Publications by authors named "Bi Shi"

81 Publications

Insights into the mechanism of flavor compound changes in strong flavor baijiu during storage by using the density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulation.

Food Chem 2021 Nov 2:131522. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

College of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China. Electronic address:

The aging procedure/storage is essential to enhance the organoleptic quality of strong flavor baijiu (SFB). How the storage affects flavor changes in SFB, that is, the aging mechanisms remains unclear. Herein, the physical and chemical effects on the main flavor compounds of SFB during storage were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. DFT calculation results showed that the activation energy of ester alkyl-oxygen protonation was lower than that of acid hydroxyl-oxygen protonation, which explained the reason why the concentrations of acids increased and those of esters decreased during SFB storage. MD simulation results showed that electrostatic interaction was a major contributor to SFB and that the ethanol-water system containing acids had a stronger electrostatic energy and more hydrogen bonds than the ethanol-water system containing esters. These findings revealed that acids are prone to generating and strengthening associative structures in SFB during storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131522DOI Listing
November 2021

Epigenetic condensates regulate chromatin activity and tumorigenesis.

Mol Cell Oncol 2021 9;8(5):1997040. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Uva Cancer Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Alterations of epigenetic modulators are extensively associated with cancer, but their key molecular activities in cancer regulation are often unclear. We discovered that lysine demethylase 6A (KDM6A, also known as UTX) suppresses cancer by forming liquid-like condensates with lysine methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D, also known as MLL4) and regulating chromatin activity at multiple levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23723556.2021.1997040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8632315PMC
November 2021

Exoproduction and biochemical characterization of a novel serine protease from L9 with hide-dehairing activity.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Nov 20;32(1). Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering, Ministry of Education and College of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P.R China.

This study is the first report on production and characterization of the enzyme from an species. A 4.2-fold increase in the extracellular protease (called L9T) production from L9 was achieved through one factor at-a-time approach and response surface methodological optimization. L9 protease exhibited a unique protein band with a mass of 25.9 kDa upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This novel protease was active over a range of pH (4-13), temperatures (30-80 oC) and salt concentrations (0-220 g/L), with the maximal activity observed at pH 7, 70 oC and 20 g/L NaCl. Proteolytic activity was upgraded in the presence of Ag+, Ca2+ and Sr2+, but was totally suppressed by 5 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride which suggests that this enzyme belongs to the serine protease family. L9 protease was resistant to certain common organic solvents and surfactants; particularly, 5 mM Tween 20 and Tween 80 improved the activity by 63 and 15%, respectively. More importantly, L9 protease was found to be effective in dehairing of goatskins, cowhides and rabbit-skins without damaging the collagen fibers. These properties confirm the feasibility of L9 protease in industrial applications, especially in leather processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2108.08037DOI Listing
November 2021

UTX condensation underlies its tumour-suppressive activity.

Nature 2021 Sep 15;597(7878):726-731. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

UTX (also known as KDM6A) encodes a histone H3K27 demethylase and is an important tumour suppressor that is frequently mutated in human cancers. However, as the demethylase activity of UTX is often dispensable for mediating tumour suppression and developmental regulation, the underlying molecular activity of UTX remains unknown. Here we show that phase separation of UTX underlies its chromatin-regulatory activity in tumour suppression. A core intrinsically disordered region (cIDR) of UTX forms phase-separated liquid condensates, and cIDR loss caused by the most frequent cancer mutation of UTX is mainly responsible for abolishing tumour suppression. Deletion, mutagenesis and replacement assays of the intrinsically disordered region demonstrate a critical role of UTX condensation in tumour suppression and embryonic stem cell differentiation. As shown by reconstitution in vitro and engineered systems in cells, UTX recruits the histone methyltransferase MLL4 (also known as KMT2D) to the same condensates and enriches the H3K4 methylation activity of MLL4. Moreover, UTX regulates genome-wide histone modifications and high-order chromatin interactions in a condensation-dependent manner. We also found that UTY, the Y chromosome homologue of UTX with weaker tumour-suppressive activity, forms condensates with reduced molecular dynamics. These studies demonstrate a crucial biological function of liquid condensates with proper material states in enabling the tumour-suppressive activity of a chromatin regulator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03903-7DOI Listing
September 2021

Insights into Regional Wetting Behaviors of Amphiphilic Collagen for Dual Separation of Emulsions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 12;13(15):18209-18217. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

National Engineering Research Center of Clean Technology in Leather Industry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P. R. China.

