Publications by authors named "Bharadwaj Muralidharan"

6 Publications

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Differentiation of Brain Tumor Microvasculature From Normal Vessels Using Optical Coherence Angiography.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712, USA.

Background And Objectives: Despite rapid advances and discoveries in medical imaging, monitoring therapeutic efficacy for malignant gliomas and monitoring tumor vasculature remains problematic. The purpose of this study is to utilize optical coherence angiography for vasculature characterization inside and surrounding brain tumors in a murine xenograft brain tumor model. Features included in our analysis include fractional blood volume, vessel tortuosity, diameter, orientation, and directionality.

Study Design/materials And Methods: In this study, five tumorous mice models at 4 weeks of age were imaged. Human glioblastoma cells were injected into the brain and allowed to grow for 4 weeks and then imaged using optical coherence tomography.

Results: Results suggest that blood vessels outside the tumor contain a greater fractional blood volume as compared with vessels inside the tumor. Vessels inside the tumor are more tortuous as compared with those outside the tumor. Results indicate that vessels near the tumor margin are directed inward towards the tumor while normal vessels show a more random orientation.

Conclusion: Quantification of vascular microenvironments in brain gliomas can provide functional vascular parameters to aid various diagnostic and therapeutic studies. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.23446DOI Listing
June 2021

Self-assembling of graphene oxide on carbon quantum dot loaded liposomes.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019 Oct 3;103:109860. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Department of Developmental Sciences, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, USA.

This paper describes the design of stimuli-sensitive theranostic nanoparticles, composed of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) self-assembled on thermosensitive liposomes encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) and carbon quantum dot (CQD) (CQD-DOX-rGO-Tlip). The rGO-Tlip particles have been observed to be flower-shaped objects. The thermoresponsive and theranostic potential of CQD-DOX-rGO-Tlips have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescent assays. The chemo-photothermal potential of rGO-Tlip on MD-MB-231 cells during NIR laser irradiation has been examined using MTT assay. Also, the ability of rGO-Tlip to be taken up by MD-MB-231 cells has been studied using confocal microscopy and flowcytometry. The results indicate that CQD-DOX-rGO-Tlips achieve a synergistic effect between photothermal therapy and chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Furthermore, online monitoring drug release is accomplished by studying the emission intensity of CQD while DOX released.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.109860DOI Listing
October 2019

Effect of size and chemical composition of graphene oxide nanoparticles on optical absorption cross-section.

J Biomed Opt 2018 08;23(8):1-9

University of Texas at Austin, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Austin, Texas, United States.

Photothermal therapy with various nanoparticles, as photothermal transducers, is a widely researched technique. A continuous wave (CW) laser is employed during this procedure. The therapeutic setup is slightly modified to measure the optical absorption cross-section of the graphene oxide (GO), by mitigating the effects of heat diffusion and light scattering. With an 808-nm CW laser setup modulated by a waveform modulation setup, the effect of nanoparticle size and composition of GO in water on optical absorption cross section is characterized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.23.8.085007DOI Listing
August 2018

Layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide on thermosensitive liposomes for photo-chemotherapy.

Acta Biomater 2018 Jan 8;65:376-392. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA. Electronic address:

Stimuli responsive polyelectrolyte nanoparticles have been developed for chemo-photothermal destruction of breast cancer cells. This novel system, called layer by layer Lipo-graph (LBL Lipo-graph), is composed of alternate layers of graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide conjugated poly (l-lysine) (GO-PLL) deposited on cationic liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin. Various concentrations of GO and GO-PLL were examined and the optimal LBL Lipo-graph was found to have a particle size of 267.9 ± 13 nm, zeta potential of +43.9 ± 6.9 mV and encapsulation efficiency of 86.4 ± 4.7%. The morphology of LBL Lipo-graph was examined by cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM), atomic force microcopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The buildup of LBL Lipo-graph was confirmed via ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Infra-red (IR) response suggests that four layers are sufficient to induce a gel-to-liquid phase transition in response to near infra-red (NIR) laser irradiation. Light-matter interaction of LBL Lipo-graph was studied by calculating the absorption cross section in the frequency domain by utilizing Fourier analysis. Drug release assay indicates that the LBL Lipo-graph releases much faster in an acidic environment than a liposome control. A cytotoxicity assay was conducted to prove the efficacy of LBL Lipo-graph to destroy MD-MB-231 cells in response to NIR laser emission. Also, image stream flow cytometry and two photon microcopy provide supportive data for the potential application of LBL Lipo-graph for photothermal therapy. Study results suggest the novel dual-sensitive nanoparticles allow intracellular doxorubin delivery and respond to either acidic environments or NIR excitation.

Statement Of Significance: Stimuli sensitive hybrid nanoparticles have been synthesized using a layer-by-layer technique and demonstrated for dual chemo-photothermal destruction of breast cancer cells. The hybrid nanoparticles are composed of alternating layers of graphene oxide and graphene oxide conjugated poly-l-lysine coating the surface of a thermosensitive cationic liposome containing doxorubicin as a core. Data suggests that the hybrid nanoparticles may offer many advantages for chemo-photothermal therapy. Advantages include a decrease of the initial burst release which may result in the reduction in systemic toxicity, increase in pH responsivity around the tumor environment and improved NIR light absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2017.10.040DOI Listing
January 2018

Evaluation of the Photothermal Properties of a Reduced Graphene Oxide/Arginine Nanostructure for Near-Infrared Absorption.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017 Sep 18;9(38):32607-32620. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Biomedical Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Austin , Austin, Texas 78712, United States.

Strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) make this material a candidate for photothermal therapy. The use of rGO has been limited by low stability in aqueous media due to the lack of surface hydrophilic groups. We report synthesis of a novel form of reduced graphene-arginine (rGO-Arg) as a nanoprobe. Introduction of Arg to the surface of rGO not only increases the stability in aqueous solutions but also increases cancer cell uptake. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images are recorded to characterize the morphology of rGO-Arg. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), Raman, and UV-vis spectroscopy are utilized to analyze the physiochemical properties of rGO-Arg. Interaction of rGO-Arg with 808 nm laser light has been evaluated by measuring the absorption cross section in response to periodically modulated intensity to minimize artifacts arising from lateral thermal diffusion with a material scattering matched to a low scattering optical standard. Cell toxicity and cellular uptake by MD-MB-231 cell lines provide supporting data for the potential application of rGO-Arg for photothermal therapy. Absorption cross-section results suggest rGO-Arg is an excellent NIR absorber that is 3.2 times stronger in comparison to GO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b11291DOI Listing
September 2017
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