospective cohort study.

Introduction: Management of the severe thoracolumbar (TL) spine fracture-dislocation injuries have been further complicated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The need to optimize resources and minimize the personnel in the operating room (OR) led us to develop a novel technique to reduce TL fracture-dislocations (AO type-C) using an orthopedic distractor device (ODD).

Methods: This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care spine center with a study duration from March 2020 to May 2020 coinciding with the nationwide lockdown and travel restrictions imposed in view of the COVID-19 crisis. Only patients with AO type C fracture-dislocation managed using the ODD operated by a single surgeon were included in the study.

Results: Of 12 cases, the most commonly affected level was D12-L1. Nine patients were American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) A at presentation, two patients were AIS B, and one AIS C. The mean operative time was 125 min and mean blood loss was 454 ml. Eight patients remained AIS A, one patient improved from AIS B to C. Two patients became independent walkers, one remained AIS B. The post-operative VAS score improved to a mean value of 2.33. The improvement in kyphosis was 26.24° immediate postoperatively and maintained at 25.9°, percentage height loss reduced to 2.75% immediate postoperatively and maintained at 3.16% at 3 months follow-up.

Conclusions: Management of TL fracture-dislocations in COVID times of health care resource scarcity can be challenging. Single surgeon with ODD is a useful technique for achieving good results in these injuries.
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May 2021

Iatrogenic postoperative spondylodiscitis attributed to infection in an immunocompetent patient.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 8;12:138. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Orthopedics, Division of Spine Services, Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, New Delhi, India.

Background: Pyogenic spondylodiscitis (PS) is a rare infection involving the intervertebral disk space, adjacent vertebral endplates, and vertebral bodies. PS occurs in the elderly and immunocompromised patients, and is an uncommon cause of initial and/or postoperative PS. There are only seven cases involving this organism reported in literature.

Case Description: Here, we present a 35-year-old male who following a lumbar discectomy developed a postoperative iatrogenic PS uniquely attributed to . The patient was successfully managed with postoperative surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy.

Conclusion: Rarely, may be the offending organism resulting in a postoperative lumbar PS.
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April 2021

Role of Invasive Urodynamic Studies in Establishing Cauda Equina Syndrome and Postoperative Recovery.

Global Spine J 2020 Dec 17:2192568220979640. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Spine Services, Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, India.

Study Design: Retrospective with prospective follow-up.

Objective: Confirming the diagnosis of CES based purely on symptoms and signs is unreliable and usually associated with high false positive rate. A missed diagnosis can permanently disable the patient. Present study aims to determine the relationship between clinical symptoms/ signs (bladder dysfunction) with UDS, subsequently aid in surgical decision making and assessing post-operative recovery.

Methods: A prospective follow-up of patients with disc herniation and bladder symptoms from January 2018 to July 2020 was done. All patients underwent UDS and grouped into acontractile, hypocontractile and normal bladder. Data regarding PAS, VAC, GTP, timing to surgery and onset of radiculopathy and recovery with correlation to UDS was done preoperatively and post operatively.

Results: 107 patients were studied (M-63/F-44). Patients with PAS present still had acontractile (61%) or hypocontractile (39%) detrusor and with VAC present, 57% had acontractile and 43% hypocontractile detrusors. 10 patients with both PAS and VAC present had acontractile detrusor. 82% patients with acute radiculopathy (<2 days) improved when operated <24 hrs while only 47% showed improvement with chronic radiculopathy. The detrusor function recovered in 66.1% when operated <12 hours, 40% in <12-24 hours of presentation.

Conclusion: Adjuvant information from UDS in combination with clinicoradiological findings help in accurate diagnosis even in patients with no objective motor and sensory deficits. Quantitative findings on UDS are consistent with postoperative recovery of patient's urination power, representing improvement and can be used as a prognostic factor.
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December 2020

Spinal Injury in Indian Children: Review of 204 Cases.

Global Spine J 2020 Dec 18;10(8):1034-1039. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

76434Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, New Delhi, India.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to analyze the epidemiological parameters and associated factors after spinal cord injury (SCI) in children, in the last 14 years admitted at a tertiary care center (Indian Spinal Injury Centre [ISIC], New Delhi, India).

Method: The demographic and injury-related data was analyzed descriptively. The incidence, type, and level of injury were compared across the age groups using a χ test. Wherever appropriate, Fisher exact test was used.