Industrial manufacture generates a huge quantity of emulsion wastewater, which causes serious threats to the aquatic ecosystems. Water-in-oil (W/O) and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are two major types of emulsions discharged by industries. However, dual separation of W/O and O/W emulsions remains a challenging issue due to the contradictory permselectivity for separating the two emulsions. In the present investigation, the amphiphilicity-derived regional wetting mechanism of water and oil on the amphiphilic collagen fibers was revealed based on the combination of numerous experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Electrostatic interactions and van der Waals force were manifested to be the driving forces of regional wetting in the hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, respectively. The regional wetting endowed amphiphilic collagen fibers with underwater oleophobicity and underoil hydrophilicity, which enabled dual separation of emulsions by selectively retaining the dispersed water phase of W/O emulsions in the hydrophilic regions while the dispersed oil phase of O/W emulsions in the hydrophobic regions. The achieved separation efficiency was higher than 99.98%, and the flux reached 3337.6 L m h. Initial wetting status significantly affects the regional wetting-enabled dual separation. Based on the MD simulations, amphiphilic intramolecular conformations of tropocollagen were suggested to be the origins of regional wetting on collagen fibers. Our findings may pave the way for developing high-performance dual separation materials that are promising to be utilized for the practical treatment of emulsion wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22601DOI Listing
April 2021

Selective degradation and oxidation of hemicellulose in corncob to oligosaccharides: From biomass into masking agent for sustainable leather tanning.

J Hazard Mater 2021 07 12;413:125425. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, PR China.

Chrome-free metal tanning agent has been considered as eco-friendly in the leather industry. However, extensive crosslinking reactions of metal species on the leather surface restrain their uniform penetration into the hierarchical nanoscale leather matrix. Thus, masking agents with appropriate coordination ability are needed. Herein, the selective degradation of hemicellulose in corncob was achieved with 92.5% of conversion in an AlCl-HO system, obtaining oligosaccharides masking agent with high purity and leaving cellulose and lignin in the solid residue for other valuable use. Subsequently, HO oxidation was performed to introduce -CHO/-COOH into oligosaccharides and reduce their molecular weights, thereby enhancing coordination ability and reducing ligand dimension. The post-oxidized reaction fluids together with additional Zr species were subjected to leather tanning, in which the oligosaccharides could coordinate with Al/Zr species and promote the penetration of metal species into the leather matrix. By controlling the hemicellulose degradation and oligosaccharide oxidation, an appropriate concentration of oligosaccharides with proper -CHO/-COOH contents allowed the efficient masking effect of the oligosaccharides. As a result, a uniform distribution of Al/Zr species was observed on the cross section, and 83.5 °C of shrinkage temperature was obtained for the chrome-free tanned leather.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125425DOI Listing
July 2021

Irradiation-stable hydrous titanium oxide-immobilized collagen fibers for uranium removal from radioactive wastewater.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 23;283:112001. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Biomass Chemistry and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China; National Engineering Research Center of Clean Technology in Leather Industry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China.

Developing efficient adsorbents with radiation stability for uranium removal from nuclear wastewater is greatly important for resource sustainability and environmental safety in manufacturing nuclear fuel. A novel adsorbent of hydrous titanium oxide-immobilized collagen fibers (HTO/CFs) with good radiation stability for UO removal was developed. Results showed that the adsorption capacity of HTO/CFs for UO was 1.379 mmol g at 303 K and pH 5.0 when the initial concentration of UO was 2.5 mmol L. Moreover, HTO/CFs showed high selectivity for U(VI) in bilateral mixed solution including UO with another coexisting ion, such as Cl, NO, Zn, and Mg. The adsorption behavior of UO from radioactive wastewater on HTO/CF column was also investigated, and the breakthrough point was approximately 250 BV (bed volume). Notably, the HTO/CFs column can be rapidly regenerated by using only 4.0 BV of 0.1 mol L HNO solution. The regenerated HTO/CFs column exhibited slight change in the breakthrough curve, suggesting its excellent reapplication ability. Furthermore, after irradiation under Co γ-ray at total doses of 10-350 kGy, HTO/CFs still preserved fibrous morphology and adsorption capacity, indicating significant radiation stability. These results demonstrate that HTO/CFs are industrial scalable adsorbents for the adsorptive recovery of uranium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112001DOI Listing
April 2021

Oxidation of trivalent chromium induced by unsaturated oils: A pathway for hexavalent chromium formation in soil.

J Hazard Mater 2021 03 28;405:124699. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

The kinetics and mechanisms of the oxidation of Cr(III) in soil contaminated by unsaturated oils were investigated. Batch experiments were performed with unsaturated oils, namely, fish oil, hydrogenated lard oil, rapeseed oil, and caster oil. Impacts of environmental parameters, including temperature, soil pH, UV irradiation, oil content, and soil moisture content were examined. Results showed that oxidation of Cr(III) in oil-treated soils was accompanied by the formation of Cr(VI), which first increased and then decreased. Changes in the peroxide values of oils and the production of hexanal in the soil indicated that hydroperoxide was closely related to the formation of Cr(VI). tert-Butylhydroperoxide, as a model molecule of hydroperoxide, significantly enhanced the oxidation of Cr(III) in water. This result further showed that hydroperoxides were responsible for the oxidation of Cr(III). Native soil substances, such as organic matter, Fe(II), and microbes, and the decomposition products of hydroperoxides, such as aldehydes, could reduce Cr(VI). The change in Cr(VI) content in the soil resulted from the competition between the oxidation of Cr(III) and the reduction of Cr(VI). High temperature, high soil pH, UV irradiation, and low soil moisture content could facilitate the oxidation of Cr(III), which is of environmental significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124699DOI Listing
March 2021

Sustainable production of lignin micro-/nano-particles (LMNPs) from biomass: Influence of the type of biomass on their self-assembly capability and physicochemical properties.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 13;403:123701. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, PR China; National Engineering Research Center of Clean Technology in Leather Industry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, PR China.

