Publications by authors named "Beverly Russell"

7 Publications

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The effect of delayed feeding post-hatch on caeca development in broiler chickens.

Br Poult Sci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705.

Broiler chicks are frequently deprived of food up to 72 h due to uneven hatching rates, management procedures and transportation to farms. Little is known about the effect of delayed feeding due to extended hatching times on the early neonatal development of the caeca. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the developmental changes and effects of a 48-h delay in feed access immediately post-hatch (PH) on the caeca.After hatch, birds (Ross 708) were randomly divided into two treatment groups (n=6 battery pen/treatment). One group (early fed; EF) received feed and water immediately after hatch, while the second group (late fed; LF) had access to water but had delayed access to feed for 48 h. Contents averaging across all regions of the caeca were collected for mRNA expression as well as for histological analysis at -48, 0, 4 h PH and then at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days PH.Expression of MCT-1 (a nutrient transporter), Cox7A2 (related to mitochondrial function) IgA, pIgR, and ChIL-8 (immune function) genes was affected by delayed access to feed that was dependent by the time PH. Expression of immune and gut barrier function related genes (LEAP2 and MUC2, respectively) was increased in LF group. There was no effect of feed delay on expression of genes related to mitochondrial functions in the caeca, although developmental changes were observed (ATP5F1B, Cox4|1). Caecal mucus and muscle thickness were affected by delayed access to feed during caeca development.The data suggested a limited effect of delayed feed access PH on the developmental changes in caecal functions. However, the caeca seemed to be relatively resistant to delayed access to feed early PH, with only a few genes affected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2021.1912291DOI Listing
April 2021

The effects of tributyrin supplementation on weight gain and intestinal gene expression in broiler chickens during Eimeria maxima-induced coccidiosis.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 18;100(4):100984. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. Electronic address:

Butyrate is a feed additive that has been shown to have antibacterial properties and improve gut health in broilers. Here, we examined the performance and gene expression changes in the ileum of tributyrin-supplemented broilers infected with coccidia. Ninety-six, Ross 708 broilers were fed either a control corn-soybean-based diet (-BE) or a diet supplemented with 0.25% (w/w) tributyrin (+BE). Birds were further divided into groups that were inoculated with Eimeria maxima oocysts (EM) or sham-inoculated (C) on day 21 posthatch. At 7 d postinfection (7 d PI), the peak of pathology in E. maxima infection, tributyrin-supplemented birds had significantly improved feed conversion ratios (FCR, P < 0.05) and body weight gain (BWG, P < 0.05) compared with -BE-infected birds, despite both groups having similar feed intake (FI, P > 0.05). However, at 10 d post-infection (10 d PI) no significant effects of feed type or infection were observed. Gene expression in the ileum was examined for insights into possible effects of infection and tributyrin supplementation on genes encoding proteins related to immunity, digestion, and gut barrier integrity. Among immune-related genes examined, IL-1B and LEAP2 were only significantly affected at 7 d PI. Transcription of genes related to digestion (APN, MCT1, FABP2, and MUC2) were primarily influenced by infection at 7 d PI and tributyrin supplementation (FABP2 and MUC2) at 10 d PI. With exception of ZO1, tight junction genes were affected by either infection or feed type at 7 d PI. At 10 d PI, only CLDN1 was not affected by either infection or feed type. Overall tributyrin shows promise as a supplement to improve performance during coccidiosis in broiler chickens; however, its effect on gene expression and mode of action requires further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921011PMC
April 2021

Research Note: Effect of butyric acid glycerol esters on ileal and cecal mucosal and luminal microbiota in chickens challenged with Eimeria maxima.

Poult Sci 2020 Oct 3;99(10):5143-5148. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, U.S.A.

Coccidiosis is one of the most prevalent diseases seen in the poultry industry leading to excessive economic losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of butyric acid glycerol esters (BE) on the ileal and cecal microbiota in birds challenged with Eimeria maxima (EM). Ross 708 male broilers were fed a diet supplemented with 0 (control) or 0.25% BE from day 1. On day 21, half of the birds were infected with 10 EM oocysts. For determing microbiota, ileal and cecal contents and epithelial scrapings were collected at 7 and 10 D postinfection (PI). Alpha diversity of bacterial communities was mostly affected (P < 0.05) by time PI and EM infection. The richness of luminal bacterial populations in the ileum and ceca was affected (P < 0.05) by addition of BE and by time PI × EM × BE interaction, respectively. In the ileal and cecal luminal and mucosal bacterial communities, permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA, unweighted UniFrac) showed significant (P < 0.05) differences because of time PI and interaction between time PI, EM, and BE. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in taxonomic composition at the family level were observed in microbiota of luminal and mucosal populations of the ileum and ceca owing to time PI, EM, BE, and their interactions. The bacterial community present in the cecal lumen was characterized by the lowest number of differential bacteria, whereas the cecal mucosal community was characterized by the highest number of differentially abundant bacteria. In conclusion, our results show that EM infection and time PI has the biggest impact on microbial diversity in the chicken gut. The presence of BE in the diet had a limited effect on gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.06.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598111PMC
October 2020

Effect of delayed feeding post-hatch on expression of tight junction- and gut barrier-related genes in the small intestine of broiler chickens during neonatal development.