Results: There were 1660 pediatric trauma cases admitted at ISIC from 2002 to 2015, where 204 cases presented with spine injuries. The average age of children sustaining spine injury was 15.69 years (3-18 years of range). There were 15 patients in the age group 0 to 9 years, 27 patients in the age group 10 to 14 years, and 162 patients in the age group 15 to 18 years. This difference in spine injury incidence among the age groups was statistically significant. Fall from height was a common mode of injury. In our sample, boys were 3 times more likely to be injured than girls. Burst fractures were common among the type of injuries.

Conclusion: Our study confirms the predominance of cervical spine injury and the high incidence of multilevel contiguous with a lesser percentage of noncontiguous multilevel spinal involvement. SCIWORA (spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality) incidences were in a similar context to the literature available. There was a very low incidence of death. Neurological improvement was seen in 8 operated cases and 4 conservatively treated cases.
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December 2020

Infected charcot spine arthropathy.

Spinal Cord Ser Cases 2018 8;4:73. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Indian Spinal Injuries center, Sector C, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, India 110070.

Background: Charcot spinal arthropathy (CSA), a destructive spinal pathology, is seen in patients with impaired sensation. Superimposed infection in the affected spinal segments can lead to a challenge in the diagnosis and management. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the leading cause of CSA as persons with SCI have significantly impaired sensation. Though infection of the CSA is rare, SCI persons are prone to superimposed infection of the Charcot spine. We report atypical presentations of three cases of CSA with superimposed infection.

Case Descriptions: A 47-year-old male with complete T7-8 SCI developed symptoms suggestive of infection and CSA. He was managed with a posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) of T12 and intravenous antibiotics as the intraoperative culture showed the growth of and . A 26-year-old male with T12 complete paraplegia, post status post open reduction and internal fixation with subsequent implants removal developed infection and CSA over the pseudo-arthrotic lesion with destruction of T12 and L1 vertebrae and an external fistulous track. He was managed with debridement and anterior column T11-L1 reconstruction with a Titanium cage and four-rod pedicle screw stabilization construct. A 25-year-old male with complete paraplegia with CSA at L4-S1. He underwent PVCR of L5 and L3-S2 posterior stabilization. The intraoperative culture and histopathology were suggestive of tuberculous infection.

Conclusion: Pyogenic or tubercular infection of CSA should be considered as a diagnostic possibility in persons with SCI who are more prone to infections. The management includes aggressive debridement and circumferential fusion along with appropriate medications to control the infection.
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August 2018

Reliability of Allen Ferguson classification versus subaxial injury classification and severity scale for subaxial cervical spine injuries: a psychometrics study.

Spinal Cord 2019 Jan 8;57(1):26-32. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, Sector C, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, India.

Study Design: A psychometrics study.

Objectives: To determine intra and inter-observer reliability of Allen Ferguson system (AF) and sub-axial injury classification and severity scale (SLIC), two sub axial cervical spine injury (SACI) classification systems.

Setting: Online multi-national study METHODS: Clinico-radiological data of 34 random patients with traumatic SACI were distributed as power point presentations to 13 spine surgeons of the Spine Trauma Study Group of ISCoS from seven different institutions. They were advised to classify patients using AF and SLIC systems. A reference guide of the two systems had been mailed to them earlier. After 6 weeks, the same cases were re-presented to them in a different order for classification using both systems. Intra and inter-observer reliability scores were calculated and analysed with Fleiss Kappa coefficient (k value) for both the systems and Intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC) for the SLIC.

Results: Allen Ferguson system displayed a uniformly moderate inter and intra-observer reliability. SLIC showed slight to fair inter-observer reliability and fair to substantial intra-observer reliability. AF mechanistic types showed better inter-observer reliability than the SLIC morphological types. Within SLIC, the total SLIC had the least inter-observer agreement and the SLIC neurology had the highest intra-observer agreement.

Conclusion: This first external reliability study shows a better reliability for AF as compared to SLIC system. Among the SLIC variables, the DLC status and the total SLIC had least agreement. Low-reliability highlights the need for improving the existing classification systems or coming out with newer ones that consider limitations of the existing ones.
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January 2019

Functional and Radiological Outcomes of Anterior Decompression and Posterior Stabilization via Posterior Transpedicular Approach in Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Pott's Disease: A Retrospective Study.