The production of lignin micro-/nano-particles (LMNPs) has gained growing interest due to their eco-friendly feature and biological compatibility with negligible hazardous impacts. Herein, this work carefully addresses the preparation of LMNPs from different types of biomass, including pine wood, birch wood, pubescens, vinasse, corncob and corncob residue. Firstly, ligno-oligomers were produced from each biomass through a HO-THF co-solvent system. Then, LMNPs were generated from these effluents. Uniform and spherical LMNPs, consisting of benzene ring-stacked cores and hydrophilic shells, were obtained only from the liquids yielded by the treatment of the corncob residue and pine wood. The characterization of the ligno-oligomers and the LMNPs revealed that the molecular weights of the ligno-oligomers did not exert a significant effect on their self-assembly capability. The presence of guaiacyl units connected by β-O-4 and β-β linkages was beneficial for the π-π stacking of the benzene rings into compact cores, while the existence of β-5 linkages and C-oxidized side-chains exerted a negative effect. Stable and spherical LMNPs with an appropriate negative zeta potential and a relatively high thermal stability were obtained from the corncob residue and pine wood, which can serve as functional materials in various application areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123701DOI Listing
February 2021

Collagen Peptide Provides with Robust Stress Tolerance for Enhanced Bioethanol Production.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Nov 19. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Biomass and Leather Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, PR China.

Efficient production of bioethanol is desirable for bioenergy large-scale applications, but it is severely challenged by ethanol and sugar stresses. Here, collagen peptide (CP), as a renewable nitrogen-containing biomass, remarkably enhanced the stress resistance of SLL-510 against ethanol challenge, based on its unique amino acid composition. Transcriptome analysis showed that the energy, lipid, cofactor, and vitamin metabolism may involve in stress tolerance provided by CP. When CP was added into the media containing 249.99 mg/mL glucose, the bioethanol yield increased from 8.03 to 12.25% (v/v) and 11.35 to 12.29% (v/v) at 43 and 120 h, respectively. Moreover, at 286.79 mg/mL glucose, the highest yield reached 14.48% (v/v), with 99.58% glucose utilization rate. The protection and promotion effects of CP were also shown by four other industrial strains. These results coupled with the advantages of abundant reserves, cleanliness, and renewability revealed that CP is a promising economically viable and industrially scalable enhancer for bioethanol fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c18919DOI Listing
November 2020

Lightweight and Flexible [email protected] Natural Leather Composites with Superb X-ray Radiation Shielding Performance and Low Secondary Radiation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Dec 17;12(48):54117-54126. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

College of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China.

A high-shielding, low secondary radiation, lightweight, flexible, and wearable X-ray protection material was prepared by coimpregnating LaO and BiO nanoparticles in natural leather (NL) with an additional BiO coating at the bottom surface of the leather. The prepared [email protected] (28.2 and 3.48 mmol·cm are the loading contents of elements) showed excellent X-ray shielding ability (65-100%) in a wide energy range of 20-120 keV with reduced scattered secondary radiation (30%). The bottom surface coating played a critical role in enhancing the X-ray attenuation and reducing the scattered secondary radiation by reflecting and deflecting incident X-ray photons. Excellent mechanical property with superb bending resistance of the NL matrix was properly maintained, and its tensile strength and tearing load were 15.39 MPa and 25.81 N·mm, respectively. This lightweight and wearable high-performance protection material can facilitate safety and comfortability during intensive activities of practitioners in the health care industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c17008DOI Listing
December 2020

sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from wetsalted hides.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2020 Oct 4;70(10):5417-5424. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu 610065, PR China.

A Gram-stain-negative, moderately halophilic strain, designated strain L5, was isolated from wetsalted hides collected from Chengdu, south-west PR China. The cells were motile, facultative aerobic, short rod-shaped and non-endospore-forming. Growth of strain L5 occurred at pH 6-10 (optimum, pH 8), 10-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and in the presence of 1-17 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 10 %). Results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA, and gene sequences and its genome revealed that strain L5 belonged to the genus . Strain L5 was found to be most closely related to the type strains of , , , and (98.8, 98.6, 98.3, 97.9 and 97.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). The draft genome was approximately 4.2 Mb in size with a G+C content of 63.5 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values among strain L5 and the selected species were 83.3-88.9 % (ANIm), 71.1-87.3 % (ANIb) and 20.2-34.6 %, which are below the recommended cutoff values. Major fatty acids were C, C 7, C 7 and C cyclo 8 and the predominant ubiquinone was Q-9, with minor ubiquinone Q-8 also present. The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, four unidentified aminophospholipids and three unidentified phospholipids. Based on the mentioned polyphasic taxonomic evidence, strain L5 represents a novel species within the genus , for which sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L5 (=CGMCC 1.17335=KCTC 72573).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004426DOI Listing
October 2020

Conversion of tannery solid waste to an adsorbent for high-efficiency dye removal from tannery wastewater: A road to circular utilization.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 15;263:127987. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, PR China; Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu, 610065, PR China.