Poult Sci 2020 Oct 3;99(10):4714-4729. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

The gut not only plays a key role in digestion and absorption of nutrients but also forms a physical barrier and first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. A functional gut barrier (mucus and epithelial cells with tight junctions [TJ]) is essential for optimal health and efficient production in poultry. In current broiler system, chicks are deprived of food and water up to 72 h due to uneven hatching, hatchery procedures, and transportation. Post-hatch feed delay results in lower BW, higher FCR and mortality, and delayed post-hatch gut development. Little is known about the effects of early neonatal development and delayed feeding immediately post-hatch on gut barrier function in chickens. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the expression pattern of gut barrier-related and TJ-related genes in the small intestine of broiler chickens during early development and delay in access to feed. Newly hatched chicks received feed and water immediately after hatch or were subjected to 48 h delayed access to feed to mimic commercial hatchery setting and operations. Birds were sampled (n = 6) at -48, 0, 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, 144, 192, 240, 288, and 336 h post-hatch. Jejunum and ileum were collected, cleaned of digesta, and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen or fixed in paraformaldehyde. The relative mRNA levels of gut barrier- and TJ-related protein genes were measured by quantitative PCR and analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. In both tissues, changes (P < 0.05) in gene expression pattern of gut barrier-related and TJ-related genes were detected due to delayed access to feed post-hatch and/or development. In general, expression of TJ-related genes was downregulated while mRNA levels of gut barrier-related genes were upregulated during development. Histological differences and changes in mucin staining due to age and treatment were observed. These results suggest that delayed access to feed post-hatch may affect TJ structure and/or function and therefore gut barrier function and overall health of the chicken small intestine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.06.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598124PMC
October 2020

Effect of early neonatal development and delayed feeding post-hatch on jejunal and ileal calcium and phosphorus transporter genes expression in broiler chickens.

Poult Sci 2019 04;98(4):1861-1871

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are essential minerals involved in many biological processes including bone development and mineralization. Plasma concentration of both minerals is tightly regulated, and Ca and P homeostasis is maintained via intestinal absorption, bone storage and exchange, and renal reabsorption. In the current broiler production systems, chicks are deprived of food and water for up to 72 h due to uneven hatching, hatchery procedures, and transportation time to farms. Post-hatch (PH) feed delay results in lower body and organ weight, higher feed conversion ratio and mortality, and delayed PH growth and GIT development. Little is known about the effects of early neonatal development and delayed or immediate feeding PH on Ca and P transporters. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize expression patterns of Ca and P transporter genes in small intestine during the first 2 wk PH in chickens fed immediately after hatch (FED) or subjected to 48 h delayed feeding (NOTFED). Expression of all Ca and P transporters in jejunum and ileum was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by age. Among Ca transporter genes, only mRNA expression of Calbidin D28k in jejunum and Ca sensing receptor (CaSR) in ileum were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by delay in feed access. For P transporter genes' expression, only P transporter type III (PIT1) mRNA was significantly affected by age, delay in feed access, and their interaction (P < 0.05). In summary, we have shown, for the first time, early developmental changes of Ca and P transporter genes in broiler chickens. Results suggest that an increase in gene expression of some of the transporters corresponds with the switch from yolk to high starch diet. Overall, our results can be helpful in better understanding of Ca and P homeostasis in broilers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey546DOI Listing
April 2019

Publication of recruitment methods in focus group research of minority populations with chronic disease: a systematic review.

J Health Care Poor Underserved 2011 Feb;22(1):5-23

Alpert School of Medicine, Department of Community Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

The relative effectiveness of strategies to recruit minority patients, populations traditionally difficult to engage in research, for focus groups is unclear. We conducted a systematic review of all peer-reviewed focus group studies targeting Black and/or Hispanic participants with diabetes, hypertension, asthma, and/or cardiovascular disease reported in Pubmed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL from January 1993 through August 2009. Reviewers extracted data on each study's characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Forty-five studies were eligible. While most described recruitment strategies, only 21 presented any metric of their success in recruiting participants. Among studies with high recruitment success rates, no discernable trends regarding effectiveness of recruitment strategies were found, largely due to variation in reporting of the use of incentives and follow-up mechanisms. Increased rigor is necessary for describing methodology of focus group research in the literature. It is incumbent upon researchers to ensure clear and detailed methodology in qualitative articles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2011.0031DOI Listing
February 2011

Short term changes in the expression of lipogenic genes in broilers (Gallus gallus).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2008 Apr 5;149(4):389-95. Epub 2008 Feb 5.

Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

The purpose of these experiments were to determine possible relationships between certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed graded levels of dietary crude protein. Male, broiler chickens growing from 7 to 28 days of age were fed diets containing 12 or 30% protein ad libitum. Both groups were then switched on day 28 to the diets containing the opposite level of protein. Birds were killed on day 28 (basal values prior to the switch) and at 12, 18 and 24 h post switch. Measurements taken included in vitro lipogenesis, malic enzyme activity the expression of the genes for malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase and acetyl coenzyme carboxylase. In vitro lipogenesis and malic enzyme activity were inversely related to dietary protein levels (12 to 30%) and to acute changes from 12 to 30%. Malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase genes were constant over a dietary protein range of 12 to 21% as in previous experiments, but decreased by feeding a 30% protein diet in the present experiments (acute or chronic feeding). Results of the present study demonstrate a continued role for protein in the regulation of broiler metabolism. Metabolic regulation at the gene level only occurs when feeding very high levels of dietary protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2008.01.035DOI Listing
April 2008