Asian Spine J 2017 Aug 7;11(4):618-626. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Department of Occupational Therapy, Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, New Delhi, India.

Study Design: This is a retrospective study.

Purpose: To determine the efficacy and safety of a posterior transpedicular approach with regard to functional and radiological outcomes in people with thoracic and thoracolumbar spinal tuberculosis.

Overview Of Literature: Spinal tuberculosis can cause serious morbidity, including permanent neurological deficits and severe deformities. Medical treatment or a combination of medical and surgical strategies can control the disease in most patients, thereby decreasing morbidity incidence. A debate always existed regarding whether to achieve both decompression and stabilization via a combined anterior and posterior approach or a single posterior approach exists.

Methods: The study was conducted at the Indian Spinal injuries Centre and included all patients with thoracic and thoracolumbar Pott's disease who were operated via a Posterior transpedicular approach. Data regarding 60 patients were analyzed with respect to the average operation time, preoperative and postoperative, 6 months and final follow-up American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grading, bony fusion, implant loosening, implant failure, preoperative, postoperative, 6 months and final follow-up kyphotic angles, a loss of kyphotic correction, Oswestry disability index (ODI) score, and visual analog scale (VAS) score. Data were analyzed using either a paired t -test or a Wilcoxon Signed Rank test.

Results: The mean operation time was 260±30 minutes. Fifty-five patients presented with evidence of successful bony fusion within a mean period of 6±1.5 months. Preoperative dorsal and lumbar angles were significantly larger than postoperative angles, which were smaller than final follow-up angles. The mean kyphotic correction achieved was 12.11±14.8, with a mean decrease of 5.97 and 19.1 in VAS and ODI scores, respectively.

Conclusions: Anterior decompression and posterior stabilization via a posterior transpedicular approach are safe and effective procedures, with less intraoperative surgical duration and significant improvements in clinical and functional status.
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August 2017

Role of Posterior Stabilization and Transpedicular Decompression in the Treatment of Thoracic and Thoracolumbar TB: A Retrospective Evaluation.

Clin Spine Surg 2017 Dec;30(10):E1426-E1433

Departments of Spine Surgery-Unit 3.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Objective: To evaluate the results of posterior pedicle-screw fixation with transpedicular decompression in 21 cases of thoracic and thoracolumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB) in terms of functional, neurological, and radiologic outcomes.

Summary Of Background Data: Spinal TB is predominantly an anterior disease that can lead to kyphotic deformity. Hence, anterior debridement and fusion was considered as the gold standard. However, with remarkable improvements in chemotherapy regimens and diagnostic tools, it is possible to detect the disease process early and treat them with less radical approaches. In the present study, authors have shown the results of posterior pedicle-screw fixation with transpedicular decompression in thoracic and thoracolumbar spinal TB.

Materials And Methods: The study reviewed 21 patients with thoracic or thoracolumbar TB with kyphotic deformity who were operated with posterior pedicle-screw fixation and transpedicular decompression (pus aspiration through a Jamshidi needle) with kyphosis correction for either neurological deficits (11) or intractable pain (10), not responding to at least 4-6 weeks of chemotherapy. Patients with <3 spinal segment involvement, <30 degrees kyphosis, and <50% vertebral body destruction were included in the study.

Results: The mean age of patients was 43.9 years and the mean kyphosis angle at the level of involvement was 21.61±3.72 degrees. Kyphosis improved postoperatively to 5.79±3.48 degrees. The mean follow-up period was 24.09 months, and final kyphosis correction was maintained at 8.74±3.65 degrees. Bony fusion was achieved in 80.5% cases. Eleven patients had neurological deficits, and all of them recovered. All patients had a Visual Analog score improvement from 9.52 to 2.57 postoperatively.

Conclusions: Posterior stabilization with transpedicular decompression can be considered as a good treatment option for the management of thoracic and thoracolumbar TB in patients with <50% vertebral body destruction and <30-degree kyphosis. It provides rapid relief of instability pain, improvement of neurological deficit, and prevents progression of deformity.
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December 2017

Microdiscectomy or tubular discectomy: Is any of them a better option for management of lumbar disc prolapse.

J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2016 Jul-Sep;7(3):146-52

Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: Various types of minimally invasive techniques have been developed for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. The original laminectomy was refined into microdiscectomy (MD). MD is the gold standard in management of lumbar disc herniation and is used as a yardstick for comparison with newer procedures such as tubular discectomy. So far, no studies have been reported in Indian population comparing tubular discectomy and microdiscectomy. The aim of this study was to compare immediate postoperative and 1-year outcome of patients undergoing tubular discectomy with those undergoing MD and to evaluate the learning curve as well as complication rates of tubular discectomy.