The high value-added use of tannery solid waste and elimination of tannery liquid waste in the leather-making industry have attracted widespread attention. In this study, a MgO-doped biochar (MgO/BC) adsorbent was successfully prepared by utilizing tannery solid waste (i.e., non-tanned hide wastes) as the biomass material for dye removal from tannery wastewater. Characterization results indicated that MgO was uniformly embedded into the porous BC structure. The adsorption capacity of acid orange II by MgO/BC reached up to 448.4 mg g, which drastically exceeded the pure BC and other reported adsorbents. The adsorption behavior of acid orange II by MgO/BC matched nicely with Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. This satisfactory adsorption capacity of MgO/BC for acid orange II was mainly due to the large specific surface area and the enhanced electrostatic interaction. According to the BET, zeta potential and XPS analysis, the possible mechanism towards acid orange II removal was attributed to the pore filling, surface complexation, electrostatic attraction and π-π interaction. In addition, MgO/BC showed the efficient removal towards anionic dyes from actual tannery wastewater. This work could provide guidance for the value-added utilization of tannery solid waste and a practical way to remove dyes from tannery wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127987DOI Listing
January 2021

Biophysical properties of AKAP95 protein condensates regulate splicing and tumorigenesis.

Nat Cell Biol 2020 08 27;22(8):960-972. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

It remains unknown if biophysical or material properties of biomolecular condensates regulate cancer. Here we show that AKAP95, a nuclear protein that regulates transcription and RNA splicing, plays an important role in tumorigenesis by supporting cancer cell growth and suppressing oncogene-induced senescence. AKAP95 forms phase-separated and liquid-like condensates in vitro and in nucleus. Mutations of key residues to different amino acids perturb AKAP95 condensation in opposite directions. Importantly, the activity of AKAP95 in splice regulation is abolished by disruption of condensation, significantly impaired by hardening of condensates, and regained by substituting its condensation-mediating region with other condensation-mediating regions from irrelevant proteins. Moreover, the abilities of AKAP95 in regulating gene expression and supporting tumorigenesis require AKAP95 to form condensates with proper liquidity and dynamicity. These results link phase separation to tumorigenesis and uncover an important role of appropriate biophysical properties of protein condensates in gene regulation and cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-020-0550-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7425812PMC
August 2020

Research on X-ray shielding performance of wearable Bi/Ce-natural leather composite materials.

J Hazard Mater 2020 11 25;398:122943. Epub 2020 May 25.

Collage of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Sichuan, 610065, China; National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Sichuan, 610065, China; Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Sichuan, 610065, China.

Natural leather (NL) based composite protection materials with lightweight, flexibility, wearability and high shielding efficiency will remarkably innovate the current research on X-ray protection materials. A co-doped Bi/Ce-NL composite with outstanding X-ray attenuation in the energy range of 20-120 keV is successfully fabricated. The uniform distribution of BiO and CeO nanoparticles in the hierarchical structure of natural leather significantly promotes the X-ray attenuation by improving the weak absorption region of Bi with Ce via synergistic effects of the two elements. The fabricated Bi/Ce-NL loading with 0.755 mmol cm BiO and 1.51 mmol cm CeO achieves approximately 100% X-ray shielding when the energy below 40 keV. Thus, the fabricated Bi/Ce-NL with superb X-ray attenuation can safely and comfortably protect human from the risk of X-ray exposure with low bulk density, high water vapor permeability, exceptional mechanical properties and excellent bending resistance, presenting significant advantages in wearability and flexibility compared to both traditional lead-based and polymer-based protection materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122943DOI Listing
November 2020

Mixed factors affecting plantar pressures and center of pressure in obese children: Obesity and flatfoot.

Gait Posture 2020 07 16;80:7-13. Epub 2020 May 16.

Key Laboratory of Leather ChemistryMistry and Engineering (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu, China; National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Background: Flatfoot has a very high incidence of obese children. Functional parameters such as plantar pressures and center of pressure (COP) are sensitive to foot type. However, previous foot biomechanical studies of obese children rarely excluded the flatfoot as a prerequisite of the participants involved.

Research Question: This study aimed to determine whether it is essential to define flatfoot as a subject screening criterion in the foot biomechanical study for obese children.

Methods: Foot types were classified by arch index (AI). Totally 21 obese children with flatfoot (OF group) along with matched control groups of obese children with normal foot (ON group) and normal-weighted children with flatfoot (NF group) were selected from our database. Barefoot walking trails were conducted using Footscan® plate system. Peak force (PF), peak pressure (PP), pressure-time integral (PTI), contact area (CA) and COP data were recorded. Independent t-test and effect size were used to compare the data between the study group and the control groups. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure the between-trail reliability for the dependent variables.

Results: In comparison with the OF group, an upward trend for PF, PP and PTI was found for the ON group, while an opposite tendency for the NF group. The OF group displayed a significant larger CA under the midfoot region than the NF group even if there is no significant difference for AI. The OF group displayed a more medial shift of COP progression compared to the ON group. But no significant differences were found for COP parameters between the OF group and the NF group.

Significance: This study provided substantial evidence to support that prospective foot biomechanical research on the obese group needs to identify the flatfoot as one of the subject screening criteria to carry out more reliable results without producing confounding effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.05.007DOI Listing
July 2020

Formaldehyde formation during the preparation of dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose tanning agent.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Jul 2;239:116217. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China; College of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

Formaldehyde was detected in dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC) tanning agent prepared through periodate oxidation of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Formaldehyde was then introduced into leather through DCMC tanning, which poses a potential risk to human health. The formation mechanism of formaldehyde in DCMC was investigated by composition analysis and intermediate identification of DCMC with different polymerization degrees and sugar unit structures. Formaldehyde was derived from the overoxidation of C-6 on the reducing glucose residue of CMC. Moreover, glucose was produced from the concomitant degradation of CMC during oxidation, and then oxidized to liberate formaldehyde. The low degradation degree and high degree of substitution of CMC reduced the possibility of the formation of reducing glucose residue and glucose during oxidation, thereby resulting in low formaldehyde content in DCMC and DCMC-tanned leather. These findings serve as a foundation for the minimization of formaldehyde in DCMC and the development of ecological tanning approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116217DOI Listing
July 2020

Highly efficient removal of Cr(III)-poly(acrylic acid) complex by coprecipitation with polyvalent metal ions: Performance, mechanism, and validation.

Water Res 2020 Jul 16;178:115807. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, PR China; Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, PR China.

The Cr(III)-organic complexes formed between Cr(III) and multifunctional group ligands, such as polyacrylate, are highly water soluble and difficult to be removed from wastewater by common treatments. A novel strategy for efficiently removing Cr(III)-poly (acrylic acid) complex (Cr(III)-PAA) from wastewater without introducing secondary pollution is proposed using a coprecipitation method with polyvalent metal ions. Al(III), Fe(III), Zr(IV), and Ti(IV) were combined with the carboxyl of Cr(III)-PAA to decrease hydrophilia and achieve fast and efficient coprecipitation. Cr(III)-PAA was efficiently removed from wastewater by using these polyvalent metal ions, especially at low pH, where the ions exist as monomer. The residual concentration of Cr(III) in treated wastewater under the optimized experimental condition was less than 1.0 mg/L. No Cr(VI) and negligible amount of polyvalent metal ions were detected in the treated wastewater, indicating that almost all of the ions coprecipitated with Cr(III)-PAA. No secondary pollution also occurred. The high reactivity between the polyvalent metal ions and Cr(III)-PAA and the sharp decrease in the hydrophilia of the complex contributed to its highly efficient removal from wastewater. Actual tannery wastewater containing Cr(III)-organic complexes with high solubility and stability was treated through coprecipitation with Al(III). A high Cr(III) removal efficiency of 99.0% was obtained. This work provides new insights into the removal of soluble Cr(III)-organic complexes from wastewater by using an environment-friendly and cost-effective method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115807DOI Listing
July 2020

Constructing a robust chrome-free leather tanned by biomass-derived polyaldehyde via crosslinking with chitosan derivatives.

J Hazard Mater 2020 09 19;396:122771. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, PR China; National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, PR China.

Tanning leather using green biomass-derived polyaldehyde (BPA) is a promising approach to eliminate the widespread Cr pollution in leather industry, but unsatisfactory thermal stability and mechanical strength of the correlated resultant leather limited its industrial application. Herein, we report a green methodology to strengthen BPA tanned leather via introducing chitosan derivatives to crosslink with free aldehyde groups on dialdehyde carboxymethylcellulose (DCMC) tanned leather. HO was employed for purposely modifying chitosan to prepare low-molecular chitosan (LMC) with lower positive charge. The interactions between chitosan/LMC and DCMC were investigated to elucidate the strengthening mechanism. Owing to the weakened hydrogen bonding network and higher accessibility of amino groups on LMC, LMC could react much easier with aldehyde groups on DCMC. Moreover, LMC could efficiently penetrate into the internal fiber networks of leather for further interlocking, which enhanced the thermal stability and the lubricating degree of crust leather and, as a result, the tensile and tear strengths were significantly improved by 79.3% and 25.3%, respectively. Therefore, the use of LMC can promote the widespread application of BPA tanned leather, benefiting to the complete elimination of hazardous Cr pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122771DOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of metals released in strong-flavor baijiu on the evolution of aroma compounds during storage.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Apr 20;8(4):1904-1913. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

College of Biomass Science and Engineering Sichuan University Chengdu China.