Materials And Methods: Forty-six patients of MD and 102 (48 early and 54 late) patients of tubular discectomy (TD) were operated at Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, which is a tertiary level center between July 2009 and January 2012. They were studied for the following data: Baseline characteristics, visual analog scale (VAS) for leg pain and back pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, length of hospital stay, time taken to return to work, duration of surgery, intra- and post-operative complications, and reoperation rates.

Results: The VAS score for leg pain, back pain, and ODI scores showed improvement in both groups during the 1(st) year after surgery. Time taken to return to work and mean hospital stay was shorter in case of TD as compared to MD group. The mean duration of surgery was 34 min shorter for conventional MD. The incidence of dural tear was 6.5% in MD group and 10.4% in early TD and decreased to 7.4% in late TD group.

Conclusion: This study revealed that rate of recovery is significantly faster for TD as compared to conventional MD. In contrast, we encountered fewer complications in MD approach as compared to TD which although were not statistically significant and which also decreased as we gained experience.
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September 2016

Floating lumbar spine: proposed mechanism with review of literature.

Eur Spine J 2019 08 2;28(8):1751-1754. Epub 2016 Aug 2.

Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, Sector C, Vasant Kunj, Delhi, India.

Hyperextension injuries of lumbar spine resulting in lumbosacral dislocation are a rare entity. We report a case of a 60-year-old male who presented to us in outpatient department with history of trivial fall from bicycle with fracture through the pedicles extending from L2 to L5 with lumbosacral dislocation with free floating posterior elements with intact neurology. This is the first case report of 4 level extension compression injury with lumbosacral dislocation leading to floating lumbar spine to the best of author's knowledge. Treatment consists of reduction of the lumbosacral dislocation first and fusion of the disc space followed by reduction of the other fractures proximally. These injuries may present with a trivial trauma in spondylotic spine in elderly patients. MRI and CT scan should be done early to identify it, reduce and fix it, as in many cases with trivial trauma there may be no neural deficit.
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August 2019

Reliability assessment of AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system and Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) for thoracolumbar spine injuries: results of a multicentre study.

Eur Spine J 2017 05 22;26(5):1470-1476. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

Indian Spinal Injuries Center, Sector C, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: The aim of this multicentre study was to determine whether the recently introduced AOSpine Classification and Injury Severity System has better interrater and intrarater reliability than the already existing Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) for thoracolumbar spine injuries.

Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 50 consecutive patients admitted at a single centre with a diagnosis of an acute traumatic thoracolumbar spine injury were distributed to eleven attending spine surgeons from six different institutions in the form of PowerPoint presentation, who classified them according to both classifications. After time span of 6 weeks, cases were randomly rearranged and sent again to same surgeons for re-classification. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability for each component of TLICS and new AOSpine classification were evaluated using Fleiss Kappa coefficient (k value) and Spearman rank order correlation.

Results: Moderate interrater and intrarater reliability was seen for grading fracture type and integrity of posterior ligamentous complex (Fracture type: k = 0.43 ± 0.01 and 0.59 ± 0.16, respectively, PLC: k = 0.47 ± 0.01 and 0.55 ± 0.15, respectively), and fair to moderate reliability (k = 0.29 ± 0.01 interobserver and 0.44+/0.10 intraobserver, respectively) for total score according to TLICS. Moderate interrater (k = 0.59 ± 0.01) and substantial intrarater reliability (k = 0.68 ± 0.13) was seen for grading fracture type regardless of subtype according to AOSpine classification. Near perfect interrater and intrarater agreement was seen concerning neurological status for both the classification systems.

Conclusions: Recently proposed AOSpine classification has better reliability for identifying fracture morphology than the existing TLICS. Additional studies are clearly necessary concerning the application of these classification systems across multiple physicians at different level of training and trauma centers to evaluate not only their reliability and reproducibility, but also the other attributes, especially the clinical significance of a good classification system.
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May 2017

Post-traumatic thoracic scoliosis with rib head dislocation and intrusion into the spinal canal: a case report and review of literature.

Eur Spine J 2010 Jul 21;19 Suppl 2:S183-6. Epub 2010 Feb 21.