Storage is essential in improving the quality of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Here, we investigated the release behaviors of metals from containers into SFB and their effects on the evolution of aroma compounds during storage. Twenty-six metals were identified in SFB samples. The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Fe obviously increased after storing in pottery jar, whereas those of Fe and Cu greatly increased after storing in stainless-steel vessel. The volatility of most esters, alcohols, ketone, furan, and aldehyde decreased, whereas that of most acids increased after adding the metal ions into fresh SFB. The fluorescence intensity of SFB decreased with increased aging time in pottery jar, whereas the fluorescence intensity of acids was quenched with adding Fe and Cu. All these results suggested that some metals released from containers had binding affinities with acids, thereby reducing SFB organoleptic stimulation by forming metal-aroma compound complexes during storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174237PMC
April 2020

Description of Salinicola corii sp. nov., a Halotolerant Bacterium Isolated from Wetsalted Hides.

Curr Microbiol 2020 Aug 20;77(8):1932-1938. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, College of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, People's Republic of China.

A novel Gram-stain-negative, moderately halotolerant, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain L3, was isolated from a wetsalted hide in Chengdu, China. The organism grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 8 and with 5-10% (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were C, Cω7c, Cω7c and C cyclo ω8c; the predominant respiratory quinone was Q-9; the phospholipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and three unidentified phospholipids. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD genes' sequences, obtained using three different algorithms, clearly revealed the isolate belonged to the genus Salinicola, and was found to be closely related to Salinicola acroporae JCM 30412, Salinicola socius CGMCC 1.12383 and Salinicola lusitanus CR50. The draft genome was approximately 4.5 Mb in size with 4486 predicted coding sequences, and the G+C content was 62.6 mol%. The maximum values of ANI and dDDH between strain L3 and the three above-mentioned type species were 89.2% and 63.8%, respectively. Differential phenotypic properties, together with the genome analysis, support the view that strain L3 represents a novel species, Salinicola corii sp. nov., with the type strain L3 (=CGMCC 1.17272=KCTC 72572).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-01989-2DOI Listing
August 2020

Prevention of Bacterial Colonization Based on Self-Assembled Metal-Phenolic Nanocoating from Rare-Earth Ions and Catechin.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 May 29;12(19):22237-22245. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Biomass Chemistry and Engineering, Sichuan University, Sichuan 610065, China.

Clinically related infection is a critical risk for human health and is usually caused by biofilm formation on medical devices. Herein, typical polyphenols, catechin (Cat), and rare-earth ions (Re) were used for self-assembled Cat-Re nanoparticles that can be facilely coated on the surface of a polyamide (PA) membrane to synergistically prevent bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation. The antibacterial adhesion feature of the assembled Cat-Re nanoparticles coated on the PA membrane surface was assessed using , one of the most common pathogenic bacteria, as probe bacteria under static and dynamic simulation flow conditions. The Cat-Re nanocoating showed excellent antibacterial and anti-adhesion activities against and successfully prevented biofilm formation on the material's surface. Regardless of the conditions, the Cat-Re nanocoating significantly suppressed the growth and attachment of and maintained >90% inhibition activity with favorable reusability and long-term stability. The results suggest that the self-assembled rare-earth-phenolic nanocoating has promising application potential in the prevention of medical device-related biofilm formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c06459DOI Listing
May 2020

Advanced X-ray Shielding Materials Enabled by the Coordination of Well-Dispersed High Atomic Number Elements in Natural Leather.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Apr 14;12(17):19916-19926. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

College of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P.R. China.

Nowadays, X-rays are playing increasingly important roles in daily life and industrial manufacture, which calls for effective and mobile shielding materials. However, it seems to be a paradox to prepare shielding materials simultaneously achieving excellent X-ray attenuation properties and superior mechanical strength. Here, an advanced leather-based X-ray shielding material containing bismuth and iodine (BiINP-LM) is prepared, and the stable and well-dispersed loading of high-Z element components is enabled by favorable interactions between bismuth iodide and leather, i.e., coordination, hydrogen bonds, and electrostatic attractions. A piece of BiINP-LM with 1.00 mm thickness displays an excellent X-ray attenuation efficiency of more than 90% in the photon energy range below 50 keV and 65% at 83 keV, which averagely exceeds ∼3% than that of the 0.25 mm lead plate and ∼5% than that of the 0.65 mm commercial lead apron. Additionally, the coordination between bismuth and leather provides an enhanced tensile and tear strength of ∼10-fold and 3-fold compared with the lead apron. It is worth mentioning that BiINP-LM also displays extra high water-vapor permeability, which is ∼50-fold more than the lead apron. Overall, this work opens up a new prospect for preparing advanced X-ray shielding materials with both excellent X-ray attenuation and outstanding physiomechanical performances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c01663DOI Listing
April 2020

Ecotoxicity and interacting mechanism of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and its mixtures with nonionic surfactant fatty alcohol-polyoxyethlene ether (AEO).

Aquat Toxicol 2020 May 9;222:105467. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

The Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610065, China; National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610065, China.

This paper reports the proportion-dependent toxicity of binary surfactant mixtures containing anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and nonionic fatty alcohol-polyoxyethlene ether (AEO) toward Photobacterium phosphoreum. The crucial role of toxicity interactions was elucidated by spectroscopic probing the refolding of the unfolded bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by SDS and theoretical calculating the interaction parameter of mixed surfactants based on Rubingh's model from the critical micelle concentrations. The SDS/AEO mixtures can be divided into two groups based on the toxicity response to the proportion of AEO in the mixtures: Group I contained low mass proportions of AEO, that is, SDS:AEO = 4:1, 3:1; Group II featured high AEO proportions, that is, SDS:AEO = 3:2, 1:1, 2:3, 1:4. The toxicity of SDS/AEO mixtures decreased with the enhanced proportion of AEO in Group I and then fluctuated slightly when the AEO proportion increased to that of Group II. The mixture with the mass ratio of 1:1 showed a slightly higher toxicity than the others in Group II. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images illustrated that the addition of AEO hindered the action of SDS against the cell membrane. Fluorescence measurement indicated that AEO could extract SDS molecules embedded in the BSA matrix, except for those bound to the highly active sites of BSA, and refold stepwise the unfolded protein. The results were in excellent analogy to the proportion-dependent toxicity of SDS/AEO mixture, indicating the formation of mixed micelles playing a key role. The interaction parameter further revealed that antagonism led to the mixture with equal mass ratio (1:1) showing higher toxicity than other mass ratios in Group II. These results can be useful for compounding SDS/AEO mixtures in application efficiently and eco-friendly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105467DOI Listing
May 2020

Ornithinibacillus caprae sp. nov., a moderate halophile isolated from the hides of a white goat.

Arch Microbiol 2020 Aug 19;202(6):1469-1476. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

College of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, moderate halophile, strain L9, was isolated from hides of white goat in China. The isolate grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7 and with 5-10% (w/v) NaCl. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7, and the major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C and anteiso-C. The peptidoglycan amino acid type was determined to be A4β, containing L-ornithine and D-aspartic as diagnostic amino acids. The phospholipids were dominated by diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified phospholipids. Genome sequencing resulted in a genome size of 4.0 Mbp and a DNA G + C content of 35.9 mol%. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolate to be closely related to Oceanobacillus limi H9B (98.2% similarity) and Ornithinibacillus halophilus G8B (97.5% similarity). The ANI and dDDH values between strain L9 and the closely related species were 69.8-76.1% and 13.0-20.5%, respectively. On the basis of the data presented, strain L9 represents a novel species of the genus Ornithinibacillus, for which the name Ornithinibacillus caprae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L9 (= KCTC 43176 = CGMCC 1.17659).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-01855-6DOI Listing
August 2020

Effect of soil pH on the transport, fractionation, and oxidation of chromium(III).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Jun 14;195:110459. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China.

This work was conducted to study the effect of soil pH (4.0, 6.0, and 8.0) on the transport, fractionation, and oxidation of trivalent chromium [Cr(III)]. Variation in pH altered soil chemical and mineralogical properties such as zeta potential, cation exchange capacity and redox potential of natural soil. Breakthrough curves and batch sorption experiments coupled with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses demonstrated that the easy mobility of Cr(III) in pH 4.0 soil was dominated by the limited coordination effect. The high retention of Cr(III) in pH 8.0 soil was mainly ascribed to the hydrolysis. Incubation experiments indicated that the proportions of Cr in exchangeable fraction decreased with increasing of soil pH and incubation time, and kinetics analysis revealed that the time dependent transformation was controlled by mass transfer and chemical processes (e.g., hydrolysis, ion association). The XPS confirmed the oxidation of Cr(III) in pH 8.0 soil during the incubation period. Furthermore, the content of toxic hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was positively associated with time and initial concentration of Cr(III) released. These results revealed the hazardousness of Cr(III) in soil contaminated simultaneously by inorganic acid and alkali.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110459DOI Listing
June 2020

Synthesis of Catechin-Rare Earth Complex with Efficient and Broad-Spectrum Anti-Biofilm Activity.

Chem Biodivers 2020 Mar 20;17(3):e1900734. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Biomass Chemistry and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, P. R. China.

Biofilm is the crucial reason of clinical infections. Herein, green tea based polyphenol (catechin) and rare earth (RE) metal ions were employed for the preparation of catechin-RE complexes with significant anti-biofilm properties. The complexes were characterized by FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), which suggested that catechin coordinated with RE through its ortho phenolic hydroxy groups. The prepared catechin-RE showed significant effects in anti-biofilm growth against P. aeruginosa (Gram-negative bacteria), S. sciuri (Gram-positive bacteria), and A. niger (fungi), which significantly exceeded the utilization of catechin or RE . Morphological observations indicated that catechin supplied cell affinity to transfer RE and helped to damage cell membrane, which act as a carrier to exert cytotoxicity of RE to realize anti-biofilm. Differential gene expression analysis described gene expression changes induced by catechin-RE, including 56, 272 and 2160 downregulated genes for P. aeruginosa, S. sciuri and A. niger, respectively, which suggested critical changes in cellular metabolism, growth and other processes. These results illustrate the outstanding superiority of catechin-RE complexes in anti-infection aspect, i. e., the green tea based rare earth complexes are promising candidates for anti-biofilm applications to address serious challenges in the prevention of multiple infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201900734DOI Listing
March 2020

Ecotoxicity and micellization behavior of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and its mixtures with nonionic surfactant fatty alcohol-polyoxyethylene ether (AEO).