Spine Service, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St George Hospital and Clinical School, University of New South Wales, 53 Montgomery Street, Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia.

The objective of the study was to report a rare occurrence of dislocation and intrusion of two rib heads into the spinal canal at the convex apex of a post-traumatic thoracic scoliosis in an adult in the absence of any neurological impairment. A 47-year-old male presented with a slowly progressive, post-traumatic thoracic scoliosis and a mild aching sensation over the posterior chest wall. The lower limb neurology and bowel and bladder function were normal. There was no clinical evidence of neurofibromatosis. CT scans showed that the 8th and 9th ribs on the convex apex of the scoliotic curve had intruded into the spinal canal and were lying adjacent to the dura and spinal cord. The MRI scan did not show any cord signal intensity changes. Although rib dislocation and intrusion into the spinal canal is uncommon, images should be carefully analysed to rule out this condition in sharp angular scoliotic curves.
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July 2010

Multiple lumbar pedicle fractures in osteopetrosis: a case report.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2010 Apr;35(8):E311-5

Spine Service, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. George Hospital and Clinical School, University of New South Wales, 53 Montgomery Street, Kogarah-2217, NSW, Australia.

Study Design: Single case report.

Objective: To report the observation of multiple lumbar pedicle fractures in a patient with osteopetrosis.

Summary Of Background Data: Osteopetrosis is characterized by osteoclast dysfunction, impaired bone resorption, and poor bone remodeling. As a result, the bone is brittle but hard and is referred to as "marble bone disease." Although long bone fractures are relatively common, fractures of the spine are rare. Spondylolysis has been reported in the cervical and lumbar spine, and pedicle fractures have been reported in the cervical spine. We report the case of a patient with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis with multiple lumbar pedicle fractures. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of multiple lumbar pedicle fractures in osteopetrosis.

Methods: A 73-year-old woman, with a known history of osteopetrosis, presented with acute nonradiating low back pain following a bout of coughing. The lower limb neurology and bladder and bowel function were normal. The imaging findings, clinical course, and treatment are discussed.

Results: Initial computed tomography scans of the patient revealed the presence of multiple pedicle fractures with spondylolysis. The patient was advised bed rest for the first 3 days, and when the acute pain subsided, she was permitted to ambulate with a lumbosacral corset. The patient was asymptomatic for 8 months, when she was readmitted with another episode of acute low back pain. The CT scan revealed fresh fracture of the L4 pedicle, which was not seen on the previous scan. The pain settled down again with conservative measures.

Conclusion: This case report discusses the rare occurrence of multiple lumbar pedicle fractures and pars interarticularis (spondylolysis) fractures in a patient with osteopetrosis.
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April 2010

Retroperitoneal lymphocele after lumbar total disc replacement: a case report and review of literature.

SAS J 2010 1;4(3):87-91. Epub 2010 Sep 1.

Spine Service, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. George Hospital and Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Kogarah, Australia.

Background: Retroperitoneal lymphoceles (RPLs) caused by injury to the lymphatics are commonly seen after pelvic lymphadenectomy, renal transplantation, and gynecologic tumor resection surgeries. Degenerative disc disease still remains the major cause of low-back pain. Anterior lumbar spinal procedures, such as anterior lumbar interbody fusion and anterior lumbar arthroplasty, have been increasingly performed for treatment of axial back pain. RPLs, as an approach-related complication, though infrequent, have been reported after anterior lumbar spinal surgery. We report a case of RPL after total disc replacement of the lumbar spine. To our knowledge, there has been no prior report of RPL after total disc replacement managed by percutaneous aspiration only.

Methods: A 49-year-old woman who underwent total disc replacement at the L4-5 level presented with a postoperative complication of RPL. The imaging findings, clinical course, and treatment are discussed, and a review of literature is presented.

Results: The patient presented with significant abdominal swelling and discomfort at 4 weeks after surgery without any signs or symptoms of infection. Investigations showed an RPL. She was treated by multiple aspirations under ultrasound guidance. At 12 months' follow-up, the patient had no further abdominal symptoms and had gone back to her routine activities and work with significant improvement in back pain.

Conclusions: RPL is an uncommon complication after anterior lumbar surgery and can be managed effectively if detected and diagnosed early. Although repeated aspiration is associated with high recurrence and infection, it is a safe and minimally invasive procedure to manage RPL.
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March 2015