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Nov 19;216:105313. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

The Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610065, China; National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610065, China.

Surfactant mixtures have extensive industrial applications due to their ideal properties and low ecotoxicity. However, the ecotoxicity of surfactant mixtures with different proportions and their correlation with surface properties have remained poorly investigated. In this study, the ecotoxicity and surface activity of the composites of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and nonionic surfactant fatty alcohol-polyoxyethylene ether (AEO) in various mass ratios were assessed, and the correlation between ideal application properties and safe ecological perspective of the composites was explored. The ecotoxicity of individual SDBS, AEO, and SDBS/AEO mixtures was determined using the bioluminescence inhibition assay with Photobacterium phosphoreum, and the critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were measured by surface tension method and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) showed a considerably higher toxicity than individual AEO and SDBS/AEO mixtures. Scanning electron microscope images illustrated the rupture of bacteria membrane induced by SDBS, and the addition of AEO alleviated the damage. According to the dose-response relationship on luminous bacteria, SDBS/AEO mixtures were divided into three groups (group I with a high proportion of SDBS, SDBS:AEO = 4:1 and 3:2; group II, SDBS:AEO = 1:1; group III with a high proportion of AEO, SDBS:AEO = 2:3 and 1:4). The sequence of toxicity of the SDBS/AEO mixtures was group II > group III > group I, demonstrating that the toxicity of the composites was related to the mixture proportion instead of the amount of AEO added. The CMC order of SDBS/AEO mixtures was group II > group I > group III, and it was proportion dependent. Furthermore, ΔC was defined as the difference of the experimental (C) and ideal CMC (Ci) of the mixed system, indicating the interaction between the two kinds of surfactants. The order of the ΔC was group II > group III > group I, which was consistent with the sequence of the toxicity. Therefore, ΔC can be a potential indicator for the hazardous assessment of surfactant mixtures involving high ionic strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.105313DOI Listing
November 2019

Peroxide-periodate co-modification of carboxymethylcellulose to prepare polysaccharide-based tanning agent with high solid content.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Nov 5;224:115169. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, PR China. Electronic address:

Dialdehyde carboxymethylcellulose (DCMC) solution generally has quite low solid content, which inevitably limits its industrial application. In this work, carboxymethylcellulose sodium (Na-CMC) was pre-degraded using HO followed by periodate oxidation for preparing DCMC with high solid content as practical tanning agent. Pre-degradation conditions optimization showed that HO dosage most impacted the tanning effect of DCMC, and the M and viscosity of Na-CMC underwent remarkable reduction. FT-IR and H NMR illustrated that aldehyde group was successfully introduced into DCMC after periodate oxidation. Under the optimized conditions, the solid content of DCMC could be improved to around 30%. This DCMC could endow tanned leather with high shrinkage temperature and satisfactory fiber dispersion. Besides, DCMC tanned leather had comparable physical and organoleptic properties to those of leathers tanned by chrome tanning agent and commercial polyaldehyde tanning agent TWT. This suggests the prospect of DCMC with high solid content as useful tanning agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115169DOI Listing
November 2019

Radionuclide tolerance mechanism of plants for ultraselective enrichment of low content of thorium with exceptional selectivity coefficient.

J Hazard Mater 2019 12 13;380:120893. Epub 2019 Jul 13.

Department of Biomass Chemistry and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China; National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China.

Selective enriching low content of radionuclides from radioactive wastewater is a critical issue for environmentally benign utilization of nuclear power. Inspired by the tolerance mechanism of plants to radionuclides, we developed a pH-triggered ultraselective coordinative adsorption (CA) membrane. The as-prepared CA membrane featured the advantages of both coordinative adsorption and membrane separation, including ultrahigh selectivity coefficient of 1242, large capacity (80 L m) and short mass transfer distance. The adsorption isotherms of Th on the CA membrane were well described by the Freundlich model (R > 0.99), and the adsorption kinetics have a good fitting by using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R > 0.99). In a continuous separation under gravity, the CA membrane was able to selectively enrich the low content of Th (0.05 mmol L) in the presence of 700 folds (35 mmol L) of co-existing ions (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sr, Cs and Ba). The exceptional extraction efficiency to Th was 100%, superior to that (3.7%) of all co-existing ions. Notably, the Th enriched on the CA membrane was facilely eluted by diluted HNO (0.1 mol L). The Th in the eluents was enriched by up to 54 folds. The eluted CA membrane was further reused for selective enrichment of Th, which showed no obvious loss of selectivity and enrichment capability. Our strategy might open up a new strategy for realizing ultraselective and recyclable enrichment of low content of irradiation contaminants from wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.120893DOI Listing
December 2019